功能意念 =函数function意图notion；/话题theme =主题 分类；
1. 社会交往 (Social Communications)
A. Hi!/Hello!/Good morning / afternoon / evening. /How are you?
How are you doing?/Please say hello to your parents.
Please give my love / best wishes to Lucy.
B. Hi!/Hello!Good morning / afternoon / evening. /I'm OK. Fine, thanks, and you?/Very well, thank you. /*Just so so. /Sure. /All right.
A. My name is Jim. /I'm a student. /I'm from England.
This is Mr. / Mrs. / Miss / Ms Brown. /I'd like you to meet Bob.
May I introduce Professor Jeff Brown?
How do you do/Nice / Glad / Pleased to meet (see)you.
(3)告别 (Farewells )
A. Good-bye / Bye / Bye-bye. /Good night. /See you later / then / tomorrow/ soon. /I am sorry I have to go now. / I am afraid I must be leaving now.
B. Good-bye / Bye / Bye-bye. /See you. /Good night. /See you later / then / tomorrow / soon.
(4)感谢 (Thanks )
A. Thank you (very much). /Thanks a lot. /Thank you for your help.
It's very kind / nice of you. / I appreciate your help.
B. It's a pleasure. / My pleasure. /That's OK/ all right.
/You're welcome. /Don' t mention it.
A. Sorry. I'm sorry. /Excuse me, please. /I beg your pardon.
I' m sorry for losing your book. /I'm sorry to interrupt you.
I'm sorry (that)I'm late.
B. That's OK. /It's all right. /Never mind. /It doesn't matter.
/It's nothing. /Forget it.
A. Would you like to go for a walk?/You must come to dinner with us.
/May I invite you to dinner?/What / How about having a swim?
B. OK. ①Thank you. /I'd like that, thanks. /Yes, I'd love to. /That would be very nice.
②No, thank you. /It's very nice of you, but my mother is ill.
/I'd love to, but I'm afraid I have no time. /I'm sorry I can't. /What about another time?
(7)请求允许 (Asking for permission )
A. May I come in?/Can / Could I use your telephone?/ Is it all right if I sit here?/ I wonder if I could smoke here. /Would / Do you mind if I open the window?
B. ①Yes, please. Sure. Certainly. / Please do. /That's all right./ Of course, you can. / Go ahead, please.
②I'm sorry, it's not allowed. /I'm afraid not. You'd better not. /
It' s not allowed. / I'm sorry, but you can smoke in the next room.
(8)祝贺与祝愿 (Expressing wishes and congratulations)
A. Have a good day / time!/Have a good journey / trip!/Good luck!
/Enjoy yourself!/Best wishes to you. /Happy New Year!/Merry Christmas!
/Happy birthday!/Wish you all the success!/Congratulations!/Well done!
B. Thank you. You, too. /The same to you.
(9)提供帮助 (Offering help)
A. Do you want me to clean the room?/Can I help you?
/Would you like me to help you?/What can I do for you?/Let me take your bags.
B. ①Yes, please. Yes, thanks. /Thank you. /That would be nice / fine.
/Thank you for your (the)help.
②No, thanks / thank you. /Thank you all the same. /That's very kind of you, but I can manage it myself.
(10)接受或拒绝(acceptance and refusal)
(11)约会(Making appointments )
A. Will you be free tomorrow?/Do you have time this afternoon?
/How about tomorrow morning?/When / Where shall we meet?
/Could we meet at 4：30?/Let's make it 4：30.
/What time is convenient for you?/I'd like to make an appointment with Mr. Jones.
B. ① Yes, I'll be free then. /All right. See you then.
②I'm afraid I have no time then.
Sorry, I won't be free then. But I'll be free tomorrow.
(12)打电话 (Making telephone calls )
A. Hello! May I speak to Tom?/Hello! I'd like to speak to Mr. Green.
/Is that Liu Ying speaking?/ /Can I leave a message?/I'll call back later / again. /I'll ring him / her up again.
B. Hello! This is Mary speaking. /Hello, who is that?
/Hold the line, please. /Just a moment, please. /Hello, who's speaking?/Sorry. He / She isn't here right now. /Can I take a message?
/Sorry. I can't hear you. /The line is bad / busy. /I couldn't get through. /Sorry, I'm afraid you have the wrong number.
(13)就餐 (Having meals)
A. Would you like something to eat / drink?/What would you like (to have)?/Would you like some more fish?/Help yourself to some fish.
Which do you prefer, rice or noodles?// What would you like to drink, tea or coffee?
B. ①Yes, I'd like a drink. /I'd like rice and chicken. /Just a little, please. Can I have some more soup?/It's so delicious. Thank you.
/ I prefer noodles to rice. I like green tea.
②No, thank you. I've had enough. /I'm full, thank you.
/It's very delicious, but I can't eat any more.
(14)就医 (Seeing the doctor)
A: What's the matter?/What seems to be the trouble?
/Do you have a fever?/How long have you felt like this?/It's nothing serious. /Take this medicine three times a day.
/You'll be all right / well soon.
/ Give up smoking and keep on taking more exercise.
B. I have a headache / cough / fever. /I feel terrible / bad / horrible / awful. /I don't feel well. /I've got a pain here. /It hurts here. /I don't feel like eating. /I can't sleep well.
A. Can / May I help you?/What can I do for you?
/How many / much would you like?/What colour / size / kind would you like?/What about this one?/Here's your change.
B. I want /I'd like a pair of shoes. /How much is it / are they?
/May I try it on?/It's too big / small. /Sorry, it's too expensive.
/Do you have any other colours / sizes / kinds?/
Two and a half kilos / pounds, please./ That's fine. I'll take it.
Just have a look. /Well, I'11 think about it.
(16)问路 (Asking the way)
A. Excuse me. Where's the washroom?/
Can you tell me how to get to the post office?
Excuse me. Which bus goes to World Park?
Excuse me. Which is the way to the Bank of China?
Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the station, please?
How can I get to No. 4 Middle School?
B. ①It's over there. /It's about 400 metres from here.
/Go down this street until you see the tall red building.
/Turn right / left at the first / second crossing / corner.
/You can't miss it. /You can take bus No. 103. /You'd better take a taxi.
②Sorry. I don't know. I'm a stranger here.
(17)谈论天气 (Talking about weather)
A. What's the weather like today?/How's the weather in Beijing?
/What a cold / hot day today!/It's a nice / fine / beautiful / horrible day today.
B. It's sunny / cloudy / windy / rainy / snowy / foggy.
/It's getting cool / cold / warm / hot.
(18)语言交际困难(Language difficulties in communication)
Pardon?/ I beg your pardon? I don't understand. Sorry, I can't follow you. /Could you say that again, please?
Could you repeat that, please?/ Can you speak more slowly, please?
What do you mean by killing time?/How do you say . . . in English?
/I don't know how to say that in English.
I don't know the word in English. /How do you spell it, please?
I'm sorry I only know a little English.
(19)提醒注意 (Reminding and warning)
Don't forget your raincoat./ Remember to lock the door.
Make sure that all the windows are closed. /Mind your head/step!/
No smoking!/No spitting!/Wet floor!/Look out!/Be careful!
/Don't touch!/It's dangerous!
(20)警告和禁止(Warning and prohibition)
You'd better go to see the doctor. /
You should listen to and read English every day.
You need to buy a Chinese-English dictionary.
If I were you, I'd phone him now.
Don't rush / hurry/ push. /Please stand in line.
(22)建议(Suggestions)Let's go and have a look.
/ Shall we go now?/What / How about a picnic this Sunday?
Why don't you buy a computer?/Why not go to a movie?
2. 态度 (Attitudes)
(23)同意和不同意 (Agreement and disagreement)
Sure. Certainly. / Exactly. / That's correct. /Of course. All right.
/I agree. /No problem. /That's a good idea. /Yes, I think so.
/I couldn't agree more.
No way. /Of course not. /I don't agree. /I don't think so. /I'm afraid not.
(24)喜欢和不喜欢(Likes and dislikes)
This book is very interesting. /I like / love the movie (very much).
I like / love to play computer games. /I like taking photos.
I enjoy listening to music. /I'm interested in science.
He is fond of music. /This song is bad / awful.
I don't like the movie very much / at all. /I don't enjoy collecting stamps. /I hate to do homework.
(25)肯定和不肯定 (Certainty and uncertainty)
I'm sure. /I'm sure of that. /I'm (quite)sure (that)she'll join us.
There is no doubt that it's made of silk. /
It's clear that it will rain soon. /I'm not so sure.
/I'm not sure of that. I'm not sure whether / if she can come.
/Maybe you're right. /Perhaps she is at home now. /It's hard to say.
(26)可能和不可能 (Possibility and impossibility)
A. He can / may come today. It may snow tonight.
/It's possible to finish the homework before 6 o'clock.
/It's likely to rain this afternoon. / It's likely that you will lose this game.
B. He may not come so early. /He can't be in the office now.
/It's not likely to snow soon.
/It's impossible to finish my homework within one hour.
(27)能够和不能够 (Ability and inability)
He can ride a bike./ He's able to pass the math exam.
/He is good at football. He can't swim. / He's unable to walk any more.
She's not good at swimming.
I prefer tea. Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
I prefer tea to coffee. / I'd prefer to go by train.
/I like English better / the best.
My favourite subject is physics. / I'd rather drink coffee than tea,
Where would you rather go, London or Tokyo?
(29)意愿和打算 (Intentions and plans)
I'll go with you./ /I'm going to see my head teacher this afternoon.
/I'd like to make a phone call to her after class.
/I want / hope to find an English pen-friend.
/I plan to go to Hangzhou this summer. / We are ready to move to a new house. /Bill intends to spend his vacation in California.
/ I am thinking of driving to Beijing. /I won't see the movie again.
I'm not going to buy the book. /I don't want to live in the big city.
(30)希望和愿望(Hope and wish)
I wish to see you again. /I hope to become a doctor.
/I hope it stays fine. I wish I were younger. /I hope so. /I hope not.
(31)表扬和鼓励(Praise and encouragement)
A. Very good!/Well done/Wonderful!/Excellent!
/You speak English very well.
Your dress is beautiful!/Come on! Keep trying!/You can do it
B. Thank you. /OK. I'll try it again.
(32)责备和抱怨(Blame and complaint)
He's to blame. /She blamed him for coming home late.
What do you mean by doing so?/How could you cheat your teacher?
He shouldn't have done it. /Why didn't you tell me the truth?
I'm sorry to have said that, but this room is too dirty,
I hate to have to say this, but it's too noisy here.
Why don't you do something about it?
I don't care,/I don't care what you do. /It doesn't matter to me.
I don't mind if you smoke. / It's none of my business.
(34)判断与评价(judgement and evaluation)
How wonderful / nice!/That's lovely / great / wonderful!
I'm so happy. /It's well done. /I'm pleased to know that.
Really?/Oh dear!/Is that so?/What a surprise!/How nice to see you!
How surprising!/I'm surprised./
It surprises me that your English is so beautiful.
Does that surprise you?/ Is this what you expected?
What's wrong?/What's the matter?/Anything wrong?
/What should we do?
Is something worrying you?/Are you worried about your health?
There, there. Don't be afraid. /Don't worry. /It's (quite)all right.
It'll be OK / all right.
Good!/Well done!/Perfect!/That's fine. /That's better. /That's good enough. /I'm pleased with your spoken English.
I'm so sorry!/It's a great pity!/What a shame!/That's too bad!
I wish I had never given it up. /
If I had been there, he would not have made such a serious mistake.
I'm so sorry/I'm so sorry about your illness.
/I'm sorry to hear you are going away. /Please accept my deep sympathy.
Help!/How terrible!/I'm afraid of that dog. /I'm frightened.
You scared me/I dare not go out at night.
Damn!/ Isn't it annoying!/*What a stupid idiot!
(44)时刻(Point of time)
A. Excuse me. What's the time, please?/Excuse me. What time is it?
Have you got the time?/When did you come to China?
/What time do you get up every day?
B. It's half past five / twenty to nine. /I came to China in 1998.
/I get up at 6 o'clock.
A. How long have you been in this school?/
/How long does it take you to get to school?/When did you live in Beijing?/How long have you been ill?
B. I have been in this school for three years. /It takes me twenty minutes by bike. /I lived in Beijing from 1996 to 1999. /I have been ill since last Monday night.
A. How often do you go to movies?
B. I go to the movie once a week. /I often go to movies.
The cat ran here and there, first on this side, then on that side.
/What did you do next?/Finally we found our way out.
/It rained even harder later on.
A. Where is the picture?
B. It's on / at / above / in / under / beside / near / behind the table.
/He sits at the back of the room. /The lab is in the centre of the school.
A. Which is the way to the station?/Where is the train / bus going?
/Where are you going?/ Are you going up / down?
B. Go down this street, and turn left / right at the first crossing.
/The train is going to Xi'an. /The train is going to the east / west / south / north. /I'm going to the railway station. I'm leaving for Shanghai.
A. How far is your school from here?
B. It's about 40 minutes by bike. /It's about 6 kilometres / miles away.
(51)存在(Existence and Non-existence)
A. Is there a bird in the tree?/Are there any apples in the tree?
/What's in the tree?
B. Yes, there is / are. /There's a bird in the tree.
/There are many / a lot of birds in the tree.
A. Is there an English book in the schoolbag?
/Are there any English books in the schoolbag?
/Isn't there any water in the bottle? /" Does water exist on the moon?
B. No, there isn't / aren't (any). /There isn't an English book in the schoolbag. /There aren't any English books in the schoolbag.
/No, there's no water in the bottle. /There's no more paper in the printer. /No water exists on the moon.
A. What does it look like?/What's the shape of the clouds?
B. It looks like a camel. /It's round / long / tall / short. /It's a circle / square. /It's a U-shaped road.
A. What colour is the bag?
B. It's green / red / blue / yellow / black / white / orange / purple / light brown / /dark blue. /I like the photo in black and white.
A.What's the table made of?/What's the red wine made from?
B. It's made of wood. /It's made from grapes.
/I bought a woollen sweater yesterday.
A.How much is the dictionary?/How much is it?/How much are they?
/Is it cheap / expensive?
B. The dictionary costs me 100 yuan. /The dictionary is expensive / cheap.
A. What size is your sweater?/What size shoes do you wear?
B. The size of my sweater is XXL. /It's too big / small / long / short for me.
A. How old are you?/How old is he / she? B. I'm eighteen.
/He / She is six years old. Uncle Wang is an old man.
A. How long is the bridge?
B. It's 430 metres / feet long.
A. How wide is the river?
B. It's about 200 metres wide.
A. How tall / high is the building?
B. It's 130 metres tall / high. /The building has 85 floors / stories.
A. How many students are there in your class?
/How much water do you drink every day?
B. There are forty students in our class. /I drink five glasses of water every day.
9. 比较 (Comparison)
(62)同级比较 (Equal comparison)
My ruler is as long as yours. /I can run as fast as you can.
This book is not as interesting as that one. /I can't run so fast as you can.
(63)差别比较(Comparative and superlative)
Lily is younger than Kate. /The red skirt is more expensive than the yellow one. /I run faster than Jim. /Mrs. Baker walks more slowly than Mr. Baker. /Jim is the tallest in his class. /Tom is the best of all.
(64)相似和差别(Similarity and difference)
This picture is the same as that one on the wall. /Lucy is like her mother.
Tom looks like his father. /My picture is different from yours.
There are five differences between the two pictures.
10. 逻辑关系(Logical relations)
(65)原因和结果 (Cause and effect )
A. Why are you late for school?/How could you miss the train / plane?
B. Because I got up late this morning. /As he was ill, he couldn't come to school. /Since she did not feel well, she stayed at home.
/Because of the bad traffic, we missed the train.
/Due to the heavy fog, the planes were delayed.
/ The reason is that he is not careful enough in his work.
/He ate too much, so he did not feel well.
/ It is so dark that I can not see anything in the room.
A. Why are you here today?Why did you do that?
B. I came here to see you off. /I did that in order to protect the trees.
11. 职业 (Occupation)
A. What do you do? What's your job?/What are you going to be?
B. I'm a teacher / doctor / worker / farmer / businessman / manager.
I'm going to be a scientist / computer engineer.
A. Where do you work?/ What company are you working for?
B. I'm teaching English In a high-school. . /
I'm working for a computer company.
(1)Individual data(name，age，date of birth，place of birth．telephone number，address，postal code，e-mail address，ID number，etc．)
(4)Data uses(filling out forms and applications，etc．)
(5)Jobs and career(office worker，worker，teacher，doctor，farmer，driver，official，lawyer,etc．)
2．家庭、朋友与周围的人(Family，friends and people around)
(1)Family and relatives(grandparents，parents，brother，sister，aunt，uncle，cousin，son，daughter，nephew, niece,etc．)
(3)Other people(neighbour，local shopkeeper，teacher，colleague，etc．)
(1)Kinds of homes(apartment，house，dormitory，etc)
(2)Rooms in homes(bedroom，kitchen，living room，bath room，etc．)
(3)Furniture＆ home items(table，chair，sofa，desk，bed， television…)
(5)Others(grocery store，book shop，clothing store，market，bank，library，museum，cinema，theatre，park，road，etc．)
(1)Getting ready(time for school，playing，bed，etc．)
(2)Routine activities(brushing teeth,washing hands and face，taking a shower，etc．)
(3)Eating(breakfast，lunch，snacks and dinner，etc．)
(4)Daily chores(tidying，sweeping，doing dishes，cooking，etc．)
(6)Family time(watching television，going out，visiting，etc．)
(6)Instructions(Please listen，read，get into groups，act，etc．)
6．兴趣与爱好(Interests and hobbies)
(2)Games(physical games，computer games，sports，etc．)
(6)Entertainment(1istening to radio，watching TV，playing CD，DVD，etc．)
(7)Socializing(having parties，issuing invitations，going for picnics,going sightseeing，entertaining guests，etc．)
(1)People(parent，brother，sister，other family members，friend，neighbour，teacher，etc．)
(2)Social behaviour(greeting，introducing，giving thanks，asking for permission，asking for help，solving problems，dealing with conflicts..)
(3)Getting together(making plans／arrangements，time，date，place，event)
9．计划与愿望(Plans and intentions)
(1)Planning(holidays，social events，travel，further education，jobs..)
(2)Organising(asking for advice，asking for help，asking for permission，exploring possibilities，expressing needs and wants，etc．)
10．节假日活动(Festivals，holidays and celebrations)
(1)Cultural festivals(Spring Festival，New Year’s Day，Thanksgiving Day.)
12．饮食(Food and drink)
(5)Drinks(milk，water，juice，soft drink，coke，alcoholic drinks，beer，wine，etc．)
(6)Fast foods(sandwiches，noodles，dumplings，hot dogs，hamburgers，chips，etc．)
(8)Eating customs(ways of eating，kinds of food，times to eat，table manners，chopsticks，knife，fork，etc．)
(9)Requesting or offering different foods and drinks
(10)Likes and dislikes(favourite food，favourite drinks，etc．)
(11)Ordering food and／or drinks
(1)Eating habits (2)Physical fitness and exercise
(5)Medications (6)Accidents(volcanic eruption，earthquake，road accidents)
(7)Doctors，nurses&hospitals (8)Describing problems(parts of the body，pains，etc．) (9)Medical insurance
(3)Dressing for the weather(coat，hat，umbrella，raincoat，windbreaker.)
15．文娱与体育(Entertainment and sports)
(1)Movies and theatre
(2)Music and dance(folk music and dance，popular music．classical music.)
(4)Games of two or four(table tennis，tennis，golf，etc．)
(6)International sports events(Olympic games，World Cup，Football League)
(7)Spectators and fans (8)Physical exercise
16．旅游与交通(Travel and transport)
(1)Methods of transportation(walking，cycling，horse riding，taking buses／trains／boats／planes，etc．)
(3)Getting and asking directions(left，right，straight a head，north，south，east，west，etc．)
(4)Safety rules and warnings(traffic lights，caution，walk，stop，etc．)
(5)Inquiring and making reservations(hotels，tourist spots，etc．)
(7)Describing a journey
(1)Differences between American English and British English
(2)Language and culture (3)Language learning difficulties
(4)Attitudes to language and communication
(5)Language learning strategies (6)Communications repair
(2)Animals(farm animals，wild animals，endangered animals，pets，etc．)
(3)Heavenly bodies(the sun，the earth，the moon and stars，etc．)
19．世界与环境(The world and the environment)
(1)Countries and maps(China，Great Britain，United States，Australia，Canada，New Zealand，Japan，Russia，India，Egypt，Cuba，etc．)
(2)Issues(pollution，land use and quality，population growth，housing.)
20．科普知识与现代技术(Popular science and modern technology)
(1)Recent inventions，medical advances，technological advances，etc．
(1)Population (2)Environmental conservation
(3)Crime and punishment(4)Social differences (5)Pollution
22．历史与地理(History and geography)
(1)General knowledge of history and geography about China
(2)General knowledge of history and geography about the world
(3)Historic events (4)Historical persons
(1)Nationality and people (2)Famous people(contemporary)
(3)Law(rules and regulations，traffic codes，etc．)
(4)Ways of dressing(types of clothes，daily clothes or dress，situation and dressing，etc．)
(5)Names of religions (6)Religions and culture
(7)Customs and culture
24．文学与艺术(Literature and art)
(1)Forms of literature and art(drama，novel，essay，poetry．short story，painting，etc．)
(2)Famous literary people and artists