To, near, at.
To drive, draw, move. Oldest form *ag̑‑, becoming *ag‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include agony , ambiguous , demagogue , essay , and squat.
See also derivative agro- .
A day (considered as a span of time). Oldest form *ag̑h‑, becoming *agh‑ in centum languages.
Field. Probably a derivative of ag- . Oldest form *ag̑ro‑, becoming *agro‑ in centum languages.
To be master of, possess. Oldest form *h2eik̑‑, colored to *h2aik̑‑, becoming *aik̑‑ in satem languages and *aik‑ in centum languages.
Copy. Oldest form *h2eim‑, colored to *h2aim‑.
To wish, desire.
Vital force, life, long life, eternity; also "endowed with the acme of vital force, young." Oldest forms *h2eiw‑, *h2eyu‑, colored to *h2aiw‑, *h2ayu‑.
Derivatives include no 1, ever , medieval , age , and eon.
See also derivative yeu- .
Sharp. Oldest form *h2ek̑‑, colored to *h2ak̑‑, becoming *ak̑‑ in satem languages and *ak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include acute , hammer , heaven , eager 1, vinegar , acid , and oxygen.
Beyond. Oldest form probably *h2el‑, colored to *h2al‑.
Derivatives include alarm , ultimate , else , alien , alibi , and parallel.
To grow, nourish.
Derivatives include old , haughty , altitude , enhance , alumnus , coalesce , and prolific.
All. Germanic and Celtic root.
Derivatives include elf , oaf , and albino.
In words related to sorcery, magic, possession, and intoxication.
Around. Probably derived from *ant-bhi, "from both sides" (see ant- ).
To breathe. Oldest form *h2enh1‑, colored to *h2anh1‑.Suffixed form *h2anh1-mo‑.
Tight, painfully constricted, painful. Oldest form *ang̑h‑, becoming *angh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include anger , hangnail , and quinsy.
Spirit, demon. Oldest form *h2e/onsu‑, colored to *h2a/onsu‑.
Front, forehead. Oldest form *h2ent‑, colored to *h2ant‑
Derivatives include along , end , advance , and antique.
Derivatives include off , ebb , awkward , puny , and compote.
To fit together. Oldest form *h2erh1‑, colored to *h2arh1‑, with variant *h2reh1‑, becoming *rē‑.
Derivatives include army , harmony , inert , aristocracy , adorn , hatred , rite , arithmetic , and rhyme.
To shine; white; the shining or white metal, silver. Oldest form *h2(e)rg̑‑, colored to *h2(a)rg̑‑, becoming *arg̑‑ in satem languages and *arg‑ in centum languages.
To burn, glow. Oldest form *h2es‑, colored to *h2as‑.
Derivatives include arson , and azalea.
To go; with Germanic and Latin derivatives meaning a year (conceived as "the period gone through, the revolving year"). Suffixed form *at-no‑.
To perceive. Compound forms *au-dh‑, *awis-dh‑, "to place perception" (*dh‑, to place; see dhē- ).
To increase. Oldest form *h2eug‑, colored to *h2aug‑. Variant *h2weg‑ becoming *(a)weg‑.
Derivatives include nickname , auction , and auxiliary.
Derivatives include east , Easter , and aurora.
Bird. Oldest form *h2ewi‑, colored to *h2awi‑.
Derivatives include aviation , bustard , ostrich , cockney , oval , and caviar.
An adult male relative other than one's father.
A metal, copper or bronze.
Staff used for support.
To shine. Oldest form *bheh2‑, colored to *bhah2‑, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include beacon , berry , banner , fantasy , and phase.
To speak. Oldest form *bheh2‑, colored to *bhah2‑, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include fate , infant , prophet , abandon , banish , symphony , confess , and blame.
To share out, apportion, also to get a share.
Arm. Oldest form *bhāg̑hu‑, becoming *bhāghu‑ in centum languages.
To strike. Oldest form *bheh2u‑, colored to *bhah2u‑, becoming *bhau‑.
Derivatives include beat , buttock , halibut , button , and refute.
To split; with Germanic derivatives referring to biting (hence also to eating and to hunting) and woodworking.
Derivatives include bite , bitter , and fission.
To trust, confide, persuade.
Derivatives include bide , fiancé , and infidel.
To shine, flash, burn; shining white and various bright colors.
Derivatives include blue , bleach , blind , blond , blanket , black , flagrant , and flame.
To blow, swell; with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity.
Derivatives include boulevard , boulder , phallus , balloon , ballot , and fool.
The following derivatives of this root are entered separately: bhel- 3, bhelgh- , bhleu- .
To thrive, bloom. Possibly from bhel- 2.
Derivatives include foliage , blossom , flora , bleed , bless , and blade.
To swell. Extension of bhel- 2 . Oldest form *bhelg̑h‑, becoming *bhelgh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include bind , bandanna , and bundle.
To carry; also to bear children.
Derivatives include birth , fertile , suffer , furtive , and metaphor.
To shine; bright, white. Oldest form *bherhxgibreve;‑, becoming *bherhxg‑ in centum languages.
To hide, protect. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
High; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include iceberg , bourgeois , burglar , force , and fortify.
To breathe. Probably imitative. Zero-grade form *bhs‑.
To be aware, to make aware.
Derivatives include bid , forbid , and Buddha. 2
To be, exist, grow. Oldest form *bheuhx.
Derivatives include be , husband , imp , physics , future , neighbor , and beam.
To bend; with derivatives referring to bent, pliable, or curved objects.
Derivatives include bagel , buxom , and bog.
To blow. Contracted from *bhleh1‑, or possibly lengthened grade *bhlēh2‑ from alternative root *bhleh2‑. Possibly identical to bhel- 3 II*bhlē‑ above.
Derivatives include blaze 3, flatus , and flavor.
To swell, well up, overflow. Extension of bhel- 2.
Brother, male agnate.
Derivatives include breach , fraction , frail 1, infringe , and suffrage.
Also bhreuə‑, bhreəu-.
To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn; with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing. Oldest form *bhreuh1‑.
Derivatives include brew , bread , broth , brood , breed , ferment , and fervent.
Eyebrow. Oldest form *bhruhx‑, becoming *bhrū.
To divide. Oldest form *deh2‑, colored to *dah2‑, becoming *dā‑.
Derivatives include democracy , epidemic , demon , and time.
To divide. Northern Indo-European root extended from *da(h2)i‑ (see dā- ).
Tear. Oldest form *dak̑ru‑, becoming *dakru‑ in centum languages.
Demonstrative stem, base of prepositions and adverbs.
To show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects. Oldest form *deik̑‑, becoming *deik‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include teach , toe , addict , preach , judge , revenge , and disk.
To take, accept. Oldest form *dek̑‑, becoming *dek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decent , paradox , and disdain.
Ten. Oldest form *dek̑m̥, becoming *dekm̥ in centum languages.
Derivatives include ten , December , decimate , dean , hundred , century , and hecatomb.
See also compound root wīkm̥tī- .
Right (opposite left); hence, south (from the viewpoint of one facing east). Oldest form *dek̑s‑, becoming *deks‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *deks(i)-tero‑.
Compare ner- 1.
Derivatives include linger , Lent , longitude , and lunge.
To recount, count. O-grade form *dol‑.
Derivatives include dome , domestic , and timber.
To constrain, force, especially to break in (horses). Oldest form *demh2‑.
Tooth. Originally *h1d-ent‑, "biting," present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning "to bite."
To split, peel, flay; with derivatives referring to skin and leather.
To see. Oldest form *derk̑‑, becoming *derk‑ in centum languages.
To be firm, solid, steadfast; hence specialized senses "wood," "tree," and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.
Derivatives include tree , trust , betroth , endure , and druid.
To lack, be wanting.
To do, perform, show favor, revere.
Derivatives include embellish , and dynamite.
Long (in duration). Oldest form *deuh2‑ with variant (metathesized) *dweh2‑, the latter colored to *dwah2‑, becoming *dwā‑. Suffixed zero-grade form *dū-ro‑ (< *duə-ro‑, oldest form *duh2-ro‑).
Derivatives include wanton , team , duke , subdue , and educate.
To set, put. Oldest form *dheh1‑, becoming *dhē‑.
Derivatives include deed , doom , fashion , defeat , feckless , sacrifice , satisfy , face , and synthesis.
To burn, warm.
To suck. Oldest form *dheh1(i)‑, becoming *dhē(i)‑.
Derivatives include female , fawn 2, fetus , fennel , and affiliate.
To form, build. Oldest form *dheig̑h‑, becoming *dheigh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include dairy , lady , dough , and paradise.
To hold firmly, support.
Derivatives include infirmary , and throne.
To venture, be bold. O-grade form *dhors‑ and zero-grade form *dhr̥s‑.
Root of words in religious concepts. Oldest form *dheh1s‑, becoming *dhēs‑. Possibly an extension of dhē- .
Derivatives include feast , fanatic , atheism , and enthusiasm.
To die. Also dheuə- (oldest form *dheuh2‑).
Compare dheuə- .
To close, finish, come full circle. Oldest form *dheuh2‑. Probably related to dheu- 2 , "to die."
To produce something of utility.
Earth. Oldest form *dhg̑hem‑, becoming *dhghem‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include bridegroom , chameleon , and homicide.
Yesterday. Oldest form *dhg̑h(y)es‑, becoming *dhgh(y)es‑ in centum languages. Suffixed (comparative) form *(dh)ghes-ter‑.
To stick, fix.
To draw, glide. Oldest form *dhreg̑‑, becoming *dhreg‑ in centum languages.
To drive, push; snow.
To fall, flow, drip, droop.
Derivatives include dreary , and drowse.
Daughter. Oldest form *dhugh2ter‑.
Door, doorway (usually in plural). Originally an ablauting noun *dhwor, *dhur‑, in the plural, designating the entrance to the enclosure (*dhwor-o‑) surrounding the house proper.
Derivatives include forest , and foreign.
To engage oneself. European root found in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and possibly Latin.
Tongue. Oldest form *dn̥g̑huh2‑, becoming *dn̥g̑hū‑ in satem languages and *dn̥ghū‑ in centum languages.
To give. Oldest form *deh3‑, colored to *doh3‑, becoming *dō‑.
Derivatives include betray , surrender , vend , dose , and antidote.
Bad, evil; mis- (used as a prefix). Derivative of deu- 1.
Derivatives include twilight , biscuit , between , combine , diploma , and doubt.
To shine (and in many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). Zero-grades *dyu‑ and *diw‑.
Derivatives include Tuesday , divine , jovial , Jupiter , diary , dismal , journey , and psychedelic.
To eat; original meaning "to bite." Oldest form *h1ed‑.
See also derivative dent- .
I. Nominative form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. Oldest form *eg̑, becoming *eg in centum languages. (For oblique forms see me- 1).
Out. Oldest form *eg̑hs, becoming *eghs in centum languages.
Derivatives include strange , and extreme.
To drink. Oldest form *h1egwh‑.Suffixed lengthened-grade form *ēgwh-r-yo‑.
To go. Oldest form *h1ei‑, zero-grade *h1i‑.
Derivatives include ambition , perish , sudden , transit , ion , initial , janitor , and January.
In words denoting passion. Oldest form *h1eis‑ or possibly *h1eish2‑.
Horse. Probably to be segmented *ekw-o‑, a suffixed form akin to the lengthened o-grade adjective ōku- , swift. Oldest form h1ek̑wo‑, becoming ekwo‑ in centum languages.
To take, distribute.
Derivatives include inner , entrails , industry , and dysentery.
Near, at, against.
To move, set in motion. Oldest form *h1er‑.
Earth, ground. Extended form *ert‑.
To row. Oldest form *h1erh1‑.
To be in motion.
To be. Oldest form *h1es‑, zero-grade *h1s‑.
Derivatives include yes , soothe , sin 1, essence , absent , and proud.
See also extension (e)su- .
Good. Oldest form *h1(e)su‑. Originally suffixed form of es- .
See also extension wes- 2.
To leave, abandon, give out, whence nominal derivatives meaning abandoned, lacking, empty. Oldest form *h1euh2‑, zero-grade *h1uh2‑, with variant form *h1weh2‑, colored to *h1wah2‑, becoming *wā‑.
Udder. Related to wē-r- .
To call, shout.
To rejoice; also to have religious fear or awe. Oldest form *geh2u‑, colored to *gah2u‑, becoming *gau‑ (before consonants) and *gāw‑ (before vowels).
Cold; to freeze.
Derivatives include chill , jelly , and glacier.
Tooth, nail. Oldest form *g̑embh‑, becoming *gembh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include comb , unkempt , and gem.
To marry. Oldest form *g̑emh1‑, becoming *gemh1‑ in centum languages.
To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *g̑enh1‑, becoming *genh1‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin , king , jaunty , genius , pregnant 1, gingerly , and nature.
Knee; also angle. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
Jawbone, chin. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
To gather. Oldest form *h2ger‑.
Derivatives include carve , crawl 1, and program.
To grow old. Oldest form *g̑erh2‑, becoming *gerh2‑ in centum languages.
To cry hoarsely; also the name of the crane. Oldest form *gerh2‑.
Derivatives include crack , cranberry , and pedigree.
To taste, choose. Oldest form *g̑eus‑, becoming *geus‑ in centum languages.
To give or receive.
Derivatives include give , able , malady , prohibit , duty , and endeavor.
Compare kap- .
Goose. Oldest form *g̑hans‑, becoming *ghans‑ in centum languages.
To release, let go; (in the middle voice) to be released, go. Oldest form *g̑heh1‑, becoming *g̑hē‑ in satem languages and *ghē‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include heir , and gait.
Theoretical base of *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑, winter. Oldest forms *g̑hei‑, *g̑hyem‑, *g̑hiem‑, becoming *ghei‑, *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑ in centum languages.
To shine; with derivatives referring to colors, bright materials, gold (probably "yellow metal"), and bile or gall. Oldest form *g̑hel‑, becoming *ghel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gold , arsenic , melancholy , Hare Krishna , gleam , glimpse , and glide.
To unite, join, fit.
To seize, take.
Derivatives include get , guess , prison , comprehend , surprise , and prey.
To grasp, enclose; with derivatives meaning "enclosure." Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include orchard , kindergarten , courteous , choir , and choral.
To like, want. Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
Gut, entrail. Oldest form *g̑herh2‑, becoming *gherh2‑ in centum languages.
Hand. Oldest form *g̑hes‑, becoming *ghes‑ in centum languages.
Seen by some as a base for words meaning "thousand." Oldest form *g̑heslo‑, becoming *gheslo‑ in centum languages.
To pour, pour a libation. Oldest form *g̑heu‑, becoming *gheu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gut , funnel , fusion , and refund. 1
To call, invoke. Oldest form *g̑heu(h2/3)‑, becoming *gheu(h2/3)‑ in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghu-to‑, "the invoked," god.
Stranger, guest, host; properly "someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality."
To grow, become green. Contracted from *ghreh1‑.
To seize, reach.
To dig, bury, scratch.
To walk, go. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥dh-yo‑.
To rub. Oldest form *g̑hreh1i‑, with variant (metathesized) form *g̑hreih1‑, whence zero-grade *g̑hrih1‑, becoming *g̑hrī‑in satem language and *ghrī‑ in centum languages.
Wild beast. Oldest form *g̑hwer‑, becoming *ghwer‑ in centum languages.
Shame, also pudenda. Expressive root, found only in Tocharian (in the literal meaning) and Germanic.
To tear apart, cleave.
Derivatives include clever , and hieroglyphic.
To know. Oldest form *g̑neh3‑, colored to *g̑noh3‑, becoming *g̑nō‑ in satem languages and *gnō‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include know , cunning , uncouth , ignore , noble , diagnosis , and narrate.
Grain. Oldest form *g̑r̥h2-no‑, becoming *gr̥h2-no‑ in centum languages.
To go, come. Oldest form *gweh2‑, colored to *gwah2‑, becoming *gwā‑.
Derivatives include welcome , adventure , souvenir , acrobat , and diabetes.
To live. Also gweiə- (oldest form *gweih3‑, with metathesized variant *gwyeh3‑, colored to *gwyoh3‑, becoming *gwyō‑).
Derivatives include quick , vivid , vitamin , whiskey , amphibious , microbe , and hygiene.
To throw, reach, with further meaning to pierce. Oldest form *gwelh1‑, with metathesized variant *gwleh1‑, becoming *gwlē‑.
Derivatives include devil , emblem , metabolism , parliament , problem , symbol , ballet , and kill. 1
Heavy. Oldest form *gwerh2‑.
Derivatives include grave 2, grief , aggravate , baritone , guru , brute , and blitzkrieg.
To favor. Oldest form *gwerh2‑.
To say, speak.
To ask, pray.
To strike, kill.
Derivatives include bane , fence , and offend.
To heat, warm.
Derivatives include brand , brandy , forceps , and fornicate.
Thread, tendon. Oldest full-grade form *gwhyehx‑, with zero-grade form *gwhihx‑ becoming *gwhī‑.
To smell, breathe. Oldest form *gwhreh1‑, becoming *gwhrē.
Ox, bull, cow. Nominative singular form *gwōu-s.
Derivatives include cow 1, beef , bugle 1, and butter.
Derivatives include yonder , identity , and item.
To like, desire. Oldest form *keh2‑, colored to *kah2‑, becoming *kā‑.
To fall. Oldest form *k̑ad‑, becoming *kad‑ in centum languages.
To strike. Oldest form *keh2-id‑, colored to *kah2-id‑.
Heat. Extended form *kaid‑.
Whole, uninjured, of good omen.
Forest, uncultivated land.
To defecate. Root imitative of glottal closure during defecation.
Derivatives include have , heavy , cable , captive , deceive , capsule , and chassis.
Compare ghabh- .
Derivatives include hard , and cancer.
Gray. Oldest form *k̑as‑, becoming *kas‑ in centum languages.
To hew, strike.
To go, yield.
To lie; bed, couch; beloved, dear. Oldest form *k̑ei‑, becoming *kei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include city , and cemetery.
To set in motion. Oldest form keih2‑.
Derivatives include resuscitate , and kinetic.
Excrement. Oldest form *k̑ekw‑, becoming *kekw‑ in centum languages. Suffixed o-grade form *kokw-ro‑.
To cover, conceal, save. Oldest form *k̑el‑, becoming *kel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include hell , hole , holster , apocalypse , and eucalyptus.
To be prominent; hill.
Warm. Oldest form *k̑elh1‑, with metathesized variant *k̑leh1‑, becoming *k̑lē‑ in satem languages and *klē‑ in centum languages.
To shout. Oldest form *kelh2‑, with metathesized variant *kleh2‑, colored to *klah2‑, becoming *klā‑.
Derivatives include exclaim , haul , calendar , and class.
Fresh, new, young.
To gird, bind. Variant form *keng‑.
To proclaim, speak solemnly. Oldest form *k̑ens‑, becoming *kens‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *kens-ē‑.
To prick, jab.
Horn, head; with derivatives referring to horned animals, horn-shaped objects, and projecting parts. Oldest form *k̑er‑, becoming *ker‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include horn , unicorn , hornet , reindeer , migraine , cheer , rhinoceros , and cerebrum.
To grow. Oldest form *k̑er‑, becoming *ker‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include cereal , Creole , concrete , and recruit.
Heart. Oldest form *k̑erd‑, becoming *kerd‑ in centum languages.
To mix, confuse, cook. Oldest form *k̑erh2‑, becoming *kerh2‑ in centum languages.
To gather, pluck, harvest. Variant *karp‑.
To run. Oldest form *k̑ers‑, becoming *kers‑ in centum languages. Zero-grade form *kr̥s‑.
To cut. Oldest form *k̑es‑, becoming *kes‑ in centum languages. Variant *kas‑.
To swell; vault, hole. Oldest form *k̑euhx‑, becoming *keuhx‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include cave , excavate , and church.
To lean. Oldest form *k̑lei‑, becoming *klei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decline , climax , climate , and ladder.
To hear. Oldest form *k̑leu‑, becoming *kleu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include leer , loud , and Hercules.
Stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning "this. " Oldest form *k̑o‑, becoming *ko‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include he 1, et cetera , and behind.
To sharpen, whet. Oldest form *k̑eə3‑, colored to *k̑oə3‑, contracted to *k̑ō‑ (becoming *kō‑ in centum languages).
To suit, fit, succeed.
Beside, near, by, with.
Derivatives include enough , handiwork , and country.
To hang. Oldest form *k̑onk‑, becoming *konk‑ in centum languages.
War; also war-band, host, army.
Bone. Probably related to ost- .
To hear. Oldest form *h2kous‑.
To sieve, discriminate, distinguish.
Derivatives include garble , crime , certain , excrement , crisis , and hypocrisy.
Raw flesh. Oldest form *kreuh2‑.
To begin to freeze, form a crust.
Preposition and preverb meaning "with."
To pay, atone, compensate. Suffixed o-grade form *kwoi-nā‑.
To pile up, build, make. O-grade form *kwoi‑.
To rest, be quiet. Oldest forms *kweih1‑, *kwyeh1‑.
Derivatives include while , coy , and requiem.
White; to shine. Oldest form *k̑weit‑, becoming *kweit‑ in centum languages.
To revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell. Oldest forms kwel‑, kwelh2‑.
Derivatives include colony , cult , wheel , cyclone , pulley , and bucolic.
Far (in space and time).
Holy. Oldest form *k̑wen‑, becoming *kwen‑ in centum languages.
To pant, wheeze. Oldest form *k̑wes‑, becoming *kwes‑ in centum languages.
To shake. Contracted from *kweə1t‑. Zero-grade form *kwət‑, becoming *kwat‑.
Derivatives include four , squad , quarantine , and farthing.
Stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.
Derivatives include who , whether , either , quorum , quip , and quality.
Dog. Oldest form *k̑won‑, becoming *kwon‑ in centum languages.
Body, form, appearance. Probably a verbal root meaning "to appear."
Salmon. Suffixed form *laks-o‑.
To be eager, wanton, or unruly.
Gain, profit. Oldest form *leh2u‑, colored to *lah2u‑.
To let go, slacken. Contracted from *leə1‑.
To lick; lip.
To collect; with derivatives meaning "to speak. " Oldest form *leg̑‑, becoming *leg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include leech 1, lecture , legend , intelligent , sacrilege , loyal , and logic.
To lie, lay.
Derivatives include ledge , lair , beleaguer , lees , law , and fellow.
Light, having little weight.
Derivatives include levity , carnival , elevate , leprechaun , and lung.
Derivatives include slime , slick , and oblivion.
To play, jest. Suffixed o-grade form *loid-o‑.
To bind. Oldest form *leig̑‑, becoming *leig‑ in centum languages.
To lick. Oldest form *leig̑h‑, becoming *leigh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include eclipse , loan , and derelict.
To stick, adhere; fat.
Derivatives include life , and liver. 1
To go forth, die.
To loosen, divide, cut apart.
Derivatives include forlorn , analysis , and solve.
To care, desire; love.
Derivatives include livelong , belief , and libido.
To mount up, grow. Oldest form *h1leudh‑.
To wash. Oldest form *leu(h3)‑.
To tell a lie.
Derivatives include light 1, illuminate , lunatic , lucid , and lynx.
r287_ [ līk-|
Body, form; like, same. Germanic root.
Derivatives include alike , each , and frolic.
Good; with derivatives meaning "occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early. " Oldest form *meh2‑, colored to *mah2‑, becoming *mā‑.
Mother. A linguistic near-universal found in many of the world's languages, often in reduplicated form.
To knead, fashion, fit. Oldest forms *mag̑‑, *mak̑‑, becoming *mag‑, *mak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include make , mason , mingle , magma , and mass.
To be able, have power.
Derivatives include dismay , might 1, machine , and magic.
Young person of either sex. Suffixed form *magho-ti‑.
Long, thin. Oldest form *meh2k̑‑, colored to *mah2k̑‑, becoming *māk̑ in satem languages and *māk‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include manacle , maneuver , and manure.
Mother. Based ultimately on the baby-talk form mā- 2 , with the kinship term suffix *-ter‑.
Derivatives include mother 1, matrix , and matter.
Oblique form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. For the nominative see eg .
In the middle of.
See also medhyo- .
Expressing certain qualities of mind. Oldest form *meh1‑.
To measure. Oldest form *meh1‑.
Derivatives include piecemeal , immense , meter 1, geometry , moon , and semester.
Big. Oldest form *meh1‑.
To cut down grass or grain with a sickle or scythe. Oldest form *meh1‑.
To take appropriate measures.
Derivatives include medicine , modest , modern , commodity , and empty.
Honey; also mead.
Derivatives include middle , medieval , and meridian.
See also me- 2.
Great. Oldest form *meg̑‑, becoming *meg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include much , magnate , mayor , maestro , and maharajah.
To change, go, move; with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law.
Derivatives include mad , molt , mutate , mistake , communism , amoeba , and migrate.
Derivatives include menu , mince , minestrone , and minister.
To urinate. Oldest form *meig̑h‑, becoming *meigh‑ in centum languages.
To mix. Oldest forms *meik̑‑, *meig̑‑, becoming *meik‑, *meig‑ in centum languages.
Soft; with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials of various kinds.
False, bad, wrong.
To crush, grind; with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances (such as flour) and to instruments for grinding or crushing (such as millstones). Oldest form *melh2‑.
To rub off; also to milk. Oldest form *h2melg̑‑, becoming *h2melg‑ in centum languages.
To think; with derivatives referring to various qualities and states of mind and thought.
Derivatives include mind , mention , automatic , mania , money , monster , mosaic , music , and amnesia.
Derivatives include mouth , menace , and mountain.
To remain. Variant suffixed (stative) form *man-ē‑.
To learn. Zero-grade form *mn̥dh‑.
To rub away, harm.
Derivatives include nightmare , morsel , morbid , mortal , mortgage , and ambrosia.
Boundary, border. Oldest form *merg̑‑, becoming *merg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include marquee , demarcation , and margin.
To push away.
Body of water; lake (?), sea (?).
Short. Oldest form *mreg̑h-u‑, becoming *mregh-u‑ in centum languages.
A mouse; also a muscle (from the resemblance of a flexing muscle to the movements of a mouse).
Boat. Oldest form *neh2u‑, colored to *nah2u‑, becoming *nau‑ (before consonants) and *nāw‑ (before vowels).
Derivatives include naughty , never , nothing , annul , nice , annihilate , negligee , deny , and renegade.
To bind, tie.
Death. Oldest form *nek̑‑, becoming *nek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include nuisance , innocent , and nectarine.
To reach, attain. Oldest form *nek̑‑, becoming *nek‑ in centum languages.
Night (perhaps originally "twilight, twilight of the morning and evening" as opposed to *kwsep‑, "the dark of the night"). Probably from a verbal root *negw‑, to be dark, be night. O-grade form *nokw-t‑.
To assign, allot; also to take.
Derivatives include numb , nemesis , and nomad.
Grandson, nephew. Feminine *neptī‑.
Under, also on the left; hence, with an eastward orientation, north. Suffixed zero-grade form *nr̥-t(r)o‑.
Compare deks- .
Man; basic sense "vigorous, vital, strong."
To return safely home.
Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural. For the nominative see we- .
New. Related to nu- .
Derivatives include neon , and nova.
Navel; later also "central knob," boss of a shield, hub of a wheel. Oldest form *h3nobh‑, variant *h3ombh‑ (< *h3onbh‑).
Nail, claw. Oldest forms *h3nogh‑, *h3ongh‑.
Name. Oldest form *h1no(h3)-mn̥, zero-grade form *h1n̥(h3)-men‑.
Now. Related to newo- .
Derivatives include once , atone , union , universe , and any.
To take along, fetch. Oldest form h3eit‑, colored to h3oit‑.
Eight. Oldest form *ok̑tō(u), becoming *oktō(u) in centum languages.
Swift. Oldest form *ōk̑u‑, becoming *ōku‑ in centum languages.
See also ekwo- .
To see. Oldest form *h3ekw‑, colored to *h3okw‑, zero-grade *h3kw‑.
Derivatives include eye , daisy , window , inoculate , and autopsy.
To work, produce in abundance. Oldest form *h3ep‑, colored to *h3op‑.
Derivatives include opera 1, maneuver , manure , opulent , and cornucopia.
Large bird. Oldest form *h3er‑, colored to *h3or‑.
To turn, with derivatives referring to change of change allegiance or status. Oldest form *h3erbh‑, colored *h3orbh‑. Suffixed form *orbh-o‑, "bereft of father," also "deprived of free status."
Mouth. Oldest form *h3ōs‑, but precise preform uncertain.
Bone. Oldest form *h2ost‑, with e-grade *h2est‑ colored to *h2ast‑.
Ear. Oldest form *h2ous‑, with e-grade *h2eus‑ colored to *h2aus‑.
Sheep. Oldest form *h2owi‑.
To protect, feed. Oldest form *peh2‑, colored to *pah2‑, becoming *pā‑.
Derivatives include fodder , forage , fur , food , foster , pasture , pantry , and company.
Fire. Oldest form *peh2wr̥, colored to *pah2wr̥, with zero-grade *ph2ur‑ metathesized to *puh2r‑. Zero-grade form *pūr‑ (from *puh2r‑).
To fasten. Oldest forms *pag̑‑, *pak̑‑, becoming *pag‑, *pak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include fang , peace , pact , palisade , and travel.
To touch, feel, shake. Earlier *peh2l‑, colored to *pah2l‑, becoming *pāl‑.
All. Attested only in Tocharian and Greek.
A child's word for "father," a linguistic near-universal found in many languages.
Few, little. Oldest form *peh2u‑, colored to *pah2u‑.
Derivatives include few , pauper , foal , pony , and pullet.
To cut, strike, stamp. Oldest form *peh2u‑, colored to *pah2u‑.
Derivatives include foot , fetter , pioneer , millipede , impeach , pajamas , fetch 1, pessimism , and impeccable.
Also pē‑, pī-.
To hurt. Contracted from *peə1(i)‑; zero-grades *piə1‑,*pə1‑.
To be fat, swell.
Derivatives include fat , pituitary , and Irish.
(earlier *peik̑‑, remaining as such in satem languages). To cut, mark (by incision).
Wealth, movable property. Oldest form *pek̑u‑, becoming *peku‑ in centum languages.
To cook, ripen.
Derivatives include pallor , falcon , and poliomyelitis.
To thrust, strike, drive.
Derivatives include anvil , filter , pulsate , polish , and appeal.
To fill; with derivatives referring to abundance and multitude. Oldest form *pelh1‑; variant *pleh1‑, becoming *plē‑.
Derivatives include fill , plenty , folk , accomplish , expletive , and plebeian.
Flat; to spread. Oldest form *pelh2‑; variant *pleh2‑, colored to *plah2‑, becoming *plā‑.
Derivatives include field , planet , plasma , plastic , and polka.
See also extensions plāk- 1, plat- .
Citadel, fortified high place. Oldest form perhaps *pelh3‑ (but exact laryngeal uncertain). Zero-grade form *pl̥h3‑.
Derivatives include five , Pentecost , quintessence , finger , and foist.
To tread, go.
Derivatives include find , pontiff , and sputnik.
Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of "forward," "through," and a wide range of extended senses such as "in front of," "before," "early," "first," "chief," "toward," "against," "near," "at," "around."
Derivatives include far , paradise , afford , first , protein , veneer , probe , privy , pristine , and priest.
Other possibly related forms are grouped under per- 2, per- 3, per- 4, per- 5.
To lead, pass over. A verbal root belonging to the group of per 1.
Derivatives include fjord , welfare , emporium , opportune , important , and sport.
To try, risk (< "to lead over," "press forward"). A verbal root belonging to the group of per 1.
To strike. A verbal root belonging to the group of per 1.
To traffic in, sell (< "to hand over," "distribute"). A verbal root belonging to the group of per 1 . Base of two distinct extended roots.
Compare pezd- .
To produce, procure. Oldest form *perh2‑; possibly related to perə- 2. See also per- 5II.
Derivatives include parade , parry , emperor , parachute , sever , and parent.
To grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return). Oldest form *perh3‑. Possibly related to perə- 1. See also per- 5II. Zero-grade form *pr̥ə‑ (becoming *par‑ in Latin).
Penis. Suffixed form *pes-ni‑.
To rush, fly. Also petə- . Oldest form *peth1‑. Variant *pteh1‑, becoming *ptē‑.
Derivatives include feather , compete , perpetual , ptomaine , symptom , and hippopotamus.
To spread. Oldest form *peth2‑.
Derivatives include fathom , patent , and compass.
To purify, cleanse. Oldest form *peuh2‑.
To prick. Oldest forms *peuk̑‑, *peug̑‑, becoming *peuk‑, *peug‑ in centum languages. Zero-grade form *pug‑.
Compare perd- .
Father. Oldest form *ph2ter‑.
To be flat. Earliest form *pleh2k‑, colored to *plah2k‑, becoming *plāk‑. Extension of pelə- 2.
Derivatives include fluke 1, flaw 1, plead , placenta , and archipelago.
To strike. Oldest form *pleh2k‑, colored to *plah2k‑, becoming *plāk‑.
To spread. (Oldest form *pletə2‑). Extension of pelə- 2.
Derivatives include flatter 1, plant , plateau , platitude , and plaza.
To plait. Extension of pel- 2 . Oldest form *plek̑‑, becoming *plek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include flax , pliant , and perplex.
Derivatives include pulmonary , Pluto , flow , fowl , flutter , and fluster.
To breathe. Imitative root.
To drink. Oldest form *peh3(i)‑, colored to *poh3(i)‑.
Young pig. Oldest form *pork̑o‑, becoming *porko‑ in centum languages.
To ask, entreat. Oldest form *prek̑‑, becoming *prek‑ in centum languages.
To freeze, burn.
To love. Oldest form *prihx‑ (becoming *priy‑ before vowels).
Derivatives include filibuster , friend , and Friday.
To rot, decay. Probably from earlier *puhx‑ (becoming *puw‑ before vowels).
Derivatives include foul , fuzzy , potpourri , and pus.
r426_ [ re-|
Backward. Latin combining form conceivably from Indo-European *wret‑, metathetical variant of *wert‑, to turn (< "turned back"), an extended form of wer- 2.
To bestow, endow. Oldest form *reh1‑. Suffixed form *reə-i‑, goods, wealth, property.
To scrape, scratch, gnaw. Oldest form *reh1d‑, becoming *rēd‑.
To move in a straight line, with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line, lead, rule. " Oldest form *h3reg̑‑, becoming *h3reg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include right , realm , anorexia , rich , rule , interrogate , and reckless.
To flow, run.
Derivatives include raid , road , and array.
To reach, stretch out. Oldest form *reig̑‑, becoming *reig‑ in centum languages.
To run, roll.
Red, ruddy. Oldest form *h1reudh‑.
Derivatives include red , robust , corroborate , ruby , and rubric.
To open; space. Oldest form *ruhx-mo‑.
To vomit, belch; smoke, cloud. Oldest form h1reug‑.
Derivatives include bereave , rob , usurp , and bankrupt.
Bear. Oldest form *h2r̥tk̑o‑, becoming *h2 r̥tko‑ in centum languages.
To satisfy. Oldest form *seh2‑, colored to *sah2‑, becoming *sā‑.
To seek out. Oldest form *seh2g‑, colored to *sah2g‑, becoming *sāg‑.
Derivatives include seek , ransack , and hegemony.
The sun. Oldest form *seh2wel‑, colored to *sah2wel‑, becoming *sāwel‑, with zero-grade *s(u)wel‑. The element *-el‑ was originally suffixal, and alternated with *-en‑, yielding the variant zero-grades *s(u)wen‑ and (reduced) *sun‑.
Derivatives include Sunday , south , solar , and helium.
To sow. Contracted from *seə1‑.
Derivatives include sit , soot , séance , siege , obsess , subside , soil 1, and chair.
To hold. Oldest form *seg̑h‑, becoming *segh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include hectic , eunuch , scheme , and scholar.
Derivatives include scythe , Saxon , skin , insect , and sickle.
See also extended roots skei- , sker- 1.
Derivatives include sequel , execute , pursue , and society.
To perceive, see.
To say, utter.
One; also adverbially "as one," together with.
Derivatives include simultaneous , hyphen , acolyte , and simple.
Summer. (oldest form *semh2‑).
Half‑, as first member of a compound.
To sing, make an incantation.
To head for, go.
To taste, perceive. Suffixed zero-grade form *sap-yo‑.
To line up.
To give birth. Oldest form *suhx-.
See also sū- .
To take liquid. Oldest form *suhx-.
Derivatives include soup , soak , and succulent.
To leap, climb.
To cut, split. Extension of sek- .
Derivatives include science , nice , shit , schism , sheath , ski , and esquire.
Derivatives include scalp , skill , cutlass , half , scalpel , and sculpture.
To be under an obligation. O-grade (perfect) form *skol‑.
Derivatives include shears , scabbard , skirmish , carnage , sharp , scrape , and screw.
To turn, bend. Presumed base of a number of distantly related derivatives.
Derivatives include shrink , ranch , rink , curve , crepe , circle , search , and crown.
Excrement, dung. Oldest form *sk̑er‑, becoming *sker‑ in centum languages.
To cover, conceal. Zero-grade form *(s)ku‑. Variant *(s)keuə‑, zero-grade form *(s)kuə‑, contracted to *(s)kū‑.
Derivatives include sky , meerschaum , scum , obscure , recoil , and hoard.
To shoot, chase, throw.
Derivatives include shoot , shut , and scuttle. 1
To cut, separate, sift. Extension of sker- 1.
To be weak, sleep. Possibly related to slēg- , through a hypothetical base *slē‑ (< earlier *sleə1‑).
To be slack, be languid. Possibly related to slēb- through a hypothetical base *slē‑ (< earlier *sleə1‑). Zero-grade form *sləg‑, becoming *slag‑.
To slide, slip.
Derivatives include sleeve , lubricate , and slop. 1
To laugh, smile.
To get a share of something.
To swim. Oldest form *sneh2‑, colored to *snah2‑, becoming *snā‑.
See also extension (s)nāu- .
To swim, flow, let flow, whence suckle. Oldest form *sneh2u‑; colored to *snah2u‑, becoming *(s)nāu‑. Extension of snā- .
To spin, sew. Oldest form *(s)neh1‑, becoming *(s)nē‑.
Snow; to snow.
Tendon, sinew. Oldest form *sneə1u‑. Extension of (s)nē- . Suffixed form *(s)neəw-r̥‑, with further suffixes.
This, that (nominative). For other cases see to- .
Whole. (oldest form *solh2‑).
Derivatives include solid , catholic , and salvo.
To thrive, prosper. Oldest form *speh1‑, becoming *spē‑.
To observe. Oldest form *spek̑‑, becoming *spek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include espionage , spectrum , despise , suspect , despicable , bishop , and telescope.
To draw, stretch, spin.
Derivatives include spider , pansy , pendant 1, appendix , penthouse , and spontaneous.