||1000$$$$$|||| AHD5-美国传统词典导读20190418唐街英语 AHD-印欧根pier605

_词源秘籍: 印欧根pIER
版权:《美国传统字典5.附表》AHD5
The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots
【声明】汉化参与者#周亚亚,范航,吴建新,丁朝阳,丁聚岗.
【图例】1英语三种源头:
1)←from日耳曼+古英语 1195+1062;
2)←from拉丁语 1029 ;
3)←from希腊语 645 ;
【图例】中大博3阶段是重点,涂色+有配音:
a)小初= 词频<3000, 例词数2676;
b)高大= 词频<6000, 例词数2054;
c)硕博= 词频<12k, 例词数3109;
d)出国= 词频50k~100k, 例词数9168;
e)生僻(无配音+无翻译), 例词数>7670 ;
AHD5词源统计 ; 例词数; 占比%
else 计数 ; 1152; 0.1122
古英语+日耳曼; 1524; 0.1484
拉丁语 计数; 5388; 0.5246
希腊语 计数 ; 2179; 0.2122
总计数----- ; 10270; 1
AHD5为框架, 插入:
AHD5大众版, 比AHD3专业版 删减了717词根。我找回 关注其中例词最多的100个,另外关注语义关联的印欧根。
印欧词根目录
;

音变=格林定律+维尔纳定律@印欧词根

原始印欧语音清塞音
p t k
浊塞音
b d g
浊气塞音
bʰ dʰ gʰ
圆唇音
kʷ gʷ gʷʰ
清气塞音
pʰ tʰ kʰ
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
梵语p t kb d gbʰ dʰ hkʷ gʷ gʷʰpʰ tʰ kʰ
希腊语p t kb d gpʰ tʰ kʰptk bdg ptkʰxx
拉丁语p t cb d gf f hqu v fxx
日耳曼pʰ tʰ kʰp t kb d ghʷ kʷ/k b/gpʰ tʰ kʰ
古英语f tʰ hp t cb d ghʷ cʷ/c b/gpʰ tʰ h?
记忆歌pf皮肤bp扒皮bdg布达宫bg布谷鸟清气浊气
隋唐切韵全清全浊次浊圆唇音次清
古汉语p t kb d gbʰ dʰ gʰkʷ gʷ gʷʰpʰ tʰ kʰ
普通话p t kpʰ tʰ kʰ
维尔纳定律_sen| _ren was| were
尾辅音浊化_es|_er
重读后音节chosen _ise| _ize
【注解】 预备知识, 印欧词根符号说明:
2) h =送气音 , aspirated, 例词: bʰā-₂发音说, bʰa, phone, fa, , bʰā-₁ 发光晒;th=θ, dh=dʰ=ð; bdg, ptk都能送气哦~ 这在梵语里又多6个字母啊!
3) w =圆唇音 , labialized, 例词: two, DoYou... 汉语例词:喔wo酷ku郭guo廓kuo,
4) ə =喉塞音 (国际音标符号ʔ)glottal 声门, laryngeal 喉头=零声母 、休止符、哑巴音、断音 , 作用:区分前后音节, 使之不混淆。
5) e =基准元音, 印欧词根中, 更响亮=a级形式, 低音=o形式, 省略元音=零级形式。i, u是辅助元音, aeo是主要元音。
h, w, 缩小为上标, 如 pʰ kʷ gʷ gʷʰ, dʰ, bʰ, 表示发音短促、不完全, 类似介音iu. 现代英语常见 ph, th, ch, gh, wh, 但只有梵文里才保留了d, dʰ, t, th, 完美组合( d, ð , t, θ ), (梵文字母悉昙体, 35辅音, -->隋唐切韵36声母).
b , p , f , v =bh ,
d , t , θ , ð =dh ,
g , k, h , ʒ =gh ,
dʒ , tʃ , ʃ = j , q , x =dg, ch, sh
dr , tr , ʃ , r = zh , ch , sh , r
dz , ts , s , z = z , c , s , s
m , n , ŋ , l , j , w 诀窍:联系汉语拼音方案表, 对照国际音标72.

印欧语系含欧洲和印度在内的约150种语言。
英国语言学家Sir William Jones 1786年指出梵语与希腊语和拉丁语可能来自同一个原始语, 它们具有亲缘关系。
1822年, Jacob Grimm 发现了日耳曼语言中所发生的一系列的有规则的辅音变化。这些辅音的有规则变化后被称为格林定律:
拉丁字母歌7*4=28音节:a be ce de e f ge , ha i: jo ka le mu ne , o: pe ku er es te , u ve du ks yu zeta

参考资料-推荐阅读哦
1.李平武 , 《英语.....说文解字》, 1984
3.蒋争, 《英语词汇的奥秘》, 1986-2014
4.袁新民, 《不再背单词》, 2007-2014
5.马秉义, 《英语词汇系统简论.pdf》, 2009
15.伟大的字母, A-Z.pdf
18.《单词秘史.pdf》John Ayto
21.美国传统字典-印欧词根附录.pdf
The Origins of English Words-Joseph.pdf
漏屋《找对英语学习的第一本书.doc》
彭川《英语单词记忆的终极奥秘.pdf》
高中考英语大纲《功能意念68, 话题24》
张思泽:《中国人应该这样记单词》2010
网络课程: 丁朝阳, 吴建新, 刘xx, 21

----词源适用范围:词源法更适合理工农医, 小女生则进步空间更大。也可去学赵丽思思一男等文艺版。
---格林定律口诀:皮肤 扒皮 布达宫。

【时态词源】he 其它will 愿望have 抓有been 存在 is 是存在are 是起动doing 做事that 那指now 新近.
【AHD5本词典的重点后缀】
-gen 亲生;-gam 结婚;-gyn 女人;
-graphy 图画;-scopy 视野;
-metry 米度量;-nomy 计数字;
-pod 跑踏脚;-fold 倍叠; -stat 站立;
-some 相同;-logy 逻辑;
-less 松散;-ly 像似;
我爱 高频词52:
the,that,they,this,their, there, to, of, be, and, in, an, one, it, he, his, her, have, for, from, I, on, with, you, as, all, do, at, by, not, but,about,out,we ,will,can,what,which,when,who,she,is,was,more,say,so,if,time,make,my,up,go,get

难解词源:I, you, or, so, not, get, to, do, , ,
邻近分离:of(off-, ap-, ab-), with, on, so(se-, swe), to(de-)

印欧根目录605

高频词-汉化:

专业术语 xxxxxxx 专业术语 xxxxxxx
zero-grade form零级 形式416 o-grade formo级 形式262
full-grade form全级 形式37 lengthened-grade form加长级 形式35
e-grade forme级 形式7 Suffixed form带后缀 形式:795
Suffixed带后缀的582 Derivatives include派生词 包括:212
Oldest form最初 形式:3 colored to变形 为:3
compound复合词205 Variant form变化形式108
Basic form基本形式105 extend form扩展形式134
combining form合并形式17 combining form合并形式17
contracted from 缩减自:22 contracted to缩减成为:22
Reduce form缩短形式4 participle, participial分词, 部分概念73
causative使役动词23 stative状态动词的25
Nasalized form鼻音形式17 基本形式:基本形式102
reduplicated form重叠形式27 Metathesized form变位形式5
comparative form比较级25
←froma source akin to源自近亲于27 possibly from 可能源于35
combining form合并形式19 intensive prefix加强的 前缀25
denominative名词派生的44 centum languages(K类语, 颚音)106
←from源自...5538
Germanic←from日耳曼 1195 Old English←from古英语 1062
Latin←from拉丁语 1029 Greek←from希腊语 645
Old Norse古挪威语165 Old High German高地德语150
Middle Dutch古荷兰语102 Sanskrit梵语92
Old French古法语90 Middle English中古英语54
Russian俄语25 Old Irish古爱尔兰22
Low German低地德语18 Old Persian古波斯12
Italian意大利语10 Persian波斯语9
Old North French古北法语9 Dutch荷兰语9
Old Iranian伊朗语8 Compare对比7
Old Church Slavonic古教会斯拉夫语7 Medieval Latin中世拉丁7
Old Russian古俄语6 Welsh威尔士6
Vulgar Latin通俗拉丁语3


1252.-ā-:抽象女名 abstract or collective nouns , feminine gender
1253.ab(e)l-:苹果光明 Apple . apple
538.ad-:向到挨近 To , near , at . adjuv, aid, ado
1254.adʰeso-:扁斧头 Adze , possibly a culture word circulating in
539.ag-1:干活抓夹 To drive , draw , move . prodig, fatig, squat, agon, exam, agog, agit, axi, ass, fum, act, say, eg, ag, og, ig
1255.ag-2:说话log To speak . ag
1256.ag-es-:过错 Fault , guilt . ach
1257.agʰ-1:敬畏 To be depressed , be afraid . ail, aw
540.agʰ-2:白天辰光 A day (considered as a span of time) . dawn, day, dai
541.agro-:干活农田 Field . ager, cult, agr, egr, acr
1258.agʷ(e)sī-:斧头Ax .
1259.agʷʰ-no-:小羊羔 Lamb .
1260.ai-1:分配给 To give , allot .
1261.ai-2:燃烧 To burn . ether, estu, neal, esti
1262.aig-:羔羊 Goat .
542.aik-1:应该拥有 To be master of , possess . ight, own, ow
1263.aik-2:敲击 To strike .
543.aim-:影模现像 Copy . imagin, imit, imag, emul
544.ais-:渴望想要 To wish , desire . ask
545.aiw-:生命力量 Vital force , life , long life , eternity ; etern, hygie, medi, top, age, ev
546.ak-:尖酸刻薄 Sharp . acicul, cidity, aceti, acerb, agon, acet, acid, oxid, est, eag, oxy, hea, acu, edg, acr, eg, ac
1264.aks-:轴 Axis . axon, axis, axi, ail, al
547.akʷ-ā-:割破果汁 Water . ewer, aqua
548.al-1:高超 Beyond . altern, altru, alter, ulter, adult, ultim, allel, other, ali, all
1265.al-2:漫游 To wander .
549.al-3:培养 To grow , nourish . alesc, adult, alumn, olesc, prol, alto, hanc, alt, old, ile, eld, il, ol, al
1266.al-4:磨碎 To grind , mill .
550.al-5:全有 All . all, al
551.albʰo-:亮白 White . alb
1267.algʷʰ-:争取价值 To earn , be worth .
552.alu-:大巫醉酒 In words related to sorcery , magic , possession , and intoxication .
1268.am-:爱妈士 Various nursery words . amat, aunt, im, em, am
553.ambʰi:两边附近 Around . ambul, amb
1269.ambʰō:两者都 Both .
1270.āmer-:白天亮光 Day . hemer
1271.ams-:黑光黑鸟 Black ; blackbird (original color meaning found
554.an-1:现在明处 On .
1272.an-2:老祖母 Old woman , ancestor (nursery word) .
1273.an-3:吸水泼水 To pour , draw water .
1274.andʰ-:开花开放 Bloom . anth
1275.andʰo-:暗淡无光 Blind , dark . somber, umbra, umbr, umb
555.anə-:口鼻呼吸 To breathe . anem, anim
1276.anət-:鸭子 Duck .
1277.anətā-:门框侧柱 Doorjamb . ANTA
1278.angelos:信使 Messenger . angel
556.angʰ-:钩鱼绳结 Tight , painfully constricted , painful . angin, angu, anx, ang
1279.angʷʰi-:蛇 snake
1280.ank-:弯角勾锚 To bend . anch, ank, Ang
1281.āno-:圆环孔口 Ring . annul, an
1282.ans-:循环抓手 Loop , handle .
557.ansu-:神灵气息 Spirit , demon .
558.ant-:在先前 Front , forehead . vant, anti, anci, ante, anc, end
1283.ap-1:去拿 To take , reach . copul, apic, ment, apex, att, art, apt, ept, up
1284.ap-2:水库? Water .
1285.āpero-:海岸水边 Shore .
559.apo-:放置分离 Off , away . pound, pon, awk, ebb, pos, aft, off
1286.apsā-:山杨树 Aspen .
560.ar-:安装调配 To fit together . aristo, ordain, arithm, rhyme, ordin, ridd, reas, fore, read, harm, orna, art, orn, ord, rit, ert, rat, arm
1287.arə-:犁地弓形 To plow . ara
561.arg-:闪亮白银 To shine ; white ; the shining or white metal , silver . argill, argent, argu
1288.ark-:掌控把握 To hold , contain , guard . coerc, arcan, erc
1289.arkhein:掌控开始 To begin , rule , command . archiv, arch
1290.arku-:掌控弓箭 Bow and arrow ( uncertain which , perhaps both arrow, arch, arc
1291.aryo-:雅利安掌控 Self-designation of the Inda-Iranians .
562.as-:燃烧发光 To burn , glow . ard, ash, ar
1292.asinus:屁股眼 Ass . asin, as
1293.asp-:切开 To cut . asper, asp
563.at-:走转年轮 To go ; millen, enn, ann
1294.at-al-:种族家庭 Race , family . Compound root ,
564.āter-:发火光者 Fire . atr
1295.atto-:阿爹 Father (nursery word) .
1296.au-1:0.0 Pronominal base appearing in particles and ad-
1297.au-2:离开 Off , away .
1298.au-3:编织 To weave .
565.au-4:感知听音 To perceive . audit, obedi, esth, obey, aud
566.aug-1:升高增加 To increase . author, waist, auct, name, wax, aux, aug
1299.aug-2:发光 To shine .
1300.aukʷ-:灶锅 Cooking pot . OVEN , ov
1301.aulo-:坑洞孔 Hole , cavity . alve, hydr
567.aus-1:闪晒发光 To shine . austr, auror, east
1302.aus-2:金光闪 Gold . flamm, aur, or
1303.aus-3:吸水排气 To draw water . haust
584.aus-4:竖耳倾听 Ear . scout, aur, aus, ear
568.awi-:翱翔鹄鸟 Bird . ovul, spic, tard, avi, egg, ov, os
569.awo-:叔伯大爷 An adult male relative other than one's father . un, ay, av
570.ayer-:发亮早晨 Day , morning . ear
571.ayes-:发亮黄铜 A metal , copper or bronze .
606.badyo-:黄光棕色 Yellow , brown .
001.bak-:背靠强壮 Staff used for support . bacill, bagu, bail, peg, bac, bec
607.band-:点滴 A drop .
608.bassus:低洼盆地 Low . base, bass
609.bat-:打哈欠弯 Yawning . abash, bey
002.bel-:布尔维克 Strong . Bolsh, bil
610.bend-:弓背凸出 Protruding point . pound, pond
611.beu-:弯曲膨胀 to swell , bow , bag . boast, poach, bouch, budg, bill, boil, puff, pock, bull, buck, puck, bol
003.bʰā-1:发光照耀 To shine . beckon, beacon, fantas, photo, phant, phat, bann, phan, berr, phas, pant, razz, phos, fanc, band, phen, buoy, fan
004.bʰā-2:发声说话 To speak . , phon, band, phas, fess, phem, fib, ban, fat, fam, phe, fan, fab, fa
005.bʰa-bʰā-:豆豆 Broad bean . bean
006.bʰad-:更好 Good . boot, good, best, bet, bat
007.bʰag-:分享分食 To share out , apportion , also to get a share . phag, pag
008.bʰāgʰu-:手臂树枝 Arm . bough
009.bʰāgo-:榉树发散 Beech tree . beech, buck, book
010.bʰardʰ-ā-:胡须发散 Beard . beard, berd, barb
612.bʰars-1:毛刺尖细 Projection , bristle , po int . bristl, bas
011.bʰars-2:大麦芒须 Barley . barn, far
613.bʰasko-:法西斯绑 Band , bundle . fascis, fascin, fasc, fess
012.bʰau-:棒梆敲打 To strike . butt, beet, foot, batt, beat, fut, but
614.bʰē-:热焙洗澡 To warm . bath, bak
615.bʰedʰ-:挖掘床窝 To dig . foss, bed
616.bʰeg-:破产折断 To break . bench, bunco, bank, bung, bang, banq
013.bʰegʷ-:逃跑害怕To run . beck, bus
014.bʰei-:蜜蜂蜇 A bee . bee
015.bʰeid-:虫咬打孔 To split ; ventr, fiss, bitt, vent, boat, bait, bet, bit
016.bʰeidʰ-:坚钉信赖 To trust , confide , persuade . feder, faith, defi, feal, fid, bid, fy, fi
617.bʰeiə-:敲击账单 To strike .
618.bʰeigʷ-:闪光To shine .
017.bʰel-1:发光闪亮 To shine , flash , burn ; shining white and various bright colors . bleach, blench, phalar, black, phlog, blank, flamm, blend, blink, blush, bleak, phleg, blanc, blond, blind, blaz, flag, fulg, blem
018.bʰel-2:吹鼓气球 To blow , swell ; phall, boll, foll, bulk, bold, ball, bull, fool, boul, bawd, bowl, bal
019.bʰel-3:花开茂盛 To thrive , bloom . flower, bloom, bless, blood, bloss, bleed, flour, foil, flor, blad, foli, fer
619.bʰel-4:哭叫敲钟 To cry out , yell . bell
620.bʰeld-:敲击 To knock , strike . bolt
621.bʰelg-:木棒横梁 A plank , beam . phalang, bauch, balc, fulc, balk
020.bʰelgʰ-:鼓风巨浪 To swell . bolst, budg, bill, bulg, bell
622.bʰel-u-:敲打伤害 To harm .
021.bʰendʰ-:绷紧绑定 To bind . bond, bend, bund, band, bind, bin, bon
623.bʰengʰ-:厚重脂肪 Thick , fat . derm
022.bʰer-1:抱负携带 To carry ; also to bear children . fortun, probr, phor, burd, fert, pher, furt, fort, bear, bor, bir, bar, fer, br
624.bʰer-2:切片边沿 To cut , pierce , bore .
023.bʰer-3:棕熊海狸 Bright , brown . pharyn, forat, brown, brun, burn, for
625.bʰer-4:火烤面包 To cook , bake .
626.bʰerdʰ-:切割 To cut . board, bord
024.bʰerəg-:闪亮白桦 To shine ; bright , white . bright
627.bʰerək-:闪耀发光 To shine , glitter . braid, broi, brid
628.bʰerg-:敲打噪音 To make noise . bark
025.bʰergʰ-1:买入埋藏 To hide , protect . borr, barg, bur
026.bʰergʰ-2:城堡要塞 High ; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts . bourg, forc, burg, fort, berg, bur
629.bʰers-:快动 Quick . fest
630.bʰes-1:揉搓 To rub . psil, sand
027.bʰes-2:噗呼吸 To breathe . psycho, psych
028.bʰeudʰ-:佛悟觉醒 To be aware , to make aware . fore, bode, bod, bid, bud
029.bʰeuə-:生长存在 To be , exist , grow . physi, build, bound, futur, boom, phyl, bust, bump, bood, beam, husb, boor, bor, phu
631.bʰeug-1:排列舰队 To flee . fugit, febr, fug
632.bʰeug-2:享受快乐 To enjoy . funct, fung
030.bʰeug-3:弯躬苯环 To bend ;; bent , pliable , or curved objects . bog, bag, bux, bow
633.bʰlād-:崇拜 To worship .
634.bʰlāg-:敲打 To strike . flag
635.bʰlē-1:嚎叫 To howl . fee
031.bʰlē-2:吹气通膨 To blow . blast, flav, blad, flat, blow, fl
636.bʰlei-:吹气鼓胀 To blow , swell .
032.bʰleu-:鼓胀溢流 To swell , well up , overflow . fluvi, flush, fluct, fluor, bloat, flux, mell, flu
637.bʰlīg-:冲击 To strike . flict, flig
033.bʰoso-:光秃空白 Naked . ballast, bar, bers
638.bʰrag-:嗅探 To smell . fragr
639.bʰragʰ-men-:形式礼仪 Form , ritual form .
034.bʰrāter-:兄弟分支 Brother , male agnate . fratern, phratr, fratr, bull, fri, pal, bro
035.bʰreg-:掰断揉碎 To break . breach, fract, brash, frain, fring, break, frang, brok, fray, frag, brak
640.bʰreiə-:掰断切开 To cut , break . frict, fric, fria
641.bʰrekʷ-:挤在一起 To cram together . phrag, frequ, farc
642.bʰrem-1:低音咆哮 To growl . 低音咆哮 bront
643.bʰrem-2:爆炸突出 To project ; a point , spike ; an edge . broom, brim
644.bʰres-:爆裂 To burst . burst
645.bʰreu-:掰断切碎 To cut , break up .
036.bʰreuə-:冒泡发热 To boil , bubble , effervesce , burn ; cooking and brewing . ferment, britt, breed, bruis, broil, bread, brawn, frust, brood, broth, breez, brais, braz, ferv, brew, ferv
646.bʰreus-:膨胀浏览 To swell . breast, brows
037.bʰrū-:眉毛鼻梁 Eyebrow . bridg, brow
647.bʰrūg-:农业生产 Agricultural produce ; also to enjoy (results , fruit, fruct, frug, fru
648.bʰudʰ-:铺底浇筑
649.bʰugo-:公公雄起 Male animal of various kinds ; stag , ram , hegoat . butch
650.brāk-:裤子 Trousers . A northern European word . brack
651.bursa:皮肤藏护 Skin , hide . purs, burs
652.busk-:灌木 A bush . bush, bus
925.carcer:硬块癌症 Enclosure , prison , barrier . *kar-kr-o cancel, carcer, chanc
926.caupō:小商人 Small trader . cheap
093.dā-:打开分割 To divide . demon, tim, tid, dem
094.dail-:打开分割 To divide . deal
095.daiwer-:夫之兄弟 Husband's brother .
096.dakru-:撕裂流泪 Tear .
688.dan-:丹麦低地 Low ground .
689.dānu-:河流 River .
690.dap-:赔偿交换 To apportion (in exchange) . damn, demn, dam
097.de-:转向指代 Demonstrative stem , base of prepositions and adverbs . tatto, too, de
691.dē-:绑定 To bind .
692.deigʰ-:滴答 Insect .
098.deik-:指出讲明 To show , pronounce solemnly ; preach, vindic, digit, teach, disk, veng, judg, dish, dit, toe, tok, dic, dig, dex
099.dek-1:文教尊贵 To take , accept . doche, decor, heter, docu, dign, doct, dain, orth, dox, doc, dog, cip, dec
693.dek-2:一缕头发 Referring to such things as a fringe , lock of hair , tack, tail, tag
100.dekm̥:双手十百 Ten . hecatom, centen, Decem, decim, cent, dick, hund, dean, den, doy, din, dec, ten
101.deks-:右手南方 Right (opposite left) ; hence , south dextro, dexter
102.del-1:耷拉长 Long . cephal, loung, loin, leng, lung, ling, long, lend
103.del-2:数落说 To recount , count . told, talk, tall, tell, sed, tal
694.del(ə)-:分割雕刻 To split , carve , cut . dol
104.dem-:宅管家 House , household . despot, domin, timb, dang, dam, don, dom
105.demə-:强管束 To constrain , force , especially to break in (horses) . daunt, domit, diam, dam, tam
695.denk-:咬人钳子 To bite . tough, tang, zinc
696.dens-1:意念力 To use mental force . da
697.dens-2:稠密 Dense , thick . dens, ur
106.dent-:咬牙齿 Tooth . *ed-ent- , biting tooth, dand, tusk, odon, dent
698.depʰ-:邮戳刻字 To stamp . letter, liter
699.der-1:嘚走啊 Ass umed base of roots meaning to run , walk , tramp, tread, trad, drom, trap, trot, trip, trod
107.der-2:皮裂流泪 To split , peel , flay ;; skin and leather . derma, tart, tear, der, tur
700.derbʰ-:缠绕 To wind , compress .
701.derə-:忙碌不停 To work . drama, dra
702.dergʰ-:抓握 To grasp . drach, targ
108.derk-:看毒眼龙 To see . rank, drag
109.deru-:牢固树木 To be firm , solid , steadfast ; hence specialized senses wood ,tree dendro, trust, truth, drup, trig, tree, trim, tro, tru, tar, tra, deo, dry, dur
703.des-:外人 Enemy , foreigner , slave .
110.deu-1:丢掉软胎 To lack , be wanting . tir
111.deu-2:做出动力 To do , perform , show favor , revere . bount, bell, beau, bene, beat, ben, bon, dyn, bel
112.deuə-:持久 Long (in duration) . dur
113.deuk-:牵引铅导 To lead . wanton, taut, team, tow, tug, duk, duc, ti, ty
704.dʰabʰ-:编织整合 I dʰeigh- fabric, deft, forg
705.dʰal-:开花 To bloom . thall
114.dʰē-:做作放置 To set , put . fact, doom, thes, fect, tick, face, feat, feit, fash, cond, them, feas, fit, fie, fic, far, fet, the, fac, fy, do
706.dʰeb-:稠密 Dense , firm , compressed .
115.dʰegʷʰ-:烧热 To burn , warm . fom
116.dʰē(i)-:啵咂吮吸 To suck . femin, felic, thel, fili, fawn, fen, fet, fem, fe
707.dʰeiə-:看看 To see , look . semiot, sema, sem
117.dʰeigʰ-:制作构建 To form , build . faint, feign, figur, fict, dair, lad, fig
708.dʰel-:中空 A hollow .
709.dʰelbʰ-:挖掘 To dig , excavate .
710.dʰembʰ-:埋葬 To bury . ep
711.dʰen-1:奔跑流动 To run , flow . fount
712.dʰen-2:手掌 Palm of the hand .
713.dʰer-1:浑浊黑暗 To make muddy ; darkness . trach, dreg, dark, driv, tara
118.dʰer-2:牢固 To hold firmly , support . thron, firm, furl, farm
714.dʰer-3:嗡嗡 To drone , murmur , buzz . od
119.dʰers-:牢固大胆 To venture , be bold . dar
120.dʰēs-:庆祝节日 Root of words in religious concepts . thusia, feast, theo, poly, fest, fair, fet, the, fan
715.dʰeu-1:聋哑晕困 smoke , dust .
121.dʰeu-2:露水提溜 To flow . dwell, deaf, dumb, dizz, dust, fusc, stov, deer, dull, dusk, dov, doz, fum, dew
122.dʰeu-3:死掉变小 To die . death, dead, die, dy
123.dʰeub-:跳水深潜 Deep , hollow . dept, deep, div, dip
716.dʰeubʰ-:楔子销钉 Wedge , peg , plug . dub
124.dʰeuə-:乡下小镇 To close , finish , come full circle . funer, town, down
125.dʰeugʰ-:制作用具 To produce something of utility .
126.dʰgʰem-:尘世土地 Earth . humane, chthon, homin, humil, human, humb, homi, hum, hom
717.dʰgʰū-:游鱼 Fish .
127.dʰgʰ(y)es-:昨天之前 Yesterday . yester
718.dʰgʷʰei-:死去 To perish , die away .
719.dʰgʷʰer-:流逝 To flow , move forcefully , with derivatives
128.dʰīgʷ-:打桩固定To stick , fix . fibul, ditch, cruc, fix, dig
720.-dʰlo-:工具格 See -tro- .
721.dʰragʰ-:画划 To draw , drag on t he ground . draft, drag, draw, dray
129.dʰreg-:拖拉滑 To draw , glide . drench, drunk, drown, drink
722.dʰregʰ-:跑动 To run . truck, troch
130.dʰreibʰ-:推驱 To drive , push ; snow . drift, drov, driv
131.dʰreu-:提溜下坠 To fall , flow , drip , droop . dreari, drowse, drizzl, droop, drows, drip, drop
723.dʰreugʰ-:欺骗 To deceive . dream
724.-dʰro-:工具格 See - tro- .
132.dʰugəter-:女儿 Daughter .
725.dʰwen-:发噪音 To make noise .
726.dʰwenə-:消亡 To disappear , die . eu
133.dʰwer-:门外论坛 Door , doorway (usually in plural) . thyr, clos, door, for
727.digʰ-:山羊 A goat .
134.dlegʰ-:忙碌 To engage oneself . plight, pledg, dulg, play
728.dl̥k-u-:香甜 Sweet . gluc, glyc, dulc
135.dn̥gʰū-:搭嘴舌话 Tongue . langu, lingu, tongu, ling, ligu, ling
136.dō-:做出给予 To give . treas, nder, tra, dat, dot, dit, dow, dos, don, nt
729.drem-:睡梦 To sleep . dormit, dorm
730.dreug-:干燥 Dry . drain, dry, dri
137.dus-:错恶坏 Bad , evil ; mis- (used as a prefix) .
731.dwei-:害怕 To fear . dir, din
138.dwo-:两个分开 Two . balanc, dodec, tween, doubl, dupl, dual, dipl, twa, deu, dou, bin, duo, twe, two, doz, twi, du, dy
139.dyeu-:晒光天神 To shine (and in many derivatives , sky , heaven , god ) . psyche, jovial, divin, journ, July, diet, div, dei, mal, Dia, De, di, Tu
1326.ē:啊状语 Adverbial particle .
1327.-ē-:静态动词 Verbal suffix form-
586.ed-:吃咬磕牙 To eat ; original meaning to bite . prandi, etch, odyn, fret, eat, ed, es, al
587.eg:俺偶我 I . ego, my
1328.eg-:贫困 To lack .
1329.egʰero-:水浒 Lake .
1330.egʰi-:鳗鱼蛇 Snake , eel . echin
588.egʰs:逸弃气外 Out . eschat, extern, strang, extrem, exter, lab, exo
1331.egni-:火药 Fire . ign
589.egʷʰ-:喝呼噜 To drink . ebri
590.ei-1:移走易变 To go . transit, circuit, itiner, trance, transi, comit, count, init, issu, ambi, yan, ish, enc, ion, jan, en, it, issu
1332.ei-2:起火发光 Reddish , motley ; yellow .
591.eis-1:走起火热 In words denoting passion . estro, glyph, irasc, hier, irat, estr, ir
1333.eis-2:冷若冰霜 Ice , frost . ice, ic
592.ekʷo-:马术平衡 Horse . Probably to be segmented *ekw-o- , a hipp, equ
593.el-1:前臂 Elbow , forearm . bow, uln, ell
1334.el-2:红棕生物 Red , brown (forming animal and tree names) .
1335.el-3:长虫 Eel , worm , snakelike creature .
1336.elaiā:橄榄油 Olive . oliv, oil
1337.elə-:走出去 To go . elast, elasm
1338.elk-es-:受伤 Wound . ulcer
594.em-:分发减去 To take , distribute . sumpt, empt, vint, emp, sum, mpt, amp, om, em
595.en:按摁印隐 In . intern, enter, indig, intim, inter, miss, entr, eso, inn, int, ode, en, in
1339.-en-:生成名词 (With many variants . ) Suffix forming nouns and
1340.en-es-:负担责任 Burden . ONEROUS , ONUS ; oner
1341.engʷ-:腹股沟英Groin , internal organ . 腹股沟 angle inguin
1342.-eno-:完成生成后缀 See -no- .
1343.-ent-:现在进行态 See -nt- .
596.epi:在上方 Near , at , against . opson
597.er-1:动起来 To move , set in motion . origin, horm, earn, rais, ris, ort, ori, ar
598.er-2:大地生长 Earth , ground . aar, ear
599.erə-1:划船运动 To row . rem, rud, Rus, row
1344.erə-2:分开 To separate . erem, ret
1345.erə-3:分开比邻 To separate , adjoin . ped, Ero
1346.erədʰ-:高 High . ardu
1347.ergʰ-:安装 To mount . orch
1348.erkʷ-:放射赞扬 To radiate , beam , praise .
600.ers-1:运动步态 To be in motion . rac, err
1349.ers-2:0.0 .
601.es-:有是存在 To be . sooth, quint, proud, ess, ent, sin, yes, es, be, ent
1350.ēs-:坐下 To sit .
1351.-es-:抽象str动名词 Also -os- .
1352.es-en-:秋收 Harvest , fall . earn
1353.esōr:妇女 Woman .
602.e)su-:有突优秀 Good .
1354.eti-:鸭鸭 Above, beyond.
1355.ētī-:鸭鸭 Eider duck .
1356.ētmen-:呼吸 Breath .
1357.-eto-:完成生成后缀 See -to-
603.eu-:有物裹 To dress .
604.euə-:无乌勿冇 To leave , abandon , give out , abandoned , lacking , empty . void, vain, wast, vacu, want, vast, vac, van
605.euə-dʰ-r̥:突兀奶水 Udder . uber
1358.euk-:习惯 To become accustomed . uxor
1359.eus-:燃烧 To burn . com
1360.-eyo-:使役动词 Verbal Suffix for ming causatives (transitive) and
686.ferrum:铁火光 I g (e)n- brazen, brass, farr
687.Frankon-:法兰克福 Frank (member of a Germanic tribe , franch, Frank, franc
767.gagina:反对 Against . gain
768.gal-1:光秃光亮 Bald , naked .
163.gal-2:高喊 To call , shout . gallin, call
769.gal-3:有能力 To be able , have power .
770.gar-:哭喊关爱 To call , cry . garr, car
771.garwian:制作装备 To make , prepare , equip . gear
164.gāu-:高兴 To rejoice ; also to have religious fear or awe . joic, gaud, joy
772.gē:大地盖娅 The earth. Ge
773.gēi-:唱歌 To sing .
774.geiə-:发芽张开 To sprout , split , open . kid
775.gel-1:明亮 Bright . cleans, clean
165.gel-2:激灵酷冷 Cold ; to freeze . glaci, chill, cold, jell, cool, con, gel
166.gembʰ-:牙齿指甲 Tooth , nail . gemm, comb
167.gemə-:结婚生育 To marry . gam
776.g(e)n-:卷曲握拳 To compress into a ball . knead, knock, knife, knuck, knoll, knit, knot, knap, knob, nub
168.genə-:脐生根亲 To give birth , beget ; ginger, pregn, gener, natur, genit, germ, gent, king, genu, gnat, kind, mun, gon, gin, gen, nat, kin, na, gn
169.genu-1:拐角结踝 Knee ; also angle . kneel, genu, knee, gon, gon
170.genu-2:下巴颌 Jawbone , chin . chin
777.gep(h)-:下巴嘴 Jaw , mouth .
171.ger-1:集聚归类 To gather . agor, cram, egyr, greg, egor
778.g(e)r-2:抓爪勾团 Curving , crooked ; hypothetical Indo-Europe- croach, crouch, crinkl, crimp, creep, croch, crank, cramp, group, cripp, crumb, crook, cring, crad, cart, grap, carp, crop, curl, cros, cru
172.gerbʰ-:抓挠刻画 To scratch . allel, gramm, graft, crawl, graph, gram, glam, crab, carv
779.gerere:携带办做 To carry , carry on , act , do . jest, gest, gist, ger
173.gerə-1:生长老化 To grow old . iatr, ger
174.gerə-2:夹碎哭声 To cry hoarsely ; also the name of the crane . geran, croon, crack, crow, ped, cr
780.geuə-:催促 To hasten .
781.g(e)u-lo-:燃烧煤 A glowing coal . coal
175.geus-:品尝甄选 To taste , choose . chose, choic, choos, gust
176.gʰabʰ-:给付 To give or receive . habit, hibit, gift, debt, deav, abl, giv, deb, mal, eb, ab, du
782.gʰabʰolo-:叉子 A fork , branch of a tree . JAVELIN ,
783.gʰāi-:张嘴瞪眼 To yawn , gape . chasm, gasp, chen, yawn, hisc, hiat, gap
784.gʰ(a)id-o-:山羊 A goat .
785.gʰais-:坚持犹豫 To adhere , hesitate . hesit, hes, her
786.gʰaiso-:尖棍长矛 A stick , spear . lic
787.gʰalgʰ-:树枝棍棒 Branch , rod . gauge
177.gʰans-:鹅 Goose . merg, goos, gos
788.gʰazdʰ-o-:棒条支架 Rod , staff .
178.gʰē-:传球射门 To release , let go ; (in the middle voice) to be released , go . hered, herit, chor, heir, fore, gat, go
179.gʰebʰ-el-:头颅 Head .
183.gʰedʰ-:适合聚集 To unite , join , fit . gath, geth
789.gʰei-1:推荐刺激 To propel , prick .
180.gʰei-2:冬天 Theoretical base of *ghyem- , *ghiem- , winter . chimer, hibern
790.gʰeis-:惊恐刺激 Used of the emotion of fear or amazement ghost
181.gʰel-1:呼叫 To call . yell
182.gʰel-2:光亮咕噜 To shine ;; colors , bright materials , gold glaze, glitt, chlor, gloss, chole, glass, glanc, gleam, melan, glow, gild, glad, glim, glaz, gold, yell, glar, gal, fel, gul, gli, g
791.gʰel-3:切割刺激 To cut .
792.gʰeldʰ-:付钱忍痛 To pay . yield
793.gʰelegʰ-:金属闪亮 A metal .
794.gʰeləd-:冰雹闪亮 Hail .
795.gʰelū-:乌龟 Tortoise . 乌龟
796.gʰel-unā-:腮下颚 Jaw .
797.gʰ(e)n-:啃 To gnaw .
184.gʰend-:抓住拿到 To seize , take . prehens, prehend, prent, guess, enter, pris, pred, pren, priz, got, pre, get, pri
798.gʰengʰ-:走去散步 To go , walk . gang
185.gʰer-1:掌握家园 To grasp , enclose ; with derivatives meaning enclosure . chard, choir, court, carol, hort, gird, gard, yard, chor
799.gʰer-2:呼喊问候 To call out .
800.gʰ(e)r-3:闪光黄灰 To shine , glow ; gray . grizzl, gray
801.gʰer-4:刮抓碾压 To scrape , scratch . charact
186.gʰer-5:贪吃喜欢 To like , want . chres, greet, greed, char, hort
187.gʰerə-:绳线弦肠 Gut , entrail . chord, cord
802.gʰers-:猪刚毛 To bristle . hirsut, gors, horr, hor, gor
188.gʰes-:抓爪手叉 Hand . urg, st
189.gʰeslo-:手十百千 Seen by some as a base for words meaning millen, chili, mill, mil
190.gʰeu-:泼浇灌酒 To pour , pour a libation . found, chaos, fund, gutt, gush, font, chem, chym, fus, gas, fut, gut
803.gʰēu-:哈欠瞪眼 To yawn, gape.
191.gʰeu(ə)-:敬酒召唤 To call , invoke . gid, odd, god
804.gʰo-:代词ko- ko-指示代词
805.gʰō-:后面 Behind , after .
192.gʰos-ti-:主家留客 Stranger , guest , host ; hospit, hosp, host, xen
806.gʰow-ē-:尊敬荣耀 To honor , revere , worship . gawk, fav
193.gʰrē-:抓地绿草 To grow , become green . grass, green, grow, graz, grew
194.gʰrebʰ-1:抓住加紧 To seize , reach . grasp, grab
195.gʰrebʰ-2:刨坑挖墓 To dig , bury , scratch . engrav, grub
196.gʰredʰ-:斜坡骨碌 To walk , go . gredi, gress, gree, grad
197.gʰrēi-:抹油基督 To rub . Christ, cream
807.gʰreib-:握住 To grip . grope, grip
808.gʰrem-:发怒 Angry . grim, grum
198.gʰrendʰ-:石磙磨碎 To grind . chondr, ground, grind
809.gʰrēu-:刮抓辗轧 To rub , grind . gravel, great, grout, chro, grit, gru
199.gʰwer-:洪水猛兽 Wild beast . feroc, ther, fier, fer
200.gʰwībʰ-:妻妇女阴 Wild beast . wiv, wom, wif
810.gladʰ-:光滑 Smooth .
811.glei-:黏土 Clay . glutin, glu
812.gleibʰ-:坚持住 To stay stuck . climb
201.gleubʰ-:撕裂劈开 To tear apart , cleave . cleave, smart, glyph, cleav, clev
813.glōgʰ-:刺尖 Thorn , point . gloss, glot
202.gnō-:结绳记事 To know . quaint, narrat, notat, gnost, couth, cunn, gnor, norm, cogn, gnos, nobl, know, noit, gno, not, can
814.gras-:吞食 To devour . gastr
815.grat-:瘙痒 To scratch .
816.greut-:推挤压缩 To compress , push . CRowd crowd
203.gr̥ə-no-:碾谷去糠 Grain . grain, gren, gran, corn, fil
817.gru-:咕哝拟音 To grunt . grudg, grunt
204.gʷā-:斜坡骨碌To go , come . base, basi, vent, veni, ven, com, bat, bae
818.gʷābʰ-1:沉浸下沉To dip , sink . bapt
819.gʷādʰ-:下沉To sink .
820.gʷēbʰ-:假设Hypothetical base of some Germanic words quaver
205.gʷeiə-1:生命动物To live . quick, vitam, quiv, micr, amph, vict, aero, vie, bio, vit, cen, per, viv, vi, zo
821.gʷeiə-2:压制To press down , conquer .
822.gʷel-:展翅飞翔To fly ; a wing . vol
823.gʷelbʰ-:子宫Womb .
206.gʷelə-1:掼扔骨碌To throw , reach , with further meaning to pierce . parole, parlia, kill, amph, parl, blem, ball, ble, bol, vil, bal
824.gʷelə-2:栗子坚果An acorn . gland
825.gʷelə-3:吞咽To swallow . glut, gul
207.gʷen-:女王家眷Woman . *gʷen-ā- . queen, gyn
826.gʷerə-1:山峰Mountain .
208.gʷerə-2:沉重骨碌Heavy . grief, griev, bari, grav, bor, bar
209.gʷerə-3:庄重感恩To favor . gratul, grat, gree, grac
827.gʷerə-4:吞咽To swallow . devour, bronch, gurgit, gorge, scrag, gorg, craw, vor
828.gʷes-:被扑灭To be extinguished .
829.gʷet-1:树枝Resin(?) .
210.gʷet-2:说出To say , speak . *gʷet- .
830.gʷet-3:心肠Intestine . bow
211.gʷʰedʰ-:求告 To ask , pray . fest, bead
212.gʷʰen-:枪击锤打 To strike , kill . fens, fend, fenc, gun
213.gʷʰer-:发热温热 To heat , warm . fornic, brand, therm, furn, burn
214.gʷʰī-:丝线文件 Thread , tendon . fil
215.gʷʰrē-:闻嗅呼吸 To smell , breathe . breath, brea
216.gʷʰren-:发狂思考 To think . phras
831.gʷō-:喂食To feed . bos
217.gʷou-:牛圈奶奶Ox , bull , cow . stroph, bugle, beef, bugl, boy, bov, cow
832.gʷres-:肥胖厚重Thick , fat . gross, gro
833.gʷrī-wā-:后面脖子Back of the neck .
834.gyeu-:咀嚼吃咬 To chew , eat . chew
927.hlaupan:跳跃 To leap . leap, lop
928.hūlē:森林 Forest , timber , hence stuff , matter .
475.i-:移伊异它 Pronominal stem . ident, iter, yond, yet, it
1185.-i)ko-:从属? Secondary suffix , forming adjectives .-斯基
1186.-is-to-:最高 Superlative suffix , -yos-to-
218.kā-:喜欢渴望 To like , desire . charit, cher, car
219.kad-:降落事变 To fall . chanc, cheat, case, cid, cas, cad, hat, ca
835.kād-:遗憾悔恨 Sorrow, hatred.
836.kādʰ-:遮蔽罩帽 To shelter , cover . heed, hat
220.kaə-id-:敲烧石灰 To strike . chisel, sciss, cis, cid, ce
837.kagʰ-:围住篱笆 To catch , seize ; wickerwork , fence . choat, hedg, hex, haw, cul, hag, col
838.kagʰlo-:冰雹 Pebble , hail .
221.kai-:烤火加热 Heat . heat, hot
839.kaiko-:独眼的 One-eyed .
222.kailo-:神明囫囵 Whole , uninjured , of good omen . heal, whol, hail, hale, hal, hol
223.kaito-:荒地开阔 Forest , uncultivated land . heath, hoyd
840.kak-:有助 To enable , help .
224.kakka-:咔咔 To defecate . caco
841.kal-1:杯子 Cup . calyx
842.kal-2:美丽的 Beautiful . cal
843.kal-3:坚硬的 Hard . callo, call
844.kamp-:弯曲 To bend . gamb, jamb
225.kan-:鸡鸣唱响 To sing . charm, chant, cent, cant, hen
226.kand-:发光蜡烛 To shine . candid, candel, cend, cand
845.kannabis:大麻 Hemp . canv
227.kap-:卡夹抓捕 To grasp . catch, capac, ceiv, hawk, capt, heft, chas, heav, cept, hoov, cab, cop, cat, hav, cup, cap, cip
846.kap-ro-:公羊 He-goat , buck . 公羊,雄鹿 caper, cabr, capr
228.kaput-:头领统领 Head . corpor, cipit, capit, chiev, chief, chapt, capt, chef, catt, capr, head, cad, cip, cap
229.kar-1:硬癌艰难 Hard . canker, careen, carcin, cancer, hard, Leo
847.kar-2:赞扬 To praise loudly , extol .
848.karlaz:男人 Man .
849.kars-:硬卡片 To card .
230.kas-:灰色兔 Gray .
850.kās-:命令 To order, command.
231.kat-1:垮塌向下 Down .
851.kat-2:战斗 To fight .
232.kau-:敲凿锄草 To hew , strike . caust, caut, cal, cus, ink, hay
852.kāu-:燃烧 To burn.
233.ked-:成长过程 To go , yield . necess, cease, ceed, ceas, cest, cess, ced
234.keg-:钩牙黑客 Hook , tooth . heckle, heckl, hack, hook
235.kei-1:开挖城市 To lie ; bed , couch ; beloved , dear . cem, civ, hid, ci
853.kei-2:火光多彩 Refer .
854.keit-:明亮闪光 Bright , shining .
236.keiə-:激起启动 To set in motion . kine, cin, cit
237.kekʷ-:排出粪便 Excrement .
855.kel-1:敲打切断 To strike , cut .
238.kel-2:洞窟房屋 To cover , conceal , save . colour, gladi, clerk, clast, color, hous, clad, cili, cole, limp, helm, holl, coup, ceal, hold, cell, hell, clon, cult, hol, cop
856.kel-3:加油加速 To drive , set in swift motion . celebr, holst, celer, hold
239.kel-4:卷列柱山 To be prominent ; hill . culmin, column, hill, cel, col
857.kel-5:刺痛 To prick .
858.kel-6:欺骗 To deceive , trick . calumn, cavil, chall
859.kelb-:帮忙 To help . help
240.kelə-1:卡路里热 Warm . calori, chal, cal, cha
241.kelə-2:喊喇叭 To shout . chiaro, class, clair, clear, claim, cili, clam, haul, clar, cal, cil
860.kelp-:抓住 To hold , grasp .
861.kem-1:无角者 Hornless . scant
862.kem-2:压缩 To compress .
863.kemb-:回转交换 To bend , turn , change , exchange . chang, camb, cant, hump
864.kemə-:劳累 To become tired , tire oneself out
244.kems-:宣布喊唱 To proclaim , speak solemnly . censor, cens
865.ken-1:开始行动 To set oneself in motion , arise , make an effort . con
242.ken-2:新颖生嫩 Fresh , new , young . cent, cen
866.ken-3:空白 Empty . cen
867.ken-4:假设 Hypothetical base of two similar Germanic neck
868.k(e)nəko-:蜜月黄金 Yellow , golden . hon
869.keni-:尘土灰烬 Dust , ashes . ciner, con
243.kenk-1:结网捆绑 To gird , bind . shingl, cinct, cing, cinc
870.kenk-2:饥渴难耐 To suffer from hunger or thirst . hung
871.kenk-3:脚后跟 Heel , bend of the lmee . heel
245.kent-:刺戳中心 To prick , jab . center, centr
246.ker-1:牛角墙角 Horn , head ; with derivatives referring to horned animals , cervic, cerebr, cereb, cheer, cerat, crani, cornu, corn, carr, rhin, cera, cerv, horn, ker, gra, car
872.ker-2:拟音咔咔 Echoic root , base of various derivatives indicating
247.ker-3:抓地生长 To grow . scream, sincer, cresc, creat, crick, creas, cret, crew, crep, cru, Cre, cer
248.ker-4:炭炉火葬 Heat , fire . carbon, ceram, crash, carb, crem
873.ker-5:樱桃 A kind of cherry . cherr, corn
249.kerd-1:热心亲信 Heart . quarri, quarry, cardi, heart, cord, cred, cour, gr
874.kerd-2:工艺 Craft .
875.kerdʰ-:畜群 Row , herd . herd
250.kerə-1:翻炒 To mix , confuse , cook . idio, cras, roar, rar
876.kerə-2:伤害分裂 To injure , break apart . cari
251.kerp-:割薅羊毛 To gather , pluck , harvest . harves, cerpt, carc, carp
877.kers-1:黑暗肮脏 Dark , dirty .
252.kers-2:成长生涯 To run . cours, coars, charg, curs, char, carr, curr, cour, corr, cor, cur, car
878.kert-:转弯缠绕 To turn , entwine . grill, grid, hurd, crat
879.kes-1:抓挠 To scratch . snug
253.kes-2:割据城邦 To cut . chaste, chast, cash, quas, cest, cast, al
880.keud-:荣耀 Magical glory .
254.keuə-:孔洞教堂 To swell ; vault , hole . church, acanth, cumul, cav
881.keuk-:亮白闪光 To be white , be bright , shine .
882.kēw-(e)ro-:北风 North , north wind . show
883.kīgʰ-:快速暴力 Fast , violent .
884.klā-:平铺 To spread out flat . lade, lad
885.klāu-:靠拢完结 Possibly hook , peg . claus, clos, clav, clus, clef, cloi, cloy, clud, clo
886.kleg-:哭声 To cry , sound . laught, clang, laugh
255.klei-:靠拢斜坡 To lean . lean, clit, clin, ladd, cliv, clen, clim, cli, lid
887.kleng-:连接转弯 To bend , turn . flinch, flank
888.klep-:偷窃 To steal . klept
256.kleu-:耳廓收听 To hear . Peri, list, Soph, loud, leer
889.kleuə-:洗涤 To wash , clean . clys
890.kl̥ə-wo-:秃顶 Bald . Calv
891.kneigʷʰ-:依靠 To lean on . conniv, nict
892.kneu-:坚果 Nut . nucle, nut
893.knid-:虱子卵 Egg of a louse .
257.ko-:其他这那 Stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning this . harass, hind, her, hi
258.kō-:尖锐松针 To sharpen , whet . con, kon
894.-ko-:后缀群类 See - ( i) ko- .
259.kob-:碰巧好运 To suit , fit , succeed . happ, hap
895.koksā-:臀部 Body part ; hip , thigh . cush, cox
896.kolə-mo-:芦苇草 Grass , reed . caram
260.kom:共靠夹抓 Beside , near , by , with . contra, countr, nough, cen
897.konə-mo-:腿骨 Shin , leg , bone . ham
261.konk-:尖刻吊死 To hang . hung, hing, hang
898.ko(n)kho-:贝壳 Poss ible word for mussel , shell fish . conch, cochl
899.kop-:打击敲打 To beat , strike . hatch, hash, hoof, cop
900.kormo-:敲疼伤害 Pain . HARM , 斧头砸? harm
262.koro-:战乱折磨 War ; also war-band , host , army . herald, harri, harry, hurr, harb, har
901.koselo-:棒子 Hazel .
263.kost-:骷髅嶙峋 Bone . coast, cost
264.kous-:听声音 To hear . acoust, hear
902.krāu-:隐藏 To conceal , hide . crypt
903.kred-:框架 Framework , timberwork . roost
265.krei-:尖锐审查 To sieve , discriminate , distinguish . crimin, crine, crisi, creet, crem, cern, crec, cret, cert, crit, crim, cris
904.kreiə-:出类拔萃 To be outstanding , brilliant , masterly , beau-
905.krek-1:编织卷席 To weave , beat . reel
906.krek-2:蛙子鱼卵 Frog spawn , fish eggs .
907.krem-:大蒜洋葱 Wild garlic , onion . ramp
908.kremə-:停职 To be suspended .
909.kret-1:颤抖休克 To shake . rath
910.kret-2:打败 To beat .
266.kreuə-1:生鲜 Raw flesh . creas, crud, creo, cru, raw
911.kreuə-2:推搡打击 To push , strike . ruth, rue
267.kreus-:尖硬结晶 To begin to freeze , form a crust . crystal, crust
912.kreut-:芦苇草 Reed . reed
913.krō̆po-:屋顶 Roof . roof
914.krut-:乐器 Musical instrument .
915.ksero-:干燥 Dry . seren
268.ksun:连带协同 Preposition and preverb meaning with .
916.kʷas-:亲吻 To kiss . kiss
917.kʷat-:发酵 To ferment , be sour .
269.kʷe:连带附属 And (enclitic) . quit
918.kʷed-:磨砺 To sharpen .
919.kʷei-:拟音嘘嘘 To hiss , whistle . whisp, whist, whin
270.kʷei-1:修复补偿 To pay , atone , compensate . penal, poen, puni, pain, pen, pin
271.kʷei-2:堆砌诗歌 To pile up , build , make . poet, onom, poe
920.kʷei-3:感知观察 To perceive , observe , with derivatives referring cour, proc, sur, cur
272.kʷeiə-:安静退出 To rest , be quiet . quiesc, quiet, quil, quit, whil, coy
273.kʷeit-:白面小麦 White ; to shine . wheat, white
921.kʷek-:展现 To appear , see , show .
274.kʷel-1:车轱辘圈 To revolve , move around , sojourn , dwell . cultiv, palim, wheel, colon, cycl, tele, cult, drom, coll, col
275.kʷel-2:车行长远 Far (in space and time) .
922.kʷelp-:拱起 To arch . gulf
276.kʷen-:女神皇后 Holy .
277.kʷent(h)-:困苦 To suffer . pathet, path
923.kʷēp-:快动翻炒 To smoke , cook , move violently , be agitated cupisc, vapor, cov, cup, vap
278.kʷer-:制作捏造 To make .
279.kʷes-:困苦憋闷 To pant , wheeze . wheez, quer, cyst
280.kʷēt-:面团 To shake . past, cuss, quas, scu
281.kʷetwer-:四方面团 Four . quarter, quatern, quadr, quatr, quarr, tetra, squar, quart, quis, quir, four, tess, for
924.kʷezd-:补丁小块 A part , piece . patch, piec
282.kʷo-:谁国哪個 Stem of relative and interrogative pronouns . neuter, chees, utral, qual, quot, quan, cue, why
283.kʷon-:狗犬圈雀 Dog . hound, can, cyn
284.kʷrep-:型体 Body , form , appearance . corpus, corpor, corp
285.kʷr̥mi-:蠕虫 Worm . crim, carm
996.lab-:舔嘴唇 Lapping , smacking the lips ; to lick . lam
997.lādʰ-:隐藏 To be hidden . Leth, lat
998.laiwo-:左边 Left .
353.laks-:鲑鱼三纹 Salmon .
999.laku-:湖泊水体 Body of water , lake , sea . lak, lac
1000.lap-:燃烧发光 To light , burn . lamp, lan
354.las-:放纵放任 To be eager , wanton , or unruly . lust, list
1001.lat-:潮湿乳胶 Wet , moist .
355.lau-:增益溢出 Gain , profit . lucr
1002.lē-1:抓到 To get . idolat
356.lē-2:流放黏连 To let go , slacken . lass, leni, last, lat, leg
357.leb-:唇睑靠拢 To lick ; lip . labi, lip
358.leg-1:收拢汇流 To collect ; with derivatives meaning to speak . recoil, logic, legat, coil, lect, lexi, anth, lig, loy, leg, log
1003.leg-2:点滴 To dribble , trickle . leak, lack
359.legʰ-:流躺倒低 To lie , lay . outlaw, fellow, litt, lai, law, lay, low, ly, li
360.legʷʰ-:拉升轻飘 Light , having little weight . leaven, light, lief, levi, liev, carn, lung, lev
361.lei-:流动 To flow . slight, sleek, slick, slip, slim, lib, liv
362.leid-:滑稽哄骗 To play , jest . lus, lud
1005.leiə-:浪费掉 To waste away .
363.leig-1:黏连拉拢 To bind . ligat, leagu, reli, lig, leg, lo, ly, li
1006.leig-2:贫穷 Poor .
1007.leig-3:跳动颤抖 To leap , tremble .
364.leigʰ-:粘贴舔唇 To lick . lick, lech, lich
365.leikʷ-:离开离去 To leave . linqu, lict, loan, lic, lip
366.leip-:残留幸存 To stick , adʰere ; fat . left, leav, live, liv, lif, la
367.leis-1:跟随仿学 Track , furrow . delir, learn
368.leis-2:流连细小 Small . less, leas
1008.leit-1:憎恶 To detest . loath
369.leit-2:拉车牵铅 To go forth , die . load, lead, mot, mot
1009.leizd-:边界列表 Border , band .
1010.lek-:监视保护 To ward off, protect. lacer
1011.lēk-:撕裂 To tear .
1012.lem-:打碎软屑 To break in pieces ; broken , soft , with deriva-
1013.lendʰ-1:腰部 Loin . lumb
370.lendʰ-2:平地展开 Open land . lawn, land
1014.lent-o-:柔性的 Flexible . lent
1015.lep-1:剥皮 To peel . lep
1016.lep-2:平坦手肩 To be flat ; palm , sole , shoulder blade . glov
1017.letro-:皮革 Leather .
371.leu-1:流落漏失 To loosen , divide , cut apart . solub, solut, loos, solv, loss, dia, los, lag, ly
1018.leu-2:弄脏 Dirt ; to mak e dirty.
1019.lēu-1:石头 Stone.
1020.lēu-2:回声根 Echoic root . laud, low, lut
372.leubʰ-:抬爱信任 To care , desire ; love . belief, libid, liev, lov
1021.leud-:小little Small . loiter, litt
1022.leudʰ-1:去走 To go . ely
373.leudʰ-2:关爱助长 To mount up , grow . liber, liv
374.leu(ə)-:流水冲洗 To wash . laund, lav, lut, luv, lot, lu
1023.leug-:打破 To break . lugub
375.leugʰ-:流逝说谎 To tell a lie .
376.leuk-:流明光线 Light , brightness . lumin, lustr, light, link, limn, risk, lust, Luna, noct, luc, oun, lum, lux, lun
1024.leup-:升降挂叶 To peel off , break off . lodg, loft, leav, lift, leaf, lob, log
377.līk-:体型相同 Body , form ; like , same . like, lik, lic
378.lī̆no-:丝线连接 Flax . align, linea, line, lin
1025.līthrā:升镑里拉 A scale . Mediterranean word , Latin libra , liber, lev, equ
1026.-lo-:小细黏连 Secondary suffix , forming diminutives .
1027.lobʰo-:头顶 Top or back of the head .
379.lūs-:虱虫 Louse . louse, lous
286.mā-1:成熟好 Good moment ; ( grow ) matur, mat
287.mā-2:妈娘奶 Mother . mam, Ma
929.mā-3:潮湿 Damp . manat
930.mad-:含水的肉 Moist , wet ; also refers to various qualities of food . meat
288.mag-:捏造制造 To knead , fashion , fit . macer, match, ming, mass, made, mak
289.magʰ-1:机器魔法 To be able , have power . machin, mechan, might, main, mag, may
931.magʰ-2:战斗 To fight .
290.magʰu-:美人鱼 Young person of either sex . maid
932.mai-1:切割 To cut . maim, ant
933.mai-2:弄脏 To soil , defile .
934.mak-:皮包 (Leather) bag .
291.māk-:马克拉面 Long , thin . macr, meag, maw, mac
292.man-1:凡人泥人 Man . men, man
293.man-2:手捏泥人 Hand . mand, main, mann, mend, mani, manu, man
935.mari-:婚龄女 Young woman . marr, mar
294.marko-:马歇尔 Horse . marsh, mar
295.māter-:母亲 Mother . matern, matter, mother, metro, mater, matr, mat
936.math-:多种昆虫 Various insect names .
937.Māwort-:战神火星 Name of an Italic deity who became the Marti, Marc
938.mazdo-:桅杆 Pole , rod , mast .
296.me-1:我自己 Oblique form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular . min, Me, Mo, me
297.me-2:中间的 In the middle of .
298.mē-1:心想揣度 Expressing certain qualities of mind . mood, mor
299.mē-2:摩测米月 To measure . menstru, metric, mensur, meter, metry, agog, mens, meno, meas, moon, metr, meal, mes, men, Mon
300.mē-3:生长变大 Big . ( grow )
301.mē-4:割断草 To cut down grass or grain with a sickle or scythe . mead, mow
302.med-:摩测医疗 To take appropriate measures . modes, moder, medit, medic, modul, meet, mold, must, med, mpt, mod
303.medʰu-:品味蜜酒 Honey ; also mead . methy
304.medʰyo-:中间 Middle . mean, midd, medi, mid, med
305.meg-:巨大重多 Great . magistr, master, majes, maxim, magni, magn, mega, much, maj, mag, may, Mis
306.mei-1:变换共产 To change , go , move ; amoeb, miss, mutu, migr, mean, meat, mut, mew, mon, mun, mad, mis, me, mo
307.mei-2:迷你小 Small . minut, minis, mince, minim, minc, menu, myst, min, Mio
939.mei-3:修筑工事 To fix ; to build fences or fortifications . mun, mur
940.mei-4:绳捆 To tie . miter, mitr, mit
941.mēi-:温和的 Mild . MITIGATE , 缓和 mit
308.meigʰ-:泌尿 To urinate . mict, mist
309.meik-:迷糊混合 To mix . meddle, meddl, miscu, mash, misc, mix
310.mei-no-:意图怜悯 Opinion , intention . moan
311.mel-1:绵软糜滑 Soft ; softened materials enamel, malaco, bland, smelt, ambly, malt, mutt, mild, moll, melt
942.mel-2:黑色 Of a darkish color .
943.mel-3:肢体 A limb .
312.mel-4:强大众多 Strong , great . melior, multi
313.mel-5:错乱坏 False , bad , wrong . drama, vers, mal
944.meldʰ-:祈祷词 To pray , speak words to a deity . MELD
314.melə-:磨碎糜烂 To crush , grind ; malle, mill, mell, molu, mol
315.melg-:挤牛奶 To rub off ; also to milk . galact, galax, milk, lact, muls
316.melit-:咸香烂甜 Honey . mouss, mild, melit, mell
945.melkʷ-:伤害 To harm .
946.mēlon:水果带子 An apple , or any seed- or pit-bearing fruit .
947.mēms-:鲜肉 Flesh , meat . member, membr, mens
317.men-1:心想揣摩 To think ; of mind and thought . monstr, monit, minis, ment, mind, mon, man, mne, mus, mat, mos
318.men-2:吃嘴凸长 To project . menac, mount, mont, min, mou, men
319.men-3:剩余 To remain . mans, main, men, man
320.men-4:单薄和尚 Small , isolated . min, mon, men
948.-men-:运动名词 Ablaut variants '-111011- , •-mt•- .
949.mend-:物理缺陷 Physical defect , fault . mendic, mend
321.mendʰ-1:心算数学 To learn . math
950.mendʰ-2:咀嚼 To chew . mast, mand
322.menegʰ-:凸出外多 Copious .
951.mer-1:闪烁麻麻亮 To flicker ; > dim states murk, morn
323.mer-2:卸磨杀驴 To rub away , harm . morti, murd, mors, mare, morb, mord, mort, bros
952.merə-:阻碍拖延 To hinder , delay . mor, mur
324.merg-:边贸号码 Boundary , border . marc, marg, mark
953.mergʰ-:毛毛雨 To wet , sprinkle , rain . broc
954.merk-1:腐烂 To decay . MARCESCENT ,
955.merk-2:割伤害 To cut up , injure (?) .
956.merk-3:水银经商 Italic root , possibly from Etruscan , referring merch, super, mark, Merc
957.merph-:捏造形状 Form . morph, form
958.mers-:麻烦迷惑 To trouble , confuse . mar
325.meuə-1:牛磨滑波 To push away . mov, mut, mot, mob, mo
959.meuə-2:生殖力强 Abundant , reproductively powerful . myri
960.meuə-3:闭嘴鼻音 To be silent . mystic, myst, mut
961.meug-:黏滑 Slimy , slippery ; wet . smock, moist, mucil, meek, smug, mug
962.meus-:潮湿沼泽 Damp ; with derivatives referring to swampy moss, mys
963.mezg-1:下潜跳水 To dip , plunge . merg, mers
964.mezg-2:编织 To knit . mesh
965.mittere:提交 To let go , send off , throw . mess, mitt, miss, mas, mit, mis
326.mizdʰo-:报酬 Reward .
966.-mno-:被动现在时 nau-2
967.mō-:施展自己 To exert oneself . molest, molish, mole, mol
968.-mo-:最高级后缀 Adjective and noun Suffix , appearing ultimately
969.mōd-:见面集合 To meet , assemble . mail
970.modʰro-:一种颜色 A color .
971.molko-:皮袋 Skin bag . MAIL mail
972.mon-:脖子颈背 Neck , nape of the neck . mone, mint
327.mori-:妈奶海水 Body of water ; lake (?) , sea (?) . marsh, mere, mar, mer
973.moro-:黑莓桑葚 Blackberry , mulberry .
974.morwi-:蚂蚁 Ant . formic
975.mozgʰo-:骨髓 Marrow .
976.mregʰ-m(n)o-:大脑记忆体 Brain . brain
328.mregʰ-u-:掰断磨短 Short . brachi, abridg, mirth, brief, brac, merr, brev
977.mu-:昆虫蝇声 Gnat , fly . mosqu, Musc, mus
329.mūs-:鼠动肌肉 A mouse ; also a muscle musc, mous, mus, mur
978.-n-:现在时中缀 Verbal infix to form transitive presents .
979.nā-:帮忙 To help .
980.nana:奶奶护士 Child's word for a nurse or female adult other nun
330.nas-:鼻子鼻音 Nose . nar, nas, nos
981.nāu-1:死亡筋疲 Death ; to be exhausted . need
331.nāu-2:游泳航船 Boat . nause, navig, naut, nois, nav
332.n̥dʰer-:更低劣质 Under . U-BOAT潜艇 infer, under
333.ne:匿冇没无 Not . naught, negoti, nihil, negat, annul, noth, null, neg, ne
334.nebʰ-:乌云飘忽 Cloud . nebul, nimb
335.ned-:结网接节 To bind , tie . nect, nod, nex, net
982.negʷʰ-ro-:肾 Kidney . nephr
983.nei-:兴奋闪耀 To be excited , shine . neat
984.neiə-:牵引 To lead .
985.neigʷ-:洗To wash . NIX ,
336.nek-1:黑死匿亡 Death . nuis, necr, nec, nox, noc, per
986.nek-2:达到 To reach , attain .
337.nek-3:足够肿瘤 To reach , attain . onc
338.nekʷ-t-:黑夜无光 Night ( twilight , of the morning and evening ) . night, Negr, noct, nigr, equi
339.nem-:数述说明 To assign , allot ; also to take . numer, numb, nim, nom
340.nepōt-:子侄孙女 Grandson , nephew . nephew, nepot, niec
341.ner-1:北方低下 Under ;; also on the left = north . Nor
342.ner-2:男孩安卓 Man ; basic sense vigorous , vital , strong . ander, Nero, andr
343.nes-1:家安全 To return safely home . alg
344.nes-2:我们家 Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural . nostr
987.nē-tr-:蛇 Snake .
345.neu-1:喊名说明 To shout . nounc, nunci
988.neu-2:点头 To nod . numin, num, nu
989.neud-:利用享受 To make use of , enjoy .
346.newn̥:九数新增 Nine . nonagen, novem, ennea, noven, noon, nine, nin
347.newo-:新生现在 New . nov, ner, new, ne
990.ni:下来 Down . limn, neth
991.-no-:生成态 Also -eno- , -ono- .
348.nobʰ-:肚脐中枢 Navel ; later also central knob , boss of a shield , hub of a wheel . umbil, nav
349.nogʰ-:蜗牛指甲 Nail , claw . onyx, nail, ung
350.nogʷ-:无裹即裸Naked . *nogʷ-eto- , *nogʷ-oto- . gymn, nudi, nud, nak
351.nō̆-mn̥:喊名说明 Name . nomial, nomen, nomin, onom, noun, onym, nom, nam
992.nōt-:臀部背部 Buttock , back . NOTOCHORD 脊索 , not
993.n̥si-:剑 Sword . ENSIFORM ,
994.-nt-:现在时 Also -ent- , -ont- .
352.nu-:现在进行 Now . now
995.-nu-:现在时后缀 Verbal suffix marking present tense , usually tran-
1304.ō-:相信 To believe , hold as true . omin, omen
1305.-o-:主题后缀 The thematic suffix , forming nouns , adjectives , and verbs .
1306.obʰel-:有用 To avail .
1307.od-1:闻起来 To smell . odor, ozon, osm, ol, ge
572.od-2:憎恨 To hate . annoy, odi
1308.ōg-:水果浆果 Fruit , berry . uvul, uv
1309.ogʷʰi-:蛇鳗鱼 Snake , eel . ophi
1310.oid-:膨胀 To swell . ed
573.oi-no-:一样满碗 One , unique . inch, unci, elev, uni, one, on, an
574.oit-:有用能转 To take along , fetch . usual, util, ut, us
1311.oito-:宣誓 An oath . oath
575.oktō(u):八阔 Eight . octav, eight, octa, oct
576.ōku-:迅速 Swift .
577.okʷ-:眼看 To see . prosop, optic, opter, ocul, ocel, ops, opt, ow, my, ey
1312.olə-:摧毁 To destroy . leth
1313.om-:生涩尖锐 Raw ; sharp-tasting . amar
1314.ombʰ-ro-:雨 Rain . imbr
1315.om(e)so-:肩部 Shoulder .
1316.oner-:梦想 Dream .
1317.ongʷ-:蛇鳗鱼Snake , eel . anoint, unct, ung
1318.-ono-:完成生成后缀 See - no- .
1319.-ont-:现在时后缀 See -nt- .
578.op-1:工作 To work , produce in abundance . optim, corn, omni, oper, opu, cop
1320.op-2:选择 To choose . opin, opt
579.or-:大鸟 Large bird . ora, or
1321.ōr-:宣布仪式 To pronounce a ritual formula .
580.orbʰ-:孤儿流浪 To turn ;; change orphan, rob, orb
1322.ōrd-:安排 To arrange ; arrangement .
581.ors-:臀部屁眼 Buttocks , backside . squirr, ass, ars, ur
582.ōs-:口说 Mouth . oscill, oscul, osti, ora, rot, os, or
1323.os-:灰树 Ash tree .
1324.-os-:抽象str动名词 See -es- .
583.ost-:骷髅骨头 Bone . ostrac, oste, oss
1325.-oto-:完成生成后缀 See -to- .
585.owi-:绵羊 Sheep .
038.pā-:爸把保养 To protect , feed . forag, past, feed, fost, food, fur, pan, pan
039.paəwr̥:热火保养 Fire . pyr, fir
040.pag-:捆紧压平 To fasten . polari, pagina, pease, peel, ping, peac, pact, peas, pect, pag, pax, pay, vel, pac, pal, pol, pai
041.pāl-:摸拍感触 To touch , feel , shake . Earlier *peh₂l- , pult, palp, feel, pap
042.pan-:织布苍白 Fabric . pan, van
043.pant-:抱紧全部 All . Attested only in Tocharian and 希腊语 . pant
044.papa:爸爸保养 A child's word for father pop, pap
653.pāso-:亲属 Kinsman . cide
045.past-:捆紧禁锢 Solid , firm . fast
046.pau-1:破贫少小 Few , little . pauper, ortho, pover, cyclo, puer, poor, pull, pool, poul, fin, few
047.pau-2:砍减计算 To cut , strike , stamp . super, count, pit, put, pav, pe
654.paus-:离开停止 To leave , desert , cease , stop . paus, pos
048.ped-1:脚踏前行 Foot . trapez, pessim, peach, plat, feet, pecc, vamp, pair, pawn, foot, pion, pil, fet, pod, pug, pog, pus, ped
655.ped-2:容器 Container .
656.peg-:胸部 Breast . pector, par
049.pē(i)-:劈啪伤害 To hurt . fiend, pass, pati
050.peiə-:蓬松虚胖 To be fat , swell . fat
051.peig-1:刻画锉刀 To cut , mark (by incision) . paint, pint, pict, pig
657.peig-2:充满敌意 Evil-minded , hostile .
658.peis-1:拍死它 To crush .
659.peis-2:吹 To blow .
660.peisk-:鱼 Fish . piscat, fish
661.pek-1:使美丽 To make pretty .
662.pek-2:剪羊毛发 To pluck the hair , fleece , comb . fight, cten
052.peku-:动产财富 Wealth , movable property . pecul, pecu, fe
053.pekʷ-:成熟炒饭 To cook , ripen . culin, kitch, coct, cook, pept, cuit, peps, coc
663.pel-1:灰尘面粉 Dust , flour .
054.pel-2:平淡苍白 Pale . pollin, powder, pulver, appall, pollen, pulp, falc, pall, pal
055.pel-3:多层重叠 To fold . multi, quadr, fold, ple, tri
056.pel-4:皮毛包膜 Skin , hide . fell, pell, fall, pel, fil
057.pel-5:卖出铺货 To sell . bibli, pol
058.pel-6:撞挤推动 To thrust , strike , drive . plesi, puls, peal, pell, push, filt, pol, pel
059.pelə-1:填满增加 To fill ; with derivatives referring to abundance and multitude . plish, plent, pleb, terr, plen, plim, plus, folk, fill, plet, full, plur, ply, ple, pli
060.pelə-2:平地广场 Flat ; to spread . plain, floor, field, plast, palm, plas, plan, pian
061.pelə-3:城堡高地 Citadel , fortified high place . poli
664.pel(i)s-:岩石悬崖 Rock , cliff .
665.pen-:沼泽 Swamp .
062.penkʷe:五指拳戳 Five . punch, quint, meter, Pent, fist, fing, fin, fiv, fif
063.pent-:扒开找路 To tread , go . found, path, pont, find, punt, pad, pat
064.per1:噗先前 Base of prepositions and preverbs : forward , through , perspir, prude, paras, princ, prior, proof, pries, priv, ford, prob, prem, fram, prid, prim, furn, pre, far, pro, Fra, fur, for, pu
065.per-2:牵引码头 To lead , pass over . of per1. portun, porch, petri, port, petr, fer, far, pie, por
066.per-3:扑冒风险 To try , risk (< to lead over , press forward ) . peri, pert, fear, pir
067.per-4:撞击挤压 To strike . A verbal root belonging to the group of per₁ . print, press, prim
068.per-5:传送卖出 To traffic in , sell (< to hand over , distribute ) . prais, preci, pric, porn, pret
069.perd-:放屁 To fart . partr, fart
070.perə-1:装配生产 To produce , procure . partur, separ, sever, pert, pair, per, par
071.perə-2:装配部件 To grant , allot (reciprocally , to get in return) . parti, pair, pars, port, part, parc, peer, par
666.perk-1:斑点的 Speckled .
667.perk-2:挖出来 To dig out , tear out . long
072.perkʷu-:橡木果 Oak .
668.perso-:捆 Sheaf (of ears of grain) . pras
669.persnā-:脚跟 Heel . PEARL , pear
073.pes-:喷丝悬屌 Penis . peni, pen
074.pet-:飞跑冲动 To rush , fly . Also petə- . pterid, petit, ortho, feath, pter, pinn, penn, peat, petu, prop, pen, pet, pto, pin
075.petə-:传播展开 To spread . fathom, petal, pand, pans, pass, pat, pan
076.peuə-:刮净 To purify , cleanse . purg, pour, pur, pi
077.peuk-:尖刺点戳 To prick . point, poign, punct, pugn, fuck, punt, pink, pung, pug
078.pezd-:放屁 To fart .
079.pəter-:父亲祖国 Father . patern, father, patri, pater, petr, patr
670.pik-:沥青 Pitch . pitch
671.pilo-:头发 Hair . pluck, plush, pile, pil
672.pīp(p)-:窥视 To peep . pigeon, pip
080.plāk-1:平坦舒畅 To be flat . pelag, plead, place, plank, flake, pleas, plac, flaw, flak, plea, plag, flag, plic, ple
081.plāk-2:撞击抱怨 To strike . plagu, plain, plang, fling, plex, pleg, plec
082.plat-:植被广场 To spread . plant, flatt, platy, plat, plan, flat, pla
673.plē-(i)k-:撕裂 To tear . flesh
083.plek-:编织折叠 To plait . plect, ploit, pleat, ploy, plic, plex, play, ply, pli, ple, pl
084.pleu-:流动飞行 To flow . fledge, flight, pulmon, flood, fleet, float, flot, flow, flut, Plut, flee, pne, fly, flu, fli, fl
674.pleus-:拔羽毛 To pluck ; a feather , fleece . fleec, plum
675.plou-:跳蚤 Flea .
085.pneu-:呼吸鼻声 To breathe . sneer, snort, snore, sneez, snor, pne
086.pō(i)-:泼水喝汤 To drink . beer, bev, bib, pot, po
676.pō̆l-:跌倒 To fall .
087.porko-:幼猪 Young pig . porc, pork, farr, wark
677.poti:反对转向 Against , towards .
088.poti-:有效能 Powerful ; lord . super, omni, poss, pot, pow
089.prek-:恳求祈祷 To ask , entreat . postul, prec, pray
678.prep-:出现 To appear . fur
679.preu-:跳跃 To hop . frog
090.preus-:冻结燃烧 To freeze , burn . froze, frost, freez, prur
091.prī-:爱喜欢 To love . frai, fray, free, fri
680.prōkto:肛门 Anus . PROCTITIS直肠炎 , PROCTODEUM , proct
681.pster-:打喷嚏 To sneeze .
682.pū̆-1:吹吹噗噗 To blow , swell . pust, phys
092.pū̆-2:脓包腐烂 To rot , decay . fuzz, foul, putr, pot, fog, fil, pur
683.puk-:浓密的头发 Bushy-haired . fox
684.pūro-:一种谷物 A kind of grain .
685.p(y)el-:树名 Tree name .
380.re-:弯绕又再 Backward . *wret- , *wert- , (< turned back ) , 扩展自 wer-₂ red, re, re
381.rē-1:授权财政 To bestow , endow . rei, re
1028.rē-2:深色 Dark-colored , possible root (oldest form •reh , -)
1029.rebʰ-1:暴力冲动 Violent , impetuous . rab, rag
1030.rebʰ-2:翻天覆地 To roof over . rib
382.rēd-:啮齿抢掠 To scrape , scratch , gnaw . rostr, rash, rap, ros, rat, raz, ras, rod, rad
383.reg-1:直线运动 To move in a straight line , dress, reign, recti, angul, regul, right, rect, reck, orex, rich, rack, surg, rul, raj, rak, reg, roy, rog, ert
1031.reg-2:潮湿 Moist . rain, rig
1032.reg-3:染 To dye . lac
1033.regʷ-es-:黑暗Darkness .
1034.rei-1:抓撕扯割 To scratch , tear , cut . reap, rift, rop, rif, riv, rip
1035.rei-2:斑点的 Striped in various colors , flecked .
1036.rē(i)-:有理生长 To reason , count . rati
385.reidʰ-:乘骑追路 To ride . raid, road, read, ray, rid, rod
384.reiə-:河水流跑 To flow , run . ran, riv, run
1037.reig-1:绑定 To bind . rig
386.reig-2:伸出抵达 To reach , stretch out . rigor, reach, rig
1038.rem-:休息 To come to rest , rest .
1039.rendʰ-:撕碎 To tear up .
387.rep-:抢掠蹂躏 To snatch . ravish, ravage, ravag, rapt, rept, rav, rap
1040.rēp-1:爬行 To creep , slink . rept
1041.rēp-2:桩梁 Stake , beam . raft
388.ret-:转圈绕 To run , roll . *to-wo-ret- ,a running up to round, prun, roto, roll, rot
1042.rēt-:快跑滚开 To run , roll .
1043.reu-:咆哮着 To bellow . rauc, riot, rum
389.reudʰ-1:铁锈血红 Red , ruddy . robust, robor, rust, rubr, red, rob, rub
1044.reudʰ-2:清理土地 To clear land . rid, rod
390.reuə-1:周围开阔 To open ; space . rust, ream, room, rur
1045.reuə-2:粉碎撕碎 To smash , knock down , tear out , dig up , uproot . rough, ruin, rag, rug
391.reug-:呕吐云雾 To vomit , belch ; smoke , cloud . ruct, reek
1046.reugʰ-men-:奶油 Cream .
392.reup-:搜刮破产 To snatch . rupt, loot, rob, rip
1047.rezg-:编织 To plait , weave , wind .
1048.-r:古代rw中名词 An ancient noun category of neuter
1049.-ro-:形容词r Adjectival suffix , as in *arudʰ-ro- , red (see re-
393.r̥tko-:北极熊 Bear . arct
1050.ruk-:织物纺纱 Fabric , spun yarn . rock
1051.rū-no-:神秘秘密 Mystery , secret .
394.sā-:满足味道 To satisfy . (salt) satur, satis, sati, hadr, sad, set, sat
1052.sab-:果汁液体 Juice , fluid . (salt) sap
398.saəwel-:太阳 The sun . solar, heli, sol, sou, sun
395.sāg-:寻味跟踪 To seek out . sagac, sign, seek, sak, ege, sag
1053.sai-1:受苦的 Suffering . (salt) sorr, sor
1054.sai-2:绑带子 To bind , tie . secular, set
1055.sai-3:粘稠液体 Thick liquid . (salt) hemat, hem, an
396.sak-:神光朝圣 To sanctify . sanct, sacer, saint, secr, xecr, sacr
397.sal-1:咸涩盐薪 Salt . sauc, silt, saus, salt, sal
1056.sal-2:脏的灰色 Dirty , gray .
1057.sal(i)k-:柳树弯弯 Willow . A derivative of sal-2 .
1058.sam-:唱歌 To sing . hymn
1059.sāno-:安康 Healthy . san
1060.saus-:干燥 Dry . auster, sere
399.sē-1:撒种子 To sow . semin, semen, seed, seas, sow
1061.sē-2:边长 Long , late . sid
1062.sē-3:筛选分割 To sift . ethm
400.sed-1:席地而坐 To sit . hedral, chair, resid, sedat, side, seat, soil, sett, sess, sede, set, sed, sit, hed, sid, sad, st
1063.sed-2:走去 To go . odic, cat, hod, od, an
401.segʰ-:持有举办 To hold . school, schem, sthen, schol, sever, eun, och, cal
1064.seib-:泼水筛滴 To pour out , sieve , drip , trickle . sapon, soap, sift
1065.seikʷ-:流出 To flow out . sicc
402.sek-:刀锯分割 To cut . sect, skin, seg, sec, saw
403.sekʷ-1:嗣跟社群 To follow . execut, secut, pursu, suit, soci, sequ, seal, sign, sic, sec, su
404.sekʷ-2:跟随观看 To perceive , see . sight, see
405.sekʷ-3:说出解说 To say , utter . scold, say, sai
1066.sel-1:人类住区 Human settlement . sol
1067.sel-2:傻白甜美 Of good mood ; to faver (spring ). hilar, sil, sol
1068.sel-3:拿到抓住 To take , grasp . sell, sal
406.sel-4:配种跳骑 To jump . ( spring ) assail, sault, exult, sili, sali, halt, sult, sail, sal, sil
1069.sel-es-:沼泽 Swamp , marsh , sea .
1070.selk-:拉扯拖拽 To pull , draw . sulc
1071.selp-:脂肪黄油 Fat , butter .
407.sem-1:一样像同 One ; also adverbially as one , together with . coluth, simil, simpl, simul, colyt, sembl, anom, seem, sin, hom, sam, som, hen
408.sem-2:夏天太阳 Summer . summ
409.sēmi-:半分相同 Half- , as first member of a compound .
410.sen-:老大 Old . sen
1072.sendʰro-:结晶沉积物 Crystalline deposit . cind
1073.senə-1:分开 Apart , separated . cur
1074.senə-2:成就达到 To accomplish , achieve . hent
1075.sengʷ-:下沉To sink . sink
411.sengʷʰ-:唱歌 To sing , make an incantation . sing, song, sang
1076.senk-:燃烧 To burn .
412.sent-:感觉撒出 To head for , go . scent, senti, sent, sens, send
413.sep-1:品味高尚 To taste , perceive . sipi, sapi, sav, sag
1077.sep-2:把持抓住 To handle (skillfully) , hold (reverently) .
414.septm̥:七星 Seven . hepta, seven, Sept
415.ser-1:完整保护 To protect . hero, serv
1078.ser-2:流动 To flow .
416.ser-3:种苗行列 To line up . exert, sort, sear, sert, sorc, ser
1079.ser-4:介词副词 sr,sur > fore,front front
1080.ser-5:夺取 To seize . heret, here
1081.serk-:使完整 To make whole . SARTORIUS , sart
1082.serp-1:镰刀钩子 Sickle , hook . harp
1083.serp-2:爬爬 To crawl , creep . herp, serp
417.seuə-1:儿子撒种 To give birth .
418.seuə-2:吮唆喝汤 To take liquid . soak, suck, soup, succ, supp, suc, sip
1084.seut-:发怒煮沸 To seethe , boil .
1085.servus:奴仆服务 Slave . servit, serv
1086.si-lo-:沉默 Silent . sil
1087.skabʰ-:支撑支持 To prop up , support . sham
1088.skai-:闪闪发光 To gleam . scint, shin, skia, shim, cil, sel
419.skand-:攀爬跳跃 To leap , climb . sland, scens, scans, scand, scend, scal, scan
1089.sked-:分开分散 To split , scatter . shatt, scatt
420.skei-:学科拆分 To cut , split . sheath, scind, schis, sched, omnis, sciss, shit, shod, semi, skat, shiv, shed, ski, sci
421.s)kel-1:分半贝壳 To cut . shield, sculpt, skill, shelf, shell, half, skil
422.skel-2:份内应该 To be under an obligation .
1090.s)kel-3:歪扭的 Crooked . 弯曲 cylind, colon, skel
1091.skelə-:干枯枯萎 To parch , wither . skelet, scler
1092.skeng-:歪扭胫骨 Crooked . SHANK 曲胫通幽
1093.s)kep-:切割砍 Base of words with various technical meanings scoop, shaft, scab, scap, shap, shav, shab, scup, cap
423.s)ker-1:削短分享 To cut . cortic, screen, shrub, sheer, scrap, shirt, scarf, screw, scrub, shear, sharp, short, shor, scar, carn, scor, curt, cori, shar, skir, bia, sc
1094.s)ker-2:跳跃 To leap , jump about . corusc
424.s)ker-3:转圈指环 To turn , bend . shrink, search, coron, crown, ranch, crisp, ridg, ring, circ, curb, rang, rank, curv, cr
425.sker-4:排粪便 Excrement , dung . scor
1095.s)kerb-:转身弯腰 To turn , bend . scorch, shrimp
1096.skēt-:伤害 To injure . scath
426.s)keu-:扣盖掩藏 To cover , conceal . custod, skim, hudd, scur, hos, cut, cul, sky, hut
1097.skeubʰ-:猛推乱推 To shove . shuf, shov
427.skeud-:分离射出 To shoot , chase , throw . shout, shutt, sheet, shoot, shot, shut
1098.s)keuə-:警告 To pay attention , perceive . sheen, scon, show, caut, scav
1099.s)keup-:簇捆头发 Cluster , tuft , hair of the head .
1100.skipam:船刻装备 Ship . equip, skip, ship
1101.-sko-:开始生长反复 Verbal suffix marking iterative or imperfective aspect
1102.skot-:黑暗阴凉 Dark , shade . shad
1103.skreu-:切割工具 To cut ; cutting tool . scrutin, shroud, scroll, shred, scrot, scrut, shrew
428.skrībʰ-:刻录描写 To cut , separate , sift . script, scrib
1104.s)kʷal-o-:大鱼 Big fish . WHALE , whal
1105.s)lagʷ-:夺取To seize . LATCH , SYLLABLE音节 lept, lem, lab, lep
1106.slak-:敲击 To strike .
429.slēb-:松软懒睡 To be weak , sleep . slept, sleep
430.s)lēg-:松软慵懒 To be slack , be languid . slack, langu, lish, lect, leas, less, algo, let, lax
361.s)lei-:黏联黏贴 Slimy . slight, sleek, slick, slip, slim, lib, liv
1107.sleidʰ-:滑动 To slip , slide . slid
431.sleiə-:深蓝阴沉 Bluish . liv, lav
1108.slengʷʰ-:滑梯索掷 To slide , make slide , sling , throw .
432.sleubʰ-:滑动 To slide , slip . sloven, lubric, sleev, slop
1109.sloug-:帮助服务 Help , service . slog
1110.smē-:粘稠涂抹 To smear . macul
1111.smeg-:品尝 To taste . smack
433.smei-:动心微笑 To laugh , smile . marvel, mirac, smil, mirr, com, mir
1112.s)mēlo-:磨细小 Smail animal . small
434.s)mer-1:记忆念叨 To remember . memor, mourn, memb
435.s)mer-2:分割享用 To get a share of something . meric, merit, meriz, meret, mer
1113.s)mer-3:油脂脂肪 Grease , fat . medull, smear
1114.smerd-:疼痛 Pain . Extension of mer-2 • SMART smart
1115.smeug-:云雾 To smoke ; smoke . smok
1116.smī-:截短铁匠 To cut , work with a sharp instrument .
1117.smīk-:截短微小 Small . micro, mica
436.snā-:游泳航船 To swim . Melan, nes, nat
437.s)nāu-:游流脐养 To swim , flow , let flow , whence suckle . nutrit, nutri, nurs, nurt, nour
438.s)nē-:脐带线缝 To spin , sew . snood, need
1118.sneg-:蛇绳蜗牛 To creep ; creeping thing . snak
439.sneigʷʰ-:飘雪线牵 Snow ; to snow . snow
1119.sneit-:切割 To cut .
1120.sner-:鼻息鼾声 Expressive root of various verbs for making snarl
440.s)nēu-:肌腱筋经 Tendon , sinew . nerv, neur
1121.sneubʰ-:结婚鼾声 To marry . nymph, nupt, nub
1122.sneudʰ-:雾云模糊 Mist , cloud . nub
1123.sneud(h)-:睡觉鼾声 To be sleepy .
1124.snu-:嗅探鼻息 Imitative beginning of Germanic words con- snivel, snoop, sniff, snub, snip, snuf, snap
441.so-:兹此斯 This , that (nominative) . sick
442.sol-:光热安全 Whole . solder, solid, sold, salv, salu, hol, sol, sav, saf, ci
443.spē-1:喷薄 To thrive , prosper . spair, speed, sper
1125.spē-2:长平木板 Long , flat piece of wood . spoon, spath, spad, spat
1126.spei-:尖刺冲点 Sharp point . spike, spir, spin, spik, spic
1127.s)peik-:啄木鸟 Bird's name , woodpecker , magpie . pick, piq, pic
444.spek-:喷线探测 To observe . specul, front, spect, skept, pect, shop, spic, spec, scop, sp
1128.spel-1:分开 To split , break off . spill, spoil, spol
1129.spel-2:大声背诵 To say aloud , recite . SPELL , spell
1130.spelgʰ-:脾脏 Spleen , milt . spleen, splen
445.s)pen-:喷丝悬挂 To draw , stretch , spin . ponder, spangl, spont, pound, span, pend, spin, pens, pen, spi
446.spend-:发配 To make an offering , perform a rite , hence to engage spous, spond, spons
1131.sper-1:长矛长竿 Spear , pole . spear, spare
1132.sper-2:转身缠绕 To turn , twist .
1133.sper-3:麻雀 Bird's name , sparrow .
447.sper-4:撒播 To strew . spread, sprout, sprawl, sperm, spray, spor
448.sperə-:踝骨关节 Ankle . spur
1134.spergʰ-:快动喷水 To move , hasten , spring . spring
1135.s)peud-:推又推 To push , repulse . pude, pud
1136.s)ping-:麻雀 Bird's name , sparrow , finch .
1137.s)plei-:拼接分割 To splice , split . split
1138.splend-:闪耀发光 To shine , glow . splend
1139.s)poi-mo-:泡沫 Foam . pumic, foam, spum
1140.spreg-1:说话 To speak . speech, speak
1141.s)preg-2:抽搐散开 To jerk , scatter . sprink, sparg, spars, freck, spers, spri, spry
1142.sp(y)eu-:喷吐呸 To spew , spit . spat, spit, hem, spu
1143.srebʰ-:吮吸吸收 To suck , absorb . sorpt, slurp, sorb
1144.srenk-:打鼾 To snore .
449.sreu-:溪流气流 To flow . rhythm, stream, rrhea, lite, rhe, rrh
1145.srīg-:寒冷 Cold . friger, frig
450.stā-:席地落座 To stand ; with derivatives meaning place or thing that is standing . stabl, stand, steer, stern, stant, stat, tank, stir, stin, sist, stan, stit, stem, post, stor, stay, sta, sto, ste, st
1146.stag-:渗透点滴 To seep , drip . stagn
451.stāi-:入地石墩 Stone . steat, sten, ston
1147.stāk-:站着放置 To stand , place . steel
1148.stebʰ-:金柱木杆 Post , stem ; to support , place firmly on , fasten . stump, staff, stamp, step, stap, stem
1149.steg-1:竿子棍子 Pole , stick . stock, stack, stak, stag, tack, tach
452.s)teg-2:封闭锁钉 To cover . thatch, tect, deck, steg, teg, ti
453.stegʰ-:钉刺鹿角 To stick , prick ; pointed . stoch, sting, stag
454.steig-:针刺虎爪 To stick ; pointed . stinct, stingu, stitch, steak, tingu, stick, stig, tick, tig
455.steigʰ-:支架楼梯 To stride , step , rise . stich, stair, acr
1150.steip-:钉住压缩 To stick , compress . STIFF , stiff, stev, stub, stip
456.stel-:钉立长杆 To put , stand ;; a standing object or place . stolid, still, stalk, stall, stult, stol, stal, stle, st
1151.stelə-:延伸 To extend . lamin, lam, lat
1152.sten-:狭隘的 Narrow . sten
457.s)tenə-:咚咚雷声 To thunder . tonate, Thurs, thund, stun, torn, ton
458.ster-1:钉立僵硬 Stiff . starch, starv, chole, stark, start, torp, star
460.ster-2:发光星星 Star . stell, steal, aster, astr, star
1153.ster-3:抢劫偷窃 To rob , steal .
1154.ster-4:贫瘠的 Barren . steril
459.sterə-:绳紧结构 To spread . struct, straw, stroy, strat, stern, stru, stri, str
1155.s)ter-n-:多刺植物 Name of thorny plants . thorn
1156.s)teu-1:钉桩 To push , stick , knock , beat ; tympan, stucco, shtick, pierc, stock, stint, steep, stoop, stut, stok, stup, type, tund, tuse, stud, tus, typ
1157.steu-2:升扬 To praise .
1158.stom-en-:身体的孔 Denoting various body parts and orifices . stom
1159.storo-:欧椋鸟 Starling .
461.streb(h)-:缠绕 To wind , turn . stroph, strob, strap
1160.s)trei-:嘶嘶模仿 To hiss , buzz . strid
462.streig-:撞击揉压 To stroke , rub , press . strick, string, strenu, stress, streak, strict, strain, strait, strok, stria, strik, stig
1161.strenk-:紧窄 Tight , narrow . strung, strang, string, streng, strong
1162.strep-:弄噪音 To make a noise . strep
1163.s)twer-1:转弯旋转 To turn , whirl . sturb, troub, storm, turb
1164.s)twer-2:抓住握紧 To grasp , hold ; hard . quartz
463.sū-:土狗猪崽 Pig . hyen, sock, swin, hog
1165.sūro-:果?酸甜 Sour , salty , bitter . sour
464.swād-:甜美味道 Sweet , pleasant . sweet, suav, suas, suag, suad, hed
1166.s)wāgʰ-:回荡 To resound . SOUGH , echo, ech
465.s(w)e-:自身 Pronoun of the third person and reflexive sullen, custom, idio, clud, ethn, clus, soli, self, cur, eth, sip, sol, sur, sui, ber
1167.swei-1:吹口哨嘘 To whistle , hiss . sibil, sifl
1168.swei-2:弯曲转身 To bend , turn . switch, sweep, swift
1169.sweid-1:发光 To shine . sider, sir
466.sweid-2:汗水味道 Sweat ; to sweat . hidro, sweat, sud, ud
467.s(w)eks:六,分 Six . sixti, sext, hex, sex, six
468.swel-1:吃喝 To eat , drink . swall, swill
1170.swel-2:发光燃烧 To shine , burn .
1171.swel-3:门柱木板 Post , board .
1172.swelə-:肿起来 To swell up , become swollen . swell, sole
1173.swem-:泳动搅动 To move , stir , swim . swim
469.swen-:诵声 To sound . sound, sono, soni, swan, son
1174.sweng(w)-:煽动 To wing , turn , toss . swank, swing
1175.swen-to-:健康强壮 Healthy , strong .
470.swep-1:睡眠 To sleep . hypnos, hypnot, somno, sopor, somn
1176.swep-2:抛投 To throw , sling , cast . sip
471.swer-1:说明 To speak , talk . swear, swor, swer
1177.swer-2:嗡嗡声 To buzz , whisper . susurr, swarm, surd
1178.swer-3:举重庄重 To heft , weigh , lift . sword, ser
1179.swerbʰ-:关掉擦掉 To turn , wipe off . swerv
1180.swergʰ-:忧虑生病 To worry , be sick . sor
472.swesor-:自家妹 Sister . soror, cous, si
1181.swī-:保持沉默 To be silent . siop
473.swo-:这样 Pronominal stem ; so . such
1182.s(w)okʷo-:树脂果汁 Resin , juice . OPIUM ,
1183.swombʰo-:海绵软蘑菇 Spongy ; also a word for mushroom . swamp
1184.swordo-:黑色肮脏 Black , dirty . sord
474.syū-:绑缝 To bind , sew . hymen, ewer, seam, sut, sew
732.tā-:融化溶解 To melt , dissolve . thaw, tec
140.tag-:触碰搭拿 To touch , handle . tegr, tamin, teg, taxi, tast, tang, tain, task, tact, tire, tax
733.tāg-:按顺序排列 To set in order .
734.tak-1:保持沉默 To be silent . tacit, tic
735.tak-2:接受 To take . tak
141.tauro-:公牛 Bull . Taurus, taur, tor
736.taw-:工具制造 To make , manufacture . tool
142.tegu-:厚重难拿 Thick . thick
143.tek-:生娃拿到 To beget , give birth to .
144.teks-:编织技术 To weave ; also to fabricate , especially with an ax ; subtl, techn, tect, toil, tiss, arch, till, text
737.tekʷ-:流跑逃跑 To run , flee . toxic, toxi
738.tel-:地面地板 Ground , floor , boar . titrat, titul, titl, tell
145.telə-:托举支撑 To lift , support , weigh ; toler, toll, phil, coll, lat, tol, tal
146.temə-1:切寺原子 To cut . autumn, dicho, estim, templ, temn, tum, tom
739.temə-2:黑暗 Dark . temer
740.temp-:伸展 To stretch . tape
147.ten-:藤爬伸展 To stretch . tonic, enter, stain, thin, tain, tens, tenu, tent, tend, ton, tin, ten, in
741.teng-:浸泡 To soak . TA1NT , TINCT stain, taint, tinct, tint, ting, dunk
742.tenk-1:事情延伸 To stretch . thing
743.tenk-2:凝固厚硬 To become firm , curdle , thicken . tight
744.tens-:延伸拖拉 To stretch , draw .
745.tep-:变热 To be hot . tep
746.ter-:尽头边缘 Base of derivatives meaning peg , post , boundary termin, term
747.-ter-:使动者 agent nouns from verbs.
148.terə-1:旋转钻研 To rub , turn ; dredge, thread, thresh, traum, trema, throw, tour, turn, trim, trog, torn, trib, trem, trit, dr
149.terə-2:穿透传送 To cross over , pass through , overcome . trench, thrill, trunk, trans, trunc, truc
150.terkʷ-:扭转折磨 To twist . thwart, torqu, torch, queer, tort, tors, tor
748.-tero-:比较级 Adjectival suffix of comparative , marking con-
749.terp-:取乐 To take pleasure .
151.ters-:山岛干土 To dry . territ, thirst, toast, inter, terr, torr, tars, fum
750.teuə-1:注意转向 To pay attention to , turn . intuit, tuit, tut
152.teuə-2:粗壮鼓胀 To swell . tuber, thumb, thigh, soma, tomb, tum, and
153.teutā-:凸聚部落 Tribe . DUTCH , tot
751.-ti-:抽象名词 suffix forming abstract nouns to Verbal roots .
752.tit-:滴答答 To tickle . titill
753.tkē-:控制权 To gain control of , gain power over . check
154.tkei-:安家落户 To settle , dwell , be home . haunt, ctyon, situ, hom
754.-tlo-:工具格 See -tro- .
155.to-:这那指代 Demonstrative pronoun . though, there, thus, then
755.-to-:完成态? Also -eto- , -oto- .
156.tolkʷ-:吐露说话 To speak . ventri, locut, grand, loqu
157.tong-:感念感谢 To think , feel . think, thank
756.-tor-:施动者 See -ter- .
757.tragʰ-:拖拉机 To draw , drag , move . trail, tract, treat, train, trai, trac, tray
158.treb-:居住村镇 Dwelling . archi, trav, trab
159.trei-:三伞树尖 Three . three, terc, tern, trib, trin, thir, test, tre, tra, tri
758.trem-:嘚转颤抖 To tremble . trem
759.trep-1:嘚转颤抖 To tremble . trepid
160.trep-2:回归转向 To turn . triev, triv, trop
760.tres-:颤抖恐怖 To tremble . ter, terr
161.treud-:戳刺挤进 To squeeze . thrust, threat, trud, trus
761.-tro-:工具拧紧 Variant forms-tlo- , -dʰro- , -dʰlo- .
762.trozdo-:画眉鸟 Thrush . sturd
162.tu-:你们 Second person singular pronoun ; you , thou . thou, thee, th
763.-tu-:抽象? Suffix for ming abstract nouns .
764.twei-:摇动投掷 To agitate , shake , toss . sei
765.twengʰ-:压进去 To press in on .
766.twerk-:切割 To cut . sarc
534.ud-:突兀在外 Up , out . out, utt, us, ut
1201.udero-:鼓肚子宫豚 Abdomen , womb , stomach ; with distantly vesica, hyster, uter
535.uks-en-:牟牛 Bull , ox .
536.uper:更高超过 Over . suprem, sover, super, over, sum
537.upo:在下往上 Under , up from under , over . supin, open, vass, fug, oft, val, ov, up
1202.u(wa)l-:嚎叫woool To howl . howl, owl
1203.wāb-:哭喊尖叫 To cry , scream . weep
1204.wadʰ-1:承诺保证 A pledge ; to pledge . wedd, gage, wed, gag, wag
1205.wadʰ-2:去走 To go . vas, wad, vad
1206.wāg-:分开咬断 To break , split , bite . vagin
1207.wai:唉呀感叹 Alas (interjection) . wail, woe
1208.wak-:奶牛 Cow . vacc
487.wal-:强健有效 To be strong . valesc, valid, vail, valu, val
1209.walso-:一墙之隔 A post . wall, val, myc
488.wap-:坏错恶 Bad , evil . ev
489.we-:我们 We .
490.wē-:风吹呜呼 To blow . weath, wing, wind, vent
491.webʰ-:风吹水波 To weave , also to move quickly . hyph, weav, wob, web, wav
492.wed-1:雨水哗哗 Water ; wet . hydr, wash, unda, wint, ound, und, din, hod, wet, wat, hyd
493.wed-2:说出讲话 To speak . trag, melo, par, com, od
1210.wedʰ-:驱动牵引 To drive , lead .
1211.wedʰə-:推挤 To push , strike . osm
1212.weg-1:编织网站 To weave a web . veal, veil, vel
494.weg-2:威哥强壮 To be strong , be lively . vigil, witch, watch, veloc, vigor, wait, wick, wok, veg, wak
495.wegʰ-:车轮运输 To go , transport in a vehicle . weight, weigh, vehic, weed, vect, ochl, wig, tri, wag, vey, vex, way, voy, veh, vi
1213.wegʷ-:拖泥带水Wet . WAKE 泥水湿润醒夜 , hum
1214.wegʷʰ-:讲道庄重 To preach , speak solemnly . vout, vow, vot
496.wei-1:筋线缠绕 To turn , twist ;; suppleness or binding . iris, viti, wir, in
1215.wei-2:枯萎 To wither枯 . WIZEN
1216.wei-3:罪恶过失 Vice , fault , guilt . viti, vit, vic
497.weid-:轱辘眼看 To see . voyeur, histor, visit, super, prud, idol, guid, idea, view, guis, eido, wis, vey, vid, vis, wit, vi, id, gu
1217.weidʰ-:打开分开 To divide , separate . vis, vid, wid
498.weiə-:逶迤跟随 To go after someting , pursue with vigor , desire , gain, viol, vit
499.weik-1:家园村 Clan (social unit above the household) . ecumen, dioces, bail, vill, vic, eco
1218.weik-2:神圣的 Consecrated , holy .
1219.weik-3:偶像茴香 To be like .
500.weik-4:星期转弯 To bend , wind . victi, guile, week, weak, vic
501.weik-5:征服战胜 To fight , conquer . vanqu, anis, vict, icon, vinc
502.weip-:振动摇摆 To turn , vacillate , tremble ecstatically . whip, vibr, wip
1220.weis-:流动 To flow . virus, visc
1221.weit(ə)-:说话宣判 To speak , adjudge .
503.wekti-:事物生物 Thing , creature . aught, not
504.wekʷ-:哇声说话 To speak . Calli, vouch, voke, voic, vok, vow, voc, ep
1222.wel-1:眼看 To see .
505.wel-2:心愿将要 To wish , will . volunt, vell, weal, will, well, gal, vol, lop
506.wel-3:水源涡流 To turn , roll ;; curved , enclosing objects . helix, vault, volut, helic, volu, walk, vulv, volt, wall, valv, welt, volv, val
1223.wel-4:撕开拉出 To tear , pull . vill, velv, vuls
1224.welə-1:羊毛 Wool . wool, lan
507.welə-2:打击伤害 To strike , wound . vulner
1225.welg-:湿的 Wet . wilt
1226.welt-:荒野 Woods ; wild . vol
508.wemə-:呕吐 To vomit . vomit, eme, wam
509.wen-1:冒险争胜 To desire , strive for . venom, vener, wean, wish, Ven, win
510.wen-2:冒险受伤 To beat , wound . wound
1227.wendʰ-:转缠编织 To turn , wind , weave . wand, vand
1228.weng-:弯曲曲线 To bend , curve . wink
1229.wer-1:虚弱斑点 High raised spot or other bodily infirmity.
511.wer-2:举升鸟飞 To raise , lift , hold suspended . meteor, mini, vari, var, aer, art, air
512.wer-3:宇宙缠绕 Conventional base of various Indo-European roots ; To turn , bend . verber, wrench, weird, worth, warp, peev, verg, vorc, worr, rhap, vert, verm, vers, wrap, wor, wra, wre, wro, wri, br
513.wer-4:察觉转意 To perceive , watch out for . guard, orama, rever, ward, wary, gard, lord, wari, war, pyl
514.wer-5:覆盖遮掩 To cover . cover, warr, oper, aper, warn, garn, gar, ver
1230.wer-6:燃烧 To burn .
1231.wer-7:松鼠 Squirrel .
516.wē-r-:排尿哗哗 Water , liquid , milk . urin
1232.werə-1:宽广 Wide , broad . Eur
1233.werə-2:寻找 To find . heur
515.werə-3:说辞语词 To speak . rhetor, verb, iron, word
517.wērə-o-:真校验 True , trustworthy . simil, veri, ver
518.werg-:做功能量 To do . metall, thaum, organ, work, surg, urg, org, irk, erg
519.wers-1:战乱最坏 To confuse , mix up . guerr, wors, bad, war
1234.wers-2:下雨滴水 To rain , drip . ur
1235.-wer-:古代rw名词 (see -r/-n- ) ,
522.wes-1:转弯诽谤 To buy . vend, ven, vil
1236.wes-2:湿的 Wet .
520.wes-3:住宿是家 To live , dwell , pass the night , with derivatives meaning to be . van, wass , vast
521.wes-4:围裙衣 To clothe . vest, ooze, wear, ooz
1237.wes-5:大吃大喝 To eat , consume .
523.wes-pero-:日落西夜 Evening , night . vesp, west
524.wesr̥:春天复苏 Spring . vern
1238.wesu-:好的 Good .
525.wet-1:风声吹吹 To blow , inspire , spiritually arouse . vatic, wood, atmo, Wedn, van, fan
526.wet-2:年月流转 Year . veter, vitel, weth
527.wi-:分二吹开 Apart , in half . wither, wid
1239.widʰu-:树木 Tree , wood .
529.wīkm̥tī-:二十 Twenty . Compound of wi- , in half , hence two , icos
1240.wīn-o-:葡萄酒 Wine . Italic noun , vini, win, vin, eno
528.wī̆-ro-:男人 Man . virtu, world, vir
1241.wleik-:流动奔跑 To flow , run . liqu, lix
530.wl̥kʷo-:狼声 Wolf . anthrop, wolv, wolf, lup
531.wl̥p-ē-:狐狸狼声 Fox . vulp
1242.-wo-:舞状? Adjective suffix , as in *g 'i - wo- , alive
1243.wogʷʰ-ni-:犁铧楔子 Plowshare , wedge . wedg
1244.wokso-:蜡 Wax .
1245.wopsā-:黄蜂 Wasp . Metathesized form *wospā-
532.wō̆s:你们 You .
533.wrād-:辐枝扎根 Branch , root . radic, rhiz, root, ram, rad
1246.wreg-:打破 To push , shove , drive , track down. wreck, urg
1247.wrēg-:打破 To break .
1248.wrod-:玫瑰 Rose . ros
1249.wrōd-:扎根 To root . gnaw .
1250.wrōg-:发芽勃起 To burgeon , swell with strength . org
1251.wrugʰyo-:黑麦 Rye .
1187.yā-:寻求 To seek , request , desire . jeal, zeal
1188.yag-:敬拜崇敬 To worship ; reverence .
476.yē-:拽曳挤扔 To throw , impel . jactit, heter, ject, eas, jet, jac, jut, ema
477.yeg-:冰 Ice .
1189.yēgʷ-ā-:力量活力Power , youthful strength . Heb
478.yek-1:讲笑话 To speak . juggle, juggl, jocul, pard, jok, joc, jew
1190.yek-2:打猎 To hunt . yacht
1191.yēk-:治愈 To heal .
479.yē̆kwr̥:肝脏性命 Liver .
1192.yem-:配对 To pair . Gemin
480.yēr-:年季时段 Year , season . hour, year, hor
481.yes-:沸腾水泡 To boil , foam , bubble . yeast, ze
482.yeu-:幼年活力 Vital force , youthful vigor . juven, Jun, you
1193.yeudʰ-:猛动战斗 To move violently , fight .
1194.yeuə-:混合食物 To blend , mix food . juic, zym
483.yeug-:约合交接 To join . posit, joint, junct, just, zygo, join, zyg, jug, yok, pos
484.yewes-:约法 Law . conjur, juris, just, jur
485.yewo-:谷物大麦 A grain , probably barley .
1195.-yo-1:现在动词 verbal suffix marking present tense ,
1196.-yo-2:动词分词 Verbal suffix used to form verbs from other parts
1197.-yo-3:从属类别 Relational adjectival suffix , of or belonging to
1198.yoi-ni-:刺柏 Juniper berry.
1199.yōs-:束腰 To gird . zon
1200.-yos-:使役? Adjective suffix of comparative , marking inten-
486.yu-:你们 You .

回目录↑; 001,bak-,背靠强壮 Staff used for support.
Staff used for support.
    1. from Latin baculum, rod, walking stick;
         bacillus 杆菌
         baculum ____
         baguette 小棍子n.法国棍子面包;成长方形的宝石
         bail-4 ____
         bailey 堡场
         baculiform ____
       debacle 拨开横木:n.崩溃;灾害;解冻
       imbecile 笨蛋,弱智
    2. Possibly Latin imbēcillus, imbecillus, feeble, possibly from *in-bacillus , "without a staff (to steady oneself), without support," from bacillus, diminutive of baculum (in‑, not; see ne).
       imbecile 笨蛋,弱智
  1. from Greek baktron, staff.
       bacterium bacteria的单数形式:n.细菌
    corynebacterium ____
[Pokorny bak‑ 93.]

   bacilli n.细菌,杆菌,杆菌( bacillus的名词复数 )
 imbecilic adj.低能的,愚笨的
 imbecility n.愚笨,低能,弱智,愚蠢行为

   peg   n.小钉.v.钉,固定
   pegged v.用夹子或钉子固定( peg的过去式和过去分词 ),使固定在某水平
   bail  n.保释,保证金,保证人 v.保释,舀水

回目录↑; 002,bel-,布尔维克 Strong.
Strong.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *bol-iyo‑. from Russian bol'shoĭ, large.
       Bolshevik 布尔什维克
  2. Prefixed form *dē-bel-i‑, "without strength" (dē‑, privative prefix; see de-). from Latin dēbilis, weak.
     debilitate 使无力
     debility n.衰弱
[Pokorny 2. bel‑ 96.]

 debilitation 医虚弱,无力,乏力

回目录↑; 003,bʰā-1,发光照耀 To shine.
To shine. Oldest form *bheh2, colored to *bhah2, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include beacon, berry, banner, fantasy, and phase.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w‑.
    1. from Old English bēac(e)n, beacon;
         beacon n.信号灯,闪光灯
    2. from Old English bēcnan, bīecnan, to make a sign, beckon, from Germanic denominative *bauknjan;
         beckon v.招手,召唤
    3. from Old French boue, buoy. a-c all from Germanic *baukna‑, beacon, signal.
         buoy  n.(湖,河等中的)浮标,浮筒,救生圈 vt.使浮起,支撑,鼓励
  2. Perhaps Germanic *bazja‑, berry (< "bright-colored fruit").
    1. from Old English berie, berige, berry, and Old High German beri, berry;
         berry n.浆果
      mulberry 桑树,桑葚
    2. from Old French framboise, raspberry, alteration of Frankish *brām-besi, "bramble berry.".
         frambesia ____
    1. from Spanish banda, sash;
         bandoleer ____
    2. from Late Latin bandum, banner, standard. Both a and b from Germanic *bandwa‑, "identifying sign," banner, standard, sash, also "company united under a (particular) banner.".
         banderilla ____
         banderole ____
         banner n.旗(帜)
         banneret ____
         banneret-2 ____
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w-es‑. from Greek phōs (stem phōt‑), light.
       phos-
       phot  ____
       photo- 照相;表示“光;像片”之义
       phosphorus 带来光线的:n.磷,晨星
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w‑. from Greek phaeithein, to shine, burn.
       Phaëthon ____
  5. Extended and suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-n-yo‑. from Greek phainein, "to bring to light," cause to appear, show, and phainesthai (passive), "to be brought to light," appear, with zero-grade noun phasis (*bhə-ti‑), an appearance.
       fantasy n.幻想,空想;空想的产物,幻想作品
       pant  vi.喘,渴望.n.喘息
      -phane
       phantasm 鬼魂,幽灵,幻觉,幻影
       phantom n.幽灵,幻影,虚位adj.幽灵的,幻觉的,有名无实的
       phase n.阶段,状态,时期;相,相位
       pheno- 发光,显示,展现
       phenomenon n.现象,稀有现象,珍品,奇迹,杰出人才
    diaphanous 半透明的
     emphasis n.强调,重点
    epiphany n.主显节
    glaucophane ____
    hierophant 导师,圣职者,解说者
       phaneritic ____
       phanerogam ____
       Phanerozoic ____
       phantasmagoria 幻灯,幻觉效应
       phosphene ____
    sycophant 告密者,诽谤者,谄媚者,拍马者
    theophany 神灵显灵,观世音显灵
    tiffany 丝纱罗;一种薄绸
[Pokorny 1. bhā‑ 104.]

   buoyancy n.浮力,(物体在液体里的)浮性,(从失望、噩耗等中)恢复正常的能力,(价格、营业状况等的)维持力
   buoyant a.有浮力的,轻快的
   buoyantly adv.有浮力地,轻快地
   phosphorous adj.磷的
   fantasist n.幻想曲作曲家
   fantasize v.幻想,想象
   fantastic a.(fantastical)奇异的,幻想的,异想天开的
   fantastical adj.空想的,捕风捉影的
   fantastically adv.空想地,捕风捉影地
   pants n.裤子,短裤
underpants 内衣裤
   phased adj.定相的
   phasing n.定相,相位调整,变相
   phenomena n. 现象
de-emphasize v.不再强调,不再重视
 emphasize v.(emphasise)强调
   phantasmagoric adj.幻影似的,变幻不定的
   phantasmagorical adj.变化无常的;梦幻般的
sycophancy n.拍马屁,奉承,谄媚,吮痈舐痔
sycophantic adj.说奉承话的

   fancied adj.空想的;虚构的;受喜爱的
   fancier n.爱好者;空想家
   fanciful adj.想像的;稀奇的
   fancifully adv.富于幻想地,梦想地
   fancy n.爱好,迷恋v.想象,幻想a.花式的,奇特的
 emphatic adj.着重的;加强语气的;显著的
 emphatically adv.强调地,断然地,明显地
   razz  嘲笑,戏弄

回目录↑; 004,bʰā-2,发声说话 To speak.
To speak. Oldest form *bheh2, colored to *bhah2, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include fate, infant, prophet, abandon, banish, symphony, confess, and blame.
  1. from Latin fārī, to speak.
       fable n.寓言
       fabliau ____
       fabulous adj.难以置信的,荒诞不经的,极好的
       fado  n.法多(葡萄牙民谣)
       fairy a.幻想中的;虚构的;优雅的n.仙女;精灵
       fandango 凡丹戈舞(节奏欢快的西班牙舞蹈)
       fat n.命运
       fay-2 ____
     affable 可以与其说话的adj.和蔼的,友善的
       fantoccini ____
    ineffable 难以言喻的
     infant n.婴儿,幼儿
     infantry 年轻王子所率领的部队:n.步兵。古代欧洲王子年青时常被送至军营锻炼。在西班牙语中王子被称为infante,王子所
    preface n.序言,引言,前言v.作序,写前言
  2. from Greek phanai, to speak.
      -phasia
    apophasis 以求婉达
    prophet 提前说:n.先知;预言者;提倡者
    1. from Old English bannan, to summon, proclaim, and Old Norse banna, to prohibit, curse;
         ban   v.取缔,查禁;(from)禁止n.禁止,禁令
    2. from Old French ban, feudal jurisdiction, summons to military service, proclamation, Old French bandon, power, and Old English gebann, proclamation;
         banal 公告的:adj.陈腐的,中庸的。ban的形容词,本意是“公告的”,如banalright表示发布公告的权利,即管
         banns 结婚通告
        abandon vt.离弃,丢弃;遗弃,抛弃;放弃
    3. from Old French banir, to banish;
         banish vt.放逐。国王发布公告宣布剥夺某人公民权利,使其不受法律保护,人人可杀之,故只能远走他乡,相当于中国的放逐
    4. from Late Latin bannus, bannum, proclamation;
      contraband 禁运品
    5. from Italian bandire, to proclaim, proscribe, banish. a-e all from Germanic suffixed form *ban-wan, *bannan, to speak publicly (used of particular kinds of proclamation in feudal or prefeudal custom; "to proclaim under penalty, summon to the levy, declare outlaw").
         bandit 被放逐者:n.强盗,法外之徒
  3. Suffixed form *bhā-ni‑.
    1. from Old Norse bōn, prayer, request;
         boon  n.恩惠,福利
    2. perhaps from Old English bēn, prayer, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bōn, prayer. Both a and b from Germanic *bōni‑.
         bee   n.蜂,蜜蜂;忙碌的人
  4. Suffixed form *bhā-ma.
    1. from Latin fāma, talk, reputation, fame;
         fam n.名声;名望;传说vt使出名;传扬…的名
         famous a.著名的
       defame 诽谤
       infamous adj.声名狼藉的;无耻的;邪恶的;不名誉的
    2. from Greek phēmē, saying, speech.
       euphemism n.委婉语;委婉说法
      Polyphemus ____
  5. Suffixed o-grade form *bhō-nā‑. from Greek phōnē, voice, sound, and (denominative) phōnein, to speak.
       phone-2 ____
      -phone
       phoneme 音素
       phonetic adj.语音的
       phono- 声音
      -phony
       anthem n.圣歌,赞美诗
    antiphon ____
      aphonia ____
    cacophonous adj.发音不和谐的,粗腔横调的
     euphony 悦耳之音;谐音
    symphony n.交响乐
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-to‑. from Latin fatērī, to acknowledge, admit.
    confess v.供认,承认,坦白,忏悔
    profess 上前宣称:v.公开宣称,自称,宣称信奉,当教授
  7. from Greek blasphēmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ml̥s-bhā-mo‑, "speaking evil" (blas‑, evil; see mel- 3).
       blame v.责备;怪,把…归咎于n.责任,过错;责备
    blaspheme 亵渎神灵
[Pokorny 2. bhā‑ 105.]

   fabulist n.寓言家,说谎者
   fated adj.命运已定的,宿命的,受命运支配的
   fateful a.重大的,命中注定的
ill-fated adj.走恶运的,注定要遭受罚的
 affability n.和蔼,亲切
 affably adv.殷勤地
 infancy n.初期;婴儿期;幼年
prophecy n.预言;预言书;预言能力
prophetic adj.预言的,预示的;先知的
prophetically 预言性地
   ban =banns.;名词ban的复数形式.;结婚预告 n. 结婚预告
   banality n.平常,乏味
  abandoned adj.被抛弃的,自甘堕落的,没有约束的,放荡的
  abandonment n.放弃
   banishment n.放逐,驱逐
 defamation n.诽谤,中伤
 defamatory adj.诽谤的,中伤的
 infamy 臭名昭著
 euphemistic adj.委婉的
 euphemistically adv.委婉的
   phonemic adj.音素的,音位的
   phone n.电话,耳机,听筒v.打电话
   phonetically adv.按照发音地,语音学上
   phonetics 语音学
   phonic adj.声音的,有声的,声学的
 euphonious 好听的
symphonic adj.交响乐的
confession n.忏悔,告解;供认
confessional adj.自白的,忏悔的 n.(教堂中神甫听取忏悔的)忏悔室
confessor n.自白者,为信教而被迫害的教徒
self-confessed adj.自认的,自供的
professed adj.公开声称的,伪称的,已立誓信教的 v.声称( profess的过去式和过去分词 ),宣称,公开表明,信奉
profession n.职业,专业,表白,宣布
professional a.职业的,专门的n.自由职业者,专业人员
professionalism n.职业水准或特性,职业化
professionalization 职业化,专业化
professionalize 使职业化,使专业化
   blamed adj.该死的,混蛋的 v.指责,责怪,归咎于( blame的过去式和过去分词 )
   blameless adj.无罪的,无可指责的,清白的,无可非议,无可责难
   blameworthy adj.该受指责的, (对坏事)负有责任的

prophesy v.预言;预告;预报;传教
professor n.教授
professorial adj.教授的,学者派头的
professorship n.教授职位
  aphasia 失语症
  aphasic n. &adj.患失语症者失语症的
   fatal a.致命的,毁灭性的
   fatalism 宿命论
   fatalist n.宿命论者
   fatalistic adj.宿命论的
   fatality n.命运决定的事物,不幸,灾祸,天命
   fatally adv.致命地,不幸地,宿命地,命中注定地
 infantile 婴儿的,幼稚的
   fib   小谎
homophony n.同音异义,同音歌唱,同音,主调
blasphemous adj.亵渎上帝的,亵渎宗教信仰的
blasphemy 说有害的话:n.亵渎神明;轻视上帝或神祗

回目录↑; 005,bʰa-bʰā-,豆豆 Broad bean.
Broad bean.
  1. from Latin faba, broad bean.
    fava bean ____
       favela 棚户区
  2. Variant form *bha-un‑. from Old English bēan, broad bean, bean of any kind, from Germanic *baunō.
       bean  n.豆;菜豆,蚕豆
  3. Possible suffixed form *bha-ko‑. from Greek phakos, lentil.
       phacoemulsification ____
  4. Variant form *bha-bho‑. from a Slavic source akin to Polish bób and Russian bob, lentil.
       bupkis ____
[Pokorny bhabhā 106.]


回目录↑; 006,bʰad-,更好 Good.
Good.
  1. from Old English betera, better, from Germanic (comparative) *batizō.
       better a.较好的ad.更好(地)v.改良n.较佳者
  2. from Old English bet(e)st, best, from Germanic (superlative) *batistaz.
       best  a.最好的(good和well最高级)ad.最好地;最
  3. from Old English bōt, remedy, aid, from Germanic noun *bōtō.
       boot-2 ____
  4. ultimately from Old Norse batna, to improve, from Germanic verb *batnan, to become better.
       batten n.板条,压条 vt.用板条或压条固定,(损人利己地)养肥自己
[Pokorny bhā̆d‑ 106.]

   betterment n.改好,改良,改进
   goodness n.善良,仁慈;(食物等)精华int.天哪

   boot  n.靴;(汽车后部的)行李箱;[the-]解雇
   booted adj.穿靴的
   boots n. 擦靴子的人;长筒靴;厚底短筒靴
   goodly adj.优秀的,优美的
   bet   v.赌,打赌n.打赌,赌注
   betting n.打赌
   bettor n.打赌者

回目录↑; 007,bʰag-,分享分食 To share out, apportion, also to get a share.
To share out, apportion, also to get a share.
  1. from Greek phagein, to eat (< "to have a share of food").
      -phage
      -phagia
       phago-
      -phagous
    esophagus n.食道
  2. from Greek phagros, whetstone ("eater, that eats metal"), also a name for the sea bream, from Greek suffixed form *phag-ro‑.
       porgy ____
  3. from a Slavic source akin to Czech neboh, poor, unfortunate, from Common Slavic *ne-bogŭ, poor ("un-endowed").
       nebbish 胆小鬼
  4. from Sanskrit bhagaḥ, good fortune.
       pagoda 佛塔
       Bhagavad-Gita ____
  5. from Sanskrit bhajati, he apportions.
       bhakti ____
  6. Extended form *bhags‑. from Persian bakhshīdan, to give, from Avestan bakhsh‑.
       baksheesh 施舍,小费
       buckshee ____
[Pokorny 1. bhag‑ 107.]

esophageal adj.食道的,食管的

回目录↑; 008,bʰāgʰu-,手臂树枝 Arm.
Arm. Oldest form *bhāg̑hu‑, becoming *bhāghu‑ in centum languages.

   bough n.大树枝,主枝 from Old English bōg, bōh, bough, from Germanic *bōguz.
[Pokorny bhāghú-s (misprint for bhāg̑hú-s ) 108.]


回目录↑; 009,bʰāgo-,榉树发散 Beech tree.
Beech tree.
    1. from Old English bōc, written document, composition;
         book  n.书,书籍vt.订(票,座位,房间等),预定
    2. from Middle Dutch boek, beech;
         buckwheat 荞麦
    3. from Norwegian bok, book. a-c all from Germanic *bōkō, beech, also "beech staff for carving runes on" (an early Germanic writing device).
         Bokmål ____
  1. from Old English bēce, beech, from Germanic *bōkjōn‑.
       beech n.山毛榉树或其木材
[Pokorny bhāgó-s 107.]

   booked v.预订( book的过去式和过去分词 ),登记,(向旅馆、饭店、戏院等)预约,立案(控告某人)
   booking n.登记,预约
   bookish adj.书本上的,好学的,书呆子
   booklet n.小册子

回目录↑; 010,bʰardʰ-ā-,胡须发散 Beard.
Beard.
  1. from Old English beard, beard, from Germanic *bardaz.
       beard n.胡须
  2. from Old High German barta, beard, ax, from Germanic *bardō, beard, also hatchet, broadax.
    halberd
  3. from Latin barba, beard.
       barb  n.鱼钩.vt.装倒钩于
       barbel ____
       barbellate ____
       barber n.理发师vt.为…理发修整vi.当理发师
       barbette ____
       barbicel ____
       barbule 鸟之小羽枝
       barbut ____
       bichon ____
     rebarbative 厌恶的
[Pokorny bhardhā 110.]

   bearded adj.(男子)有胡须的,(植物)有芒的,(鱼钩等)有倒刺的,(编结针等)有钩的
   beardless adj.无须的,年轻的,无芒的
   barbed adj.有刺的,具侧刺毛的,(话语)尖刻的,尖锐的,讽刺的

回目录↑; 011,bʰars-2(bʰares-),大麦芒须 Barley.
Also bhars-.
Barley.
    1. from Old English bere, barley, from Germanic *bariz‑;
         barn  n.谷仓,仓库vt.把…贮存入仓
    2. from Old English bærlic, barley-like, barley, from Germanic *barz‑.
         barley n.大麦
  1. from Latin far (stem farr‑), spelt, grain.
       farina ____
       farinaceous ____
       farraginous ____
       farrago 大杂烩
       farro ____
[Pokorny bhares‑ 111.]


回目录↑; 012,bʰau-,棒梆敲打 To strike.
To strike. Oldest form *bheh2u‑, colored to *bhah2u‑, becoming *bhau‑.
Derivatives include beat, buttock, halibut, button, and refute.
  1. from Old English bēatan, to beat, from Germanic *bautan.
       beat  n.敲打;(心脏等)跳动v.打败;(心脏等)跳动
  2. from Old English bȳtl, hammer, mallet, from Germanic *bautilaz, hammer.
       beetle-3 ____
       battledore ____
  3. probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse beysta, to beat, denominative from Germanic *baut-sti‑.
       baste-3 ____
  4. from Old English diminutive buttuc, end, strip of land, from Germanic *būtaz.
       buttock 屁股
    1. from Middle Dutch butte, flatfish;
      halibut n.大比目鱼
    2. from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish but, flatfish. Both a and b from Germanic *butt‑, name for a flatfish.
         turbot 大菱鲆
  5. from Old French bo(u)ter, to strike, push, from Germanic *buttan.
       bouton 棒头
       butt  n.粗大的一端,靶垛,笑柄 v.以头抵撞,碰撞
       button n.纽扣,按钮(开关)v.扣紧;扣上纽扣
       buttress n.(建筑)扶壁,支持物 vt.支持,(以扶壁)扶住
      abut  v.邻接,毗邻
     rebut  v.反驳
    sackbut ____
  6. Variant zero-grade form *bhū‑ (< *bhuə‑, metathesized from *bhəu‑). Suffixed form *bhū-t-ā‑.
    1. from Latin cōnfūtāre, to check, suppress, restrain (com‑, intensive prefix; see kom );
      confute 驳倒
    2. from Latin refūtāre, to drive back, rebut (re‑, back; see re- ).
       refute 打回去:vt.反驳,驳斥;驳倒
  7. Possibly reduced suffixed form *bhu-tu‑ (*bhəu‑) from Latin futuere, to have intercourse with (a woman).
       footle 闲混
       clafoutis ____
[Pokorny 1. bhā̆u‑ 112.]

   beatable adj.可以战胜的;能被打败的
   beaten adj.被打败的,锤薄的,耗损的,常走的,筋疲力尽的 v.(心脏等)跳动( beat的过去分词),击打,(风、雨等)吹打
   beater n.搅拌器,敲打者
   beating v.挫败 n.打,敲打
 unbeatable adj.打不垮的,不可摧毁的
 unbeaten adj.未被打过的
 unbutton vt.解开...的钮扣 vi.解开钮扣
 unbuttoned adj.解开钮扣的,无拘束的 v.解开(纽扣)( unbutton的过去式和过去分词 ),打开,表露,吐露
  abutment n.邻接,桥礅,桥基,扶垛,对接,接界
 rebuttal n.举反例,反驳,抗辩
irrefutable 无可辩驳的
irrefutably 不能反驳的;不能回答的;不可否认的
 refutation n.驳斥

   baste vt.粗缝,润以油脂,(在烤肉上)涂油,狠揍,大骂
   basting n.疏缝,疏缝的针脚,疏缝用线,涂油 v.打( baste的现在分词 ),粗缝,痛斥,(烤肉等时)往上抹浇油

回目录↑; 013,bʰegʷ-,逃跑害怕 To run.
To run.
  1. from Old Norse bekkr, a stream, from Germanic *bakjaz, a stream.
       beck-2 ____
  2. from Greek phobos, panic, flight, fear, from phebesthai, to flee in terror.
       -phobe
       -phobia 恐怖
[Pokorny bheg 116.]


   beck  小溪,召唤
   homophobe n.憎恶同性恋的人
   homophobia n.对同性恋的憎恶(或恐惧)
   homophobic adj.害怕同性恋的
   phobia n.恐惧症
   phobic 恐惧症患者

回目录↑; 014,bʰei-,蜜蜂蜇 A bee.
A bee.

   bee   n.蜂,蜜蜂;忙碌的人 from Old English bēo, a bee, from Germanic suffixed form *bīōn‑.
[Pokorny bhei‑ 116.]


回目录↑; 015,bʰeid-,虫咬打孔 To split ;
To split; with Germanic derivatives referring to biting (hence also to eating and to hunting) and woodworking.
Derivatives include bite, bitter, and fission.
    1. from Old English bītan, to bite;
         beetle n.甲虫
         bit v./n.咬,叮n.一口
    2. from Old High German bīzan, bizzan, to bite. Both a and b from Germanic *bītan.
         tsimmes ____
  1. Zero-grade form *bhid‑.
    1. from Old English bite, a bite, sting, from Germanic *bitiz;
         bit-2 ____
      1. from Old English bita, a piece bitten off, morsel;
           bit   n.一点,一些;小块,少量;片刻;[计]位,比特
      2. from a Germanic source akin to Old Norse biti, bit, crossbeam;
           bitt  ____
      3. from Italian pizza, pizza, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German bizzo, pizzo, bite, morsel. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *bitōn‑;
           pizza n.比萨饼(一种涂有乳酪核番茄酱的意大利式有馅烘饼)
      4. from Medieval Greek pita, perhaps from Gothic *bita, bite, morsel. (i)-(iv) all from Germanic *bitōn‑.
           pita  n.(希腊和中东地区的)皮塔饼
    2. suffixed form *bhid-ro‑. from Old English bit(t)er, "biting," sharp, bitter.
         bitter a.(有)苦(味)的;痛苦的,厉害的
  2. O-grade form *bhoid‑.
    1. from Old Norse beita (verb), to hunt with dogs, and beita (noun), pasture, food;
         bait  n.饵,诱惑物 vt.以饵引诱(动物),把饵装上,欺负,折磨 vi.中途休息
    2. from Old French beter, to harass with dogs. Both a and b from Germanic *baitjan.
        abet  唆使去咬:vt.教唆,煽动,支持
  3. from Old French gibiez, game, from Germanic *gabaiti‑ (*ga‑, collective prefix; see kom ).
       giblets 禽类的内脏
  4. from Old English bāt, boat, from Germanic *bait‑, a boat (< "dugout canoe" or "split planking").
       bateau n.(尤指加拿大的一种)平底船,轻舟
       boat  n.小船,艇
       boatswain 水手长
  5. Nasalized zero-grade form *bhi-n-d‑. from Latin findere, to split.
       -fid 
       fissi-
       fissile 易裂变的
       fission 裂变
       fissure n.裂缝,裂沟v.裂开,分裂
       vent-2 ____
[Pokorny bheid‑ 116.]

   biter n.咬人的动物,骗子
   biting adj.刺痛的,尖锐的
   bitingly adv.如刺地,刺痛地
   bitten vbl.咬
overbite 牙齿咬合
   bitty adj.片断的,细短的,支离破碎的
   bitterly adv.苦苦地,悲痛的,厉害的
   bitterness n.苦味,辛酸
   giblet n.(禽类的)内脏杂碎,横隔膜肌肉部分,鸡什
   boater n.乘船者,硬草帽
   boating n.划船
   fissionable n.可裂变物质 adj.可引起核分裂的,可分裂的

回目录↑; 016,bʰeidʰ-,坚钉信赖 To trust, confide, persuade.
To trust, confide, persuade.
Derivatives include bide, fiancé, and infidel.
  1. Probably Germanic *bīdan, to await (< "to await trustingly, expect, trust") from Old English bīdan, to wait, stay.
      abide v.忍受,持续,停留,遵守
       abode 住所,家
  2. from Latin fīdere, to trust, confide, and fīdus, faithful.
       fiiancé ____
       fiducial 根据信仰的;信托的;基准的
       fiduciary v.基于信用的,信托的,受信托的 n.被信托者,受托人
     affiance ____
     affiant ____
     affidavit 宣誓后陈述如下:n.宣誓书,宣誓后的声明。西方古人重视誓言,证人在公证人前宣誓后提供的证词可作为重要的法律证据。这种文
    confidant n.知己,密友
    confide vt.透露(秘密),委托vi.透露秘密,信赖
    confident n.(of,in)确信的,自信的
       defiance n.蔑视;挑战;反抗
     defy   v.(公然)违抗,反抗;蔑视
    diffident 缺乏自信的
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *bhoidh-es‑. from Latin foedus (stem foeder‑), treaty, league.
       federal a.联邦的;联邦制的;联合的;同盟的
       federate vt.& vi.(使)结成联邦
    confederate 同谋
  4. Zero-grade form *bhidh‑. from Latin fidēs, faith, trust.
       faith n.信任,信用;信仰,信条
       fay-3 ____
       fealty 宣誓效忠
       fideism ____
       fidelity n.忠诚,忠实,保真度
     infidel 无信仰的:adj.异教徒的,无宗教信仰的n.异教徒
    perfidy 背叛,不忠
[Pokorny 1. bheidh‑ 117.]

  abiding adj.持久的,永久的;不变的
   fiance n.未婚夫
confidence n.(in)信任;信心,自信;秘密,机密
confidential adj.机密的,表示信任的,获得信任的
confidentiality n.机密性
confidentially adv.秘密地,亲密地,十分信任地
self-confidence n.自信,自信心
self-confident adj.自信的,自持的
   defiant adj.挑衅的;目中无人的,蔑视的;挑战的
diffidence n.缺乏自信
   federalism n.联邦制;联邦主义
   federalization n.联邦化,同盟化
   federalize vt.使成联邦,使同盟
   federally adv.同盟地,联邦地,联邦政府地,在联邦政府一级
   federation 联合;联邦;联盟;联邦政府
confederacy 同盟
confederation n.联邦
   faithful a.守信的,忠实的,如实的,可靠的
   faithfully adv.忠诚地,如实地,切实遵守地
   faithfulness n.忠诚,正确,诚实,忠忱,忠心
   faithless adj.<正>不忠实的,不守信用的,背信弃义的
   faithlessness n.不贞,无信仰,不可信赖,无信用
interfaith adj.不同宗教信仰者(间)的,不同宗教团体(间)的
 unfaithful adj.不诚实的,不忠实的,不准确的
 infidelity n.无信仰,不信神;背信
perfidious 背叛的,不忠的

回目录↑; 017,bʰel-1,发光闪亮 To shine, flash, burn ; shining white and various bright colors.
To shine, flash, burn; shining white and various bright colors.
Derivatives include blue, bleach, blind, blond, blanket, black, flagrant, and flame.
  1. Suffixed full-grade form *bhel-o‑.
      1. from Russian belyĭ, white;
           beluga 白鲟鱼
      2. from Scottish Gaelic bealltainn, from Old Irish beltaine, "fire of Bel" (ten, tene, fire), from Bel, name of a pagan Irish deity akin to the Gaulish divine name Belenos, from Celtic *bel-o‑.
           Beltane ____
    1. from Greek phalaros, having a white spot.
         phalarope n.矶鹞之类
    2. from Greek phallaina, moth (< *"white creature").
         phalaenopsis ____
  2. Extended root *bhleə1, contracted to *bhlē‑.
    1. Suffixed form *bhlē-wo‑. from Old French bleu, blue, from Germanic *blēwaz, blue.
         blu a.蓝色的;青灰色的;沮丧的,阴郁的n.蓝色
    2. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhl̥ə-wo‑. from Latin flāvus, golden or reddish yellow.
         flavescent ____
         flavo-
         flavin ____
         flavone ____
         flavoprotein ____
  3. Various extended Germanic forms.
    1. from Old English blǣcan, to bleach, from Germanic *blaikjan, to make white.
         bleach v.漂白,变白
    2. from Old Norse bleikr, shining, white, from Germanic *blaikaz, shining, white.
         bleak a.寒冷的,荒凉的,黯淡的
    3. from Old High German blëcchazzen, to flash, lighten, from Germanic *blikkatjan.
         blitzkrieg 闪电站
      1. from Old English blæse, torch, bright fire;
           blaze n.火焰.vi.照耀,激发,燃烧
      2. from Middle Dutch bles, white spot;
           blesbok ____
      3. from Old French ble(s)mir, to make pale. a-c all from Germanic *blas‑, shining, white.
           blemish n.污点,缺点,瑕疵 vt.弄脏,玷污,损害
      1. from Old English blind, blind;
           blind a.盲的,瞎的;盲目的vt.使失明n.百叶窗
           blindfold n,眼罩,障眼物; vt.将...眼睛蒙起来,蒙骗 adj.看不清的,盲目的
        purblind 半盲的;愚钝的;视力不佳的
      2. from Old High German blentan, to blind, deceive;
           blende ____
      3. from Old Norse blanda, to mix;
           blend n.混合(物)v.混和,混杂
      4. from Old French blond, blond. a-d all from Germanic *blendaz, clouded, and *bland‑, *bland-ja‑, to mix, mingle (< "make cloudy").
           blond adj.亚麻色的,金色的,浅色的,白肤金发碧眼的 n.肤色白皙的金发女人,白肤金发碧眼人
      1. from Old English blencan, to deceive;
           blench 惊悸
      2. from Old French blanc, white. Both a and b from Germanic *blenk‑, *blank‑, to shine, dazzle, blind.
           blanch v.漂白,使变白,遮断阳光 发白
           blank a.空白的,空着的;失色的n.空白;表格
           blanket n.毯子(可数);厚厚一层(可数)vt.铺上一层
           blancmange 果味牛奶冻
           Pinot Blanc ____
    4. from Old English blyscan, to glow red, from Germanic *blisk‑, to shine, burn.
         blush vi.脸红,惭愧,变红,害臊,怕羞 n.脸红,红色,<古>一见,一瞥
  4. Extended root *bhleg‑, to shine, flash, burn.
    1. O-grade form bhlog‑. from Old English blæc, black, from Germanic *blakaz, burned.
         black a.黑(色)的;黑暗的n.黑(色);黑暗;黑人
    2. Zero-grade form *bhl̥g‑.
      1. from Latin fulgēre, to flash, shine, and fulgur, lightning;
           fulgent 光辉的,灿烂的
           fulgurate ____
         effulgent 灿烂的
           foudroyant ____
         refulgent 灿烂的
      2. from Latin fulmen (< *fulg-men), lightning, thunderbolt.
           fulminate 愤怒谴责
      1. from Latin flagrāre, to blaze;
           flagrant 正在发光的:adj.公然的,明目张胆的,臭名昭著的
        conflagrant 速燃的
        conflagration 大火
         deflagrate 爆燃;突然燃烧
      2. from Latin flamma (< *flag-ma), a flame.
           chamise ____
           flammbé ____
           flambeau ____
           flamboyant 正在燃烧的:adj.艳丽的;火焰似的;炫耀的n.凤凰木
           flame n.火焰,火苗;热情;光辉v.发火焰,燃烧
           flamingo ①弗拉门科舞(一种节奏明快的西班牙舞蹈)②火烈鸟
           flammable adj.易燃的,可燃的n.易燃物
         inflame 在火焰中:v.(使)燃烧,激怒,(使)发炎,等于enflame
    3. from Greek phlegein, to burn.
         phlegm 痰,冷淡,迟钝,冷静,镇定
         phlegmatic 冷淡的,迟钝的,冷静的,镇定的
         Phlegethon ____
    4. O-grade form *bhlog‑. from Greek phlox, a flame, also a wallflower.
         phlogiston n.(旧时人们人们认为存在于可燃物中的)燃素,热素
         phlox 福禄考(高大开花植物)
         phlogopite ____
[Pokorny 1. bhel‑ 118,bheleg‑ 124,bhleu-(k)‑ 159.]

   blueness n.蓝色,蓝,青
   blues n.抑郁,沮丧,忧郁布鲁斯歌曲(蓝调音乐)
   bluish a.带蓝色的
   bleached adj.漂白的,晒白的,颜色变浅的 v.使(颜色)变淡,变白,漂白( bleach的过去式和过去分词 )
   bleakness 缺少颜色、缺少植被、缺少友爱的性质和状态
   blazing adj.炽烧的,闪耀的,强烈的
   blinded blind(使变瞎;使失明)的过去式及过去分词
   blinding adj.使眩目的,使失去判断力的 n.碎石子
   blindingly 很;极其
   blindly adv.盲目地,摸索地
   blindness n.失明,盲目,无知,轻率
   blender n.掺和器,搅拌机
   blending n.混和,混成,混和物 v.(使)混合( blend的现在分词 ),(使)混杂,(使)调和,协调
   blankly adv.茫然地,完全地
   blankness n.空白,单调,空虚
   blusher 胭脂
   blushing n.红色的,雾浊 v.脸红( blush的现在分词 )
   blackish adj.带黑色的
   blackly adv.黑暗,抑郁地
   blackness n.黑色,黑人民族性,阴郁,邪恶
 effulgence n.光辉
   fulmination n.严词谴责,爆发
   flagrantly adv.罪恶昭彰地,千真万确地,极恶地,悍然,横加
   flamboyance n.火红,艳丽,炫耀
   flamboyantly adv.艳丽地、奢华地、绚丽地。
anti-inflammatory adj.& n.抗炎的(药)
   flaming adj.燃烧的;火红的;激昂的
 inflammation n.炎症,发炎,燃烧,发火
 inflammatory adj.煽动性的
   flammability n.易燃,可燃性
 inflammable 易燃的,易激怒的

   blonde n.白肤金发碧眼女人 adj.(头发)亚麻色的,金色的,白皙的,白肤金发碧眼的
   blitz n.[军]闪电战 vt.以闪电战攻击
   blacken v.使变黑,诽谤
   blackened adj.(食品)涂上辣椒粉和调味品后油炸的,熏制的 v.(使)变黑,把…弄黑( blacken的过去式和过去分词 ),发暗,败
   blackening v.变黑,致黑,(使)变黑,把…弄黑( blacken的现在分词 ),发暗,败坏(名誉等),诋毁
   blink v.|n.眨眼,闪烁,对..视而不见
   blinker 马眼罩
   blinkered 目光狭窄的
   blinking adj.闪光的,一眨眼的
 unblinking adj.不眨眼的,坚定的,不动摇的

回目录↑; 018,bʰel-2,吹鼓气球 To blow, swell ;
To blow, swell; with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity.
Derivatives include boulevard, boulder, phallus, balloon, ballot, and fool.
  1. Zero-grade form bhl̥‑.
    1. from Old English bolla, pot, bowl;
         bowl  n.碗(状物),钵
    2. from Old Norse bolr, tree trunk;
         bole  树干
    3. from Old Norse bulki, cargo (< "rolled-up load");
         bulk  n.体积,容积;主体,大批,大量,大块
    4. from Old High German bolla, ball;
         rocambole ____
    5. from Middle High German bole, beam, plank;
         boulevard n.<美>林荫大道
         bulwark n.壁垒,防波堤
    6. from Middle Dutch bolle, round object;
         boll  棉铃
    7. from Middle Dutch bille, buttock;
         biltong ____
    8. from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish bullersten, "rounded stone," boulder, from *buller‑, "round object." a-h all from Germanic *bul‑.
         boulder n.大石头
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhl̥-n‑.
    1. from Old Norse boli, bull, from Germanic *bullōn‑;
         bull  n.公牛
    2. from Old English bulluc, bull, from Germanic *bulluka‑;
         bullock 阉牛;小公牛
    3. from Greek phallos, phallus;
         phallus 阴茎
      ithyphallic ____
    4. possibly Latin fullō, a fuller
         full-2 ____
         refoulement ____
  3. O-grade form *bhol‑.
    1. from Old English beallucas, testicles;
         bollock vt.臭骂
         bollix ____
    2. from Old English *beall, ball;
         ball  n.球(状物);(正式的)舞会vt.把…捏成球状
    3. from Old High German bal, ball;
      foosball n.桌上足球
    4. probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Danish bolle round roll
         bilberry n.越橘
    5. from Italian dialectal balla, ball;
         balloon n.气球,飞船;a.气球状的v.乘坐气球;膨胀
         ballot 小球:n.选票。源于古希腊人用来投票的黑白两色小球
         ballottement ____
    6. from Italian palla, ball;
         pall-mall ____
    7. from Old French bale, rolled-up bundle. a-g all from Germanic *ball‑.
         bal 大球:n.大包,捆v.打包
  4. Possibly suffixed o-grade form *bhol-to‑.
    1. from Old English bald, beald, bold;
         bold  a.大胆的,勇敢的;冒失的;黑体的,粗体的
    2. from Old Saxon bald, bold;
         bawd  鸨母
    3. from Old Norse ballr, baldr, brave. a-c from Germanic *balthaz, bold.
         Balder ____
  5. Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-n‑. from Latin follis, bellows, inflated ball.
       fils-2 ____
       follicle 行囊,卵泡
       folly n.愚蠢,荒唐事
       fool  n.傻子,笨蛋vt.欺骗,愚弄vi.干蠢事
  6. Possibly Greek phal(l)aina, whale
       baleen n.鲸须
  7. Conceivably from this root (but more likely unrelated) is Greek phellos, cork, cork oak
       phellem ____
       phelloderm ____
       phellogen ____
[Pokorny 3. bhel‑ 120.]
The following derivatives of this root are entered separately: bhel-3, bhelgh-, bhleu-.

   bowler n.玩滚球的人,玩球戏的人,(板球的)投手
   bowling n.保龄球
   bulky adj.大的,容量大的,体积大的
   bullish adj.似公牛的,看涨的,上扬的
   bollocks 胡说
   ballooning n.气球操纵,乘气球,鼓胀
   balloonist n.气球驾驶者
   boldly adv.大胆地,显眼地,冒
   boldness n.大胆,冒失,勇敢,魄力
   bawdy adj.低级下流的 n.粗话,下流作品
   follicular adj.小囊的,卵泡的,滤泡的
   foolish a.愚笨的,愚蠢的
   foolishness n.愚蠢,愚笨

   bulldoze v.威吓,欺负,(用推土机)推平某物
   bulldozer n.推土机,恐吓者,欺凌者
   bal adj.光秃的,单调的,枯燥的
   balding adj.成为秃头的
   baldly adv.坦率地
   baldness n.光秃,枯燥,率直,无芒性,秃发,秃病
   foolhardy 莽撞的
tomfoolery 愚蠢行为

回目录↑; 019,bʰel-3,花开茂盛 To thrive, bloom.
To thrive, bloom. Possibly from bhel-2.
Derivatives include foliage, blossom, flora, bleed, bless, and blade.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-yo‑, leaf.
    1. from Latin folium, leaf.
         foil-2 ____
         foliage n.植物;叶子(总称)
         folio 对开本,一页
         folium ____
      cinquefoil n.洋莓属的一种,五叶形的装饰,梅花形,五指草,五瓣饰
       defoliate v.(使)落叶
       exfoliate 使叶片剥落,使死皮剥落
         feuilleton ____
      milfoil n.耆草属植物,西洋耆草
      perfoliate ____
      portfolio 携带纸张(的东西):n.公文包,文件夹,证券投资组合,部长职务
      trefoil 三叶植物,三叶形装饰图案
    2. from Greek phullon, leaf.
         -phyll
         phyllo- 叶子
         -phyllous
         anthophyllite ____
         chervil 细叶芹
      gillyflower ____
         podophyllin ____
  2. Extended form *bhlē‑ (< *bhleə‑).
    1. O-grade form *bhlō‑.
      1. Suffixed form *bhlō-w‑. from Old English blōwan, to flower, from Germanic *blō-w‑;
           blow-3 ____
        1. from Old Norse blōm, blōmi, flower, blossom;
             bloom n.花(朵);开花(期)v.开花
        2. from Old English blōma, a hammered ingot of iron (semantic development obscure). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic suffixed form *blō-mōn‑.
             bloom-2 ____
      2. from Old English blōstm, blōstma, flower, blossom, from Germanic suffixed form *blō-s‑;
           blossom n.花(簇);花期;青春vi.开花;展开;繁荣
      3. from Latin flōs (stem flōr‑), flower, from Italic suffixed form *flō-s‑;
           ferret-2 ____
           flora n.植物群,植物区系,芙罗拉(古罗马神话中的花神)
           Flora ____
           floral a.花的,像花的
           floret 花部
           floriated ____
           florid 红润的
           florin 弗罗林(英国旧时两先令的硬币)
           florist n.花商,种花人
          -florous
           flour n.面粉
           flourish n./v.繁荣,茂盛,兴旺
           flower n.花;精华,精粹,精英;盛时vi.开花
        cauliflower n.[植]花椰菜
         deflower 夺去贞操
         effloresce ____
           enfleurage ____
           florigen ____
           millefiori glass ____
           millefleur ____
      4. suffixed form *bhlō-to‑, possibly in the meaning "swell, gush, spurt" in Germanic *blōdam, blood.
        1. from Old English blōd, blood;
             blood n.血液,血;血统,血亲;血气
        2. from Old English *blēdan, to bleed, from Germanic denominative *blōdjan;
             bleed vt.使出血,榨取vi.出血,流血
        3. from Old English bloedsian, blētsian, to consecrate, from Germanic *blōdisōn, to treat or hallow with blood.
             bless vt.祝福,保佑,有幸具有
    2. from Medieval Latin blādum, bladium, produce of the land, grain, from Germanic suffixed form *blē-da‑.
         emblements ____
    3. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhlə-to‑. from Old English blæd, leaf, blade, from Germanic *bladaz.
         blade n.刀刃,刀片;桨叶;草叶,叶片
[Pokorny 4. bhel‑ 122.]

 defoliation n.落叶,采叶,去叶
 exfoliation n.脱落,脱落物,表皮剥脱,页状剥落
   bloomed adj. 模糊的(无反射的)
   bloomer 大错
   blooming adj.盛开的
   flowered adj.花开着的,用花装饰的
   flowering adj.开花的 n.开花,以花饰
   flowery adj.花的;华丽的;绚丽的;多花的
   floury adj.粉状的,因粉变白的
   flourishing adj.繁荣的,欣欣向荣的,茂盛的,盛行的 v.茂盛,繁荣( flourish的现在分词 ),兴旺发达,挥动
 efflorescence 全盛期
   blooded adj.有(某种的)血的,血统优良的,有战斗经验的
   bloodily adv.出血地,血淋淋地,残忍地,野蛮地
   bloodless adj.(手术,斗争等)不流血的,苍白的,冷酷的
   bloody a.流血的,血腥的
   bleeder n.吸血鬼,浑蛋,分压器
   bleeding n.出血,流血
   blessedly adv.幸福地,神圣地
   blessedness n.幸福,天恩
   blessing n.祝福

 inflorescence n.开花,花,花序,花朵,花簇

回目录↑; 020,bʰelgʰ-,鼓风巨浪 To swell.
To swell. Extension of bhel-2 . Oldest form *bhelg̑h‑, becoming *bhelgh‑ in centum languages.
  1. O-grade form *bholgh‑. from Old English bel(i)g, bælig, bag, bellows, from Germanic *balgiz.
       bellows 风箱
       belly n.腹部,胃 vi.涨满
  2. Zero-grade form *bhl̥gh‑. from Old Norse bylgja, a wave, from Germanic *bulgjan.
       billow n.巨浪,波浪般滚滚向前的东西 v.翻腾
  3. Zero-grade form *bhl̥gh‑. from Old English bolster, cushion, from Germanic *bulgstraz.
       bolster n.垫子.vt.支持,支撑
  4. O-grade form *bholgh‑.
    1. from Irish bolg, bolc, bag.
         Fir Bolg ____
         Imbolc ____
    2. from Latin bulga, leather sack, from Celtic *bolg‑.
         budget n.预算v.做预算
         bulge n.|v.膨胀,鼓起
[Pokorny bhelg̑h‑ 125.]

   bellyful n.一肚子,满肚子,过量,过分(尤指不受欢迎)
underbelly n.下腹部的,物体的下方,易受攻击的地带
   billowy adj.巨浪似的,汹涌的,滔天,滔滔
   budgetary adj.预算的

   bilge 底舱污水

回目录↑; 021,bʰendʰ-,绷紧绑定 To bind.
To bind.
Derivatives include bind, bandanna, and bundle.
    1. from Old English bindan, to bind;
         bind  v.捆,绑,包括,束缚
      woodbine 忍冬属植物
    2. from Old High German binten, to bind. Both a and b from Germanic *bindan.
         bindlestiff ____
  1. from Sanskrit bandhati, he ties.
       bandanna n.大手帕(等于bandana)
  2. O-grade form *bhondh‑.
    1. from Old English bend, band, and Old French bende, band;
         bend-2 ____
      ribbon n.缎带,丝带,带,带状物
    2. from Old English bendan, to bend;
         bend  v.(使)弯曲;屈从,屈服n.弯曲(处),曲折处
    3. from Old Norse band, band, fetter;
         band  n.条,带;乐队;波段;一群,一伙v.缚,绑扎
         bond  n.结合(物),粘结(剂),联结;公债,债券,契约
    4. from Old High German band, band;
      gum band ____
    5. from Old French bande, bond, tie, link. a-e all from Germanic *band‑.
         band  n.条,带;乐队;波段;一群,一伙v.缚,绑扎
  3. Suffixed form *bhondh-o‑. from Old Iranian banda‑, bond, fetter.
       bund  n.东亚各国的堤岸,码头,同盟
    cummerbund 宽腰带
  4. Zero-grade form *bhn̥dh‑.
    1. from Middle High German bunt, league;
         bund-2 ____
    2. from Middle Dutch bondel, sheaf of papers, bundle. Both a and b from Germanic *bund‑.
         bundle n.捆,包,束
[Pokorny bhendh‑ 127.]

   binder n.装订工,包扎者,包扎工具,[法律]临时契约
   binding n.装订,捆绑,捆绑物,粘合物
 unbind vt.解开,解放
   bendable 可弯曲的
   bended adj.弯曲的
 unbend 放松,拉直
 unbending 顽固的,固执的
   banded 有带的,有条子的
   banding n.条带,(如按能力、价值、交税等)分类,染色体带,(凝胶剂等上的)分子聚集显带
disband v.解散,裁减
   bonded adj.有担保的,(债务)以债券作保证的,(材料)黏合的,(旅游公司等)通过保险单(游客)受保护的
   bonding n.黏结,连搭,焊,胶,粘接,结耦,焊,接合,压焊,砖石砌体砌合
   bundled 附随的
   bundling n.打小包,集束,成束

   bound v./n.跳(跃)a.被束缚的,一定的;n.界限
   boundary n.分界线,边界
   bounded adj.有界限的,有限制的 v.跳( bound的过去式和过去分词 ),弹回,向上弹,向上跳
   bounder n.粗鲁的人,暴发户
   boundless adj.无限的,无边无际的
   inbound 到达的,归航的
   rebound n.|v.回弹,反作用于
   rebounding n.蹦跳运动 v.弹回( rebound的现在分词 ),反弹,产生反作用,未能奏效
   unbound adj.无束缚的,<正>不负有义务的 v.解开,解放( unbind的过去式和过去分词 )
   unbounded adj.无限的,无边际的,极大的,无节制的 adv.无限地,极大地
   bent  a.决心的,弯曲的.n.倾向,爱好
   bandage n.绷带v.用绷带扎缚
   bunch n.(一)簇,束,捆,串

回目录↑; 022,bʰer-1,抱负携带 To carry ; also to bear children.
To carry; also to bear children.
Derivatives include birth, fertile, suffer, furtive, and metaphor.
      1. from Old English beran, to carry;
           bear  n.熊v.忍受,容忍;负担;结果实,生子女
      2. from Old English forberan, to bear, endure (for‑, for‑; see per 1). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *beran.
        forbear 克制
    1. from Old English bēr, bǣr, bier, and Old French biere bier, both from Germanic *bērō;
         bier  n.棺材,棺材架
    2. from Old Norse bāra, wave, billow, from Germanic *bēr‑.
         bore-3 ____
    1. from Old English bearn, child, from Germanic *barnam;
         bairn 小孩
    2. from Old English bearwe, basket, wheelbarrow, from Germanic *barwōn‑.
         barrow 小推车,古坟
    1. from Old English *borlic, excellent, exalted (< "borne up"), from Germanic *bur‑;
         burly adj.魁伟的,结实的
    2. from Old English byrthen, burden, from Germanic *burthinja‑;
         burden n.担子,重担,负担vt.给予负担或麻烦
    3. from a source akin to Old Norse burdhr, birth, from Germanic *burthiz;
         birth n.出生,诞生;出身,血统;起源;出现
    4. from Old Norse byrr, favorable wind, perhaps from Germanic *burja‑.
         bir ____
  1. Compound root *bhrenk‑, to bring (< *bher‑ + *enk‑, to reach; see nek-2). from Old English bringan, to bring, from Germanic *brengan.
       bring v.拿来,带来;产生,引起;使处于某种状态
  2. from Latin ferre, to carry.
      -fer 
       fertile a.肥沃的,富饶的;能繁殖的
     afferent adj.传入的,向心
    circumference 带着绕一周:n.周长,胸围
    confer vt.授予,颁与,比较,对照 vi.商议,磋商
     defer  拿开:v.推迟,延期;服从。原本=differ,后来受delay的影响词义发生变化
     defer-2 ____
    differ v.(from)与…不同;(with)与…意见不同
     efferent adj.传出的 n.输出管
     infer  v.推论,推断
     offer  v.提供,提议,出现n.出价,提议,意图
    prefer v.(to)更喜欢,宁愿
    proffer 提出来:n.提供;提出;提议vt.提供;提出;奉献
     refer  v.参考,查询;提到,引用,涉及;提交,上呈
    suffer v.(from)受痛苦,患病;受损失;遭受;忍受
    transfer vt./n.转移;转换;转让;过户;迁移;改乘
    vociferate 叫喊;大叫大嚷
  3. Prefixed and suffixed zero-grade form *pro-bhr-o‑, "something brought before one" (*pro‑, before; see per1). from Latin probrum, a reproach.
     opprobrium 谴责,抨击
  4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bhr̥-tu‑ in Latin words having to do with "chance" (? < "a bringing, that which is brought").
    1. from Latin fortuītus, happening by chance;
         fortuitous 偶然发生的
    2. from Latin fortūna, chance, good luck, fortune, and Fortūna, goddess of good fortune.
         Fortuna ____
         fortune n.运气;命运;财产;财富
  5. Probably lengthened o-grade form *bhōr‑. from Latin fūr, thief.
       ferret n.白鼬,雪貂,侦探,细带 vt.用雪貂打猎,追赶,搜出,驱出 vi.用雪豹狩猎,搜索
       furtive adj.偷偷摸摸的,鬼鬼祟祟的,秘密的,私下的,隐密的
       furuncle ____
       furunculosis ____
  6. from Greek pherein, to carry, with o-grade noun phoros, a carrying.
       feretory ____
      -phore
      -phoresis
      -phorous
     amphora 双耳细颈瓶
    anaphora n.首语重复法,咳出,努力呼吸
    diaphoresis ____
     euphoria 承受良好:n.精神欢快,欣快;兴高采烈;欣快症;幸福愉快感
    metaphor carryover:n.暗喻,隐喻;比喻说法
    periphery 带着走一周:n.外围,边缘;圆周;圆柱体表面
       pheromone n.<生化>信息素
    telpher ____
    tocopherol n.生育酚,维生素E
  7. from Greek phernē, dowry ("something brought by a bride").
    paraphernalia 随身带的东西:n.随身用具;全部有关的事物;设备
  8. from Sanskrit bharati, he carries, brings.
       sambal n.<马来语>(源出马来西亚、印度尼西亚的)咖喱饭调味品
[Pokorny 1. bher‑ 128.]

   bearable adj.可忍受的,可容忍的,忍得住
   bearer n.送信人,搬运者
   bearing n.轴承;忍受;关系,影响;举止;方向
   bearish adj.(尤指脾气)像熊一样的,粗暴的,<股>行情下跌的,引起跌风的
   borne vbl.bear的过去分词
 unbearable adj.无法忍受的,承受不住的
 unbearably adv.不能忍受地,无法容忍地,慌
forbearance n.忍耐,克制,宽容
forbearing 克制的
   burdened adj.负荷的 v.burden的过去分词
   burdensome a.繁重的,难以承担的,恼人的
overburden 使负担过重
 unburden vt.卸去负荷,吐露心事,消除(思想、心灵上的)负担
   birthing adj.和生育有关的;在分娩过程中使用的
 rebirth n.复活,新生
   bringing v.带来( bring的现在分词 ),促使,提供,使朝(某方向或按某方式)移动
   brought vbl.带来,使得
   fertility n.多产,丰饶,肥沃,生育力
   fertilization n.肥沃,施肥,授精
   fertilize vt.使受精;使肥沃
   fertilizer n.(fertiliser)肥料
 infertile adj.不肥沃的;不毛的;不结果实的;不能生殖的
 infertility n.不肥沃,不毛,不育
circumferential adj.圆周的
conferee n.被授予(称号、学位)者,接受赐予者,参加商谈者,协商会出席者
conference n.(正式)会议;讨论,商谈
conferment 授予,颁发
 deference n.顺从;尊重
 deferential adj.恭敬的;惯于顺从的
 deferentially adv.表示敬意地,谦恭地
 deferment n.迁延,延期,暂缓
 deferral n.延期,缓役
 deferred adj.延期的,缓召的 v.拖延,延缓,推迟( defer的过去式和过去分词 ),服从某人的意愿,遵从
difference n.差别,差异,分歧
different a.差异的,差异的,不同的
differentiable adj.可辨的,可区分的,可微的
differential adj.微分的 n.微分
differentially adv. 差别地;区别地
differentiate v.区分,区别
differentiation n.区别,分化,分异,衍进,求导数
differently ad.不同地,有差别地
differing v.不同,有异( differ的现在分词 ),持异议
indifference n.漠不关心;冷淡;不重视;中立
indifferent a.冷漠的,不关心的,不积极的
 inference n.推论,推理,推断;结论
 inferential adj.可以推论的,据推论得出的
 inferentially adv.推理地,推论地
 offering n.祭品,奉献物,捐赠物,出售物
preferable a.(to)更可取的,更好的
preferably ad.更好地,宁愿
preference n.(for,to)偏爱,喜爱;优惠;优先选择
preferential a.优先的,选择的
preferentially 医优先地
preferment 晋升
 referable 可参考的,相关的
 referee 被委托者:n.裁判,调解人v.仲裁,当裁判
 reference n.提及,涉及;参考,参考书目;证明书(人)
 referential adj.指示的,有参考内容的,用作参考的
 referral n.参考,提及,被推荐的人
insufferable 难以忍受的
insufferably adv.不能忍受地
sufferance 忍耐,勉强同意,宽容
sufferer n.受害者
suffering n.苦楚,受难 adj.受苦的,患病的
transferability n.可转让性,可转移性,可移植性
transference n.移动,转送,转让
   fortunate a.幸运的,侥幸的
   fortunately ad.幸运地,幸亏
misfortune n.不幸;灾祸,灾难
 unfortunate a.不幸的
 unfortunately ad.不幸地,遗憾地
metaphoric 隐喻;象征
metaphorical adj.比喻性的,隐喻性的
metaphorically adv.比喻地,隐喻地
peripheral adj.外围的;次要的;(神经)末梢区域的n.外部设备

   bor a.出生的,产生的;天生的,十足的
 reborn adj.再生的,更新的,复兴的
 unborn adj.未来的
   ampulla n.圣瓶,壶状体,解壶腹
   transistor n.[电子]晶体管
 referendum n.公民投票,(外交使节)请示书
   berth n.停泊处,卧铺(口语)职业 v.使停泊
 euphoric adj.欣快的;精神愉快的

回目录↑; 023,bʰer-3(bʰer-2),棕熊海狸 Bright, brown.
Bright, brown.
  1. Suffixed variant form *bhrū-no‑.
    1. from Old English brūn, brown;
         brown n./a.褐色(的),棕色(的)
    2. from Middle Dutch bruun;
         bruin ____
    3. from Old French brun, shining, brown. a-c all from Germanic *brūnaz.
         brunet n.浅黑肤色的男人 adj.深色的
         burnet 地榆的一种
         burnish 擦亮
  2. Reduplicated form *bhibhru‑, *bhebhru‑, "the brown animal," beaver. from Old English be(o)for, beaver, from Germanic *bebruz.
       beaver n.海狸(毛皮)
  3. from Old English bera, bear, from Germanic *berō, "the brown animal," bear.
       bear-2 ____
  4. perhaps from Old Norse björn, bear, from Germanic *bernuz.
       berserker n.(北欧传说中的)狂暴战士,象狂暴斗士般行动的人
[Pokorny 5. bher‑ 136.]

   brownish adj.呈褐色的

   berserk 发怒

回目录↑; 024,bʰerəg-,闪亮白桦 To shine ; bright, white.
To shine; bright, white. Oldest form *bherhxgibreve;‑, becoming *bherhxg‑ in centum languages.
  1. from Old English beorht, bright, from Germanic *berhtaz, bright.
       bright a.明亮的,辉煌的;聪明的;欢快的,美好的
  2. "The white tree," the birch (also the ash).
    1. from Old English birc(e), birch, from Germanic *birkjōn‑;
         birch n.桦树,白桦
         birk  ____
    2. probably suffixed zero-grade form *bhrag-s‑. from Latin fraxinus, ash tree.
         fraxinella ____
[Pokorny bherəg̑‑ 139.]

   brightly ad.明亮地,聪明地
   brightness n.光亮,明亮,聪明

   brighten v.(使)变亮,(使)愉快
   brightening n.发擦亮,增亮,照明 v.(使)发亮( brighten的现在分词 ),(使)生色,(使)生辉,(使)快乐

回目录↑; 025,bʰergʰ-1,买入埋藏 To hide, protect.
To hide, protect. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
    1. Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg‑ (see kwel-1);
    2. Germanic compound *skēr-berg‑ (see sker-1). Both a and b from Germanic *bergan, to protect.
  1. Zero-grade form *bhr̥gh‑.
    1. from Old English byrgan, to bury, from Germanic *burgjan;
         bur v.埋(葬),安葬;埋藏,遮盖
    2. from Old English byrgels, burial, from Germanic derivative *burgisli‑.
         burial n.埋葬
    1. from Old English borgian, to borrow, from Germanic *borgēn, to pledge, lend, borrow;
         borrow vt.借,借入;(思想、文字等)采用,抄袭
    2. from Old French bargaignier, to haggle, from Germanic derivative *borganjan.
         bargain n.廉价货;交易,契约,合同v.议价,成交
[Pokorny bherg̑h‑ 145.]

   buried v.埋葬( bury的过去式和过去分词 ),掩埋,原谅,沉溺于
   burying 动词bury的现在分词形式.;埋;埋葬 n. 埋;埋葬
   borrower n.借用人,剽窃者
   borrowing n.借款
   bargaining n.议价,讨价,商讨,商谈,交易,交涉

回目录↑; 026,bʰergʰ-2,城堡要塞 High ; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts.
High; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include iceberg, bourgeois, burglar, force, and fortify.
    1. from Old English beorg, hill;
         barrow-2 ____
    2. from Middle Dutch bergh, mountain;
      iceberg n.冰山,冷若冰霜的人
    3. from Old High German berg, mountain;
      inselberg ____
    4. Germanic compound *harja-bergaz (see koro-). a-d all from Germanic *bergaz, hill, mountain.
  1. from Old French berfroi, tower, from Germanic compound *berg-frij‑, "high place of safety," tower (*frij‑, peace, safety; see prī- ).
       belfry 钟楼
  2. Zero-grade form *bhr̥gh‑.
    1. from Old English burg, burh, byrig, (fortified) town;
         borough n.自治的市镇,区
         burg 
    2. from Middle Dutch burch, town;
         burgomaster ____
    3. from Late Latin burgus, fortified place, and Old French burg, borough;
         bourg ____
         bourgeois n.中产阶级,商人,资产阶级 adj.中产阶级的,平庸的 n.九点活字
         burgess ____
         burglar n.夜贼
      faubourg ____
    4. from Old High German burgāri, townsman, from Germanic compound *burg-warōn‑, "city protector" (*warōn‑, protector; see wer- 4). a-d all from Germanic *burgs, hill-fort.
         burgher n.公民,市民(现主要指某些欧洲国家中产阶级的市民或镇民)
  3. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bhr̥gh-to‑. from Latin fortis, strong (but this is also possibly from dher- ).
       force n.力量,力;势力;(pl.)(总称)军队v.强迫
       fort  n.堡垒,要塞
       fortalice ____
       forte 特长,强项
       forte-2 ____
       fortis ____
       fortissimo 非常嘹亮的,最强音的
       fortitude n.刚毅,不屈不挠,勇气
       fortress n.壁垒,要塞vt.构筑要塞,以要塞防守
    comfort n.舒适,安逸;安慰,慰问v.安慰,使舒适
     deforce ____
     effort n.努力;成就;艰难的尝试
     enforce v.实施,执行;强制;支持,坚持(要求,主张等)
       fortify vt.加强,增强,设防于vi.构筑防御工事
    panforte ____
    pianoforte 钢琴
    reinforce v.增援,加强
[Pokorny bhereg̑h‑ 140.]

   burglarize vt.<美>闯入…盗窃 vi.破门盗窃
   burglary v.入室行窃
   burgle vt.& vi.破门盗窃
 enforceable adj.可强行的,可强迫的,可实施的
 enforced n.强迫的 v.实施( enforce的过去式和过去分词 ),执行,强迫,强制执行
 enforcement n.强制,实施,执行
 enforcer n.实施者,强制执行者
   forced adj.被迫的,强迫的,动用武力的
   forceful adj.强有力的;有说服力的;坚强的
   forcefully adv.强有力地
   forcefulness 医强有力,坚强
   forcible adj.强迫的,用暴力的,强有力的,有说服力的
   forcibly adv.强制地,用力,硬
   forcing adj.强迫的,施加压力的 n.强制,强夺 v.强制( force的现在分词 ),强作,施强力于,促成早熟
   fortification n.设防;防御工事;加强;配方
comfortable a.舒适的,舒服的;感到舒适的,安逸的
comfortably ad.舒适地
comforter n.慰问者,安慰者,羊毛围巾
comforting adj.令人欣慰的,安慰的 v.安慰,使舒适(comfort的现在分词)
comfortingly 安慰;舒适;安逸;慰藉;使舒适
comfortless adj.缺乏安慰的,不舒服的,不自由的
discomfort n.不便之处,不适
uncomfortable adj.不舒服的;不安的
uncomfortably adv.不舒适地,困难地
 effortful adj.显示努力的,充满努力的,需要努力的
 effortless adj.不费力的,容易的
reinforcement n.增援,加强,加固,援军
reinforcer n.强化刺激

回目录↑; 027,bʰes-2(bʰes-),噗呼吸 To breathe.
To breathe. Probably imitative. Zero-grade form *bhs‑.

   psyche n. 心智,灵魂,心灵,精神
   psychic adj.精神的,灵魂的,心灵的,超自然的n.灵媒,巫师
   psycho- 表示"灵魂 精神"之义
metempsychosis ____ from Greek psūkhē, spirit, soul, from psūkhein (< *bhs-ū-kh‑), to breathe.
[Pokorny 2. bhes‑ 146.]

   psychical adj.有关特异功能现象的,有关特异功能官能的,灵魂的,心灵的
   psychically adv.精神上

回目录↑; 028,bʰeudʰ-,佛悟觉醒 To be aware, to make aware.
To be aware, to make aware.
Derivatives include bid, forbid, and Buddha.2
    1. from Old English bēodan, to proclaim;
         bid   v.祝愿;命令,吩咐;报价,投标n.出众,投标
    2. from Old English forbēodan, to forbid;
      forbid v.禁止,不许
    3. from Old High German farbiotan, to forbid. a-c all from Germanic *(for)beudan (*for, before; see per 1).
         verboten 严禁的
  1. from Old English bodian, to announce, from boda, messenger, from Germanic *budōn‑.
       bode  v.预示,为…的兆头
  2. from Old English bydel, herald, messenger, and Old High German butil, herald, both from Germanic *budilaz, herald.
       beadle 小官吏
  3. from Old Norse bodh, command, from Germanic *budam.
     ombudsman n.调查官员舞弊情况的政府官员
  4. from Sanskrit bodhati, he awakes, is enlightened, becomes aware, and bodhiḥ, perfect knowledge.
       Buddha-2 ____
       bodhisattva ____
       bodhi tree ____
       bo tree ____
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form bhudh-to‑. from Sanskrit buddhaḥ, awakened, enlightened.
       Buddha-2 ____
[Pokorny bheudh‑ 150.]

   biddable 听话的
   bidder n.出价人,投标人
   bidding n.命令,出价,邀请
underbid v.出较低的价钱,叫价过低,叫牌过低
forbidden adj.禁止的,严禁的 vbl.forbid的过去分词
forbidding adj.可怕的,令人难亲近的
forbiddingly 令人生畏的;可怕的;令人反感的;forbid的现在分词形式.
   forebode 预感
   foreboding n.预感,先兆,预兆 adj.预感的,预兆的,不祥之兆的

   bid v.等待,居住,面临,禁得起

回目录↑; 029,bʰeuə-,生长存在 To be, exist, grow.
Also bheu-.
To be, exist, grow. Oldest form *bheuhx.
Derivatives include be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor, and beam.
  1. Extended forms *bhwiy(o)‑, *bhwī‑.
    1. from Old English bēon, to be, from Germanic *biju, I am, will be.
         be    v.(就)是,等于;(存)在;到达,来到,发生
         forebear n.祖先,祖宗
    2. from Latin fierī, to become.
         fiat  n.命令,法令,许可,批准
    3. Possibly suffixed form *bhwī-lyo‑, seen by some as the source of Latin fīlius, son, but this is more likely from dhē(i)-.
  2. Lengthened o-grade form *bhōw‑.
    1. from Old Norse būa, to live, prepare, and būask, to make oneself ready (-sk, reflexive suffix; see s(w)e- );
         bondage n.奴役,束缚
         bound-4 ____
         bustle v.匆匆忙忙.n.喧嚣
         husband n.丈夫
    2. from Old High German būan, to dwell;
         Bauhaus ____
    3. from Middle English bothe, market stall, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish bōth, dwelling, stall. a-c from Germanic *bōwan.
         booth n.货摊,售货亭,棚
  3. Zero-grade form *bhu‑.
      1. from Old English byldan, to build, from bold, dwelling, house, from Germanic *buthla‑;
           build vt.建造,建筑;建设,建立vi.增大,增强
      2. from Middle Dutch bōdel, riches, property, from alternate Germanic form *bōthla.
           boodle ____
    1. from Greek phuein, to bring forth, make grow, phutos, phuton, a plant, and phusis, growth, nature.
         physic 自然,物理,自然科学,医学,医药,医术,治疗
         physics n.物理(学)
         physio- 自然,物理,生理,身体,躯体
         physique n.体格,体形
         -phyte
         phyto-
         phyton ____
      apophysis ____
      diaphysis ____
         diphyodont ____
      epiphysis
       euphuism ____
      hypophysis ____
         imp   小恶魔,小魔鬼
      Monophysite ____
         neophyte 新种下的:n.新信徒,新入教者,初学者
         periphyton n.固着生物,水生附着生物,周丛生物
      symphysis ____
         tracheophyte ____
    2. Suffixed form *bhu-tā‑.
      1. from Welsh bod, to be;
           eisteddfod 艾斯特福德节(威尔士的一种文化节)
      2. from Old Irish both, a hut.
           bothy 茅屋
    3. Suffixed form *bhu-tu‑. from Latin futūrus, "that is to be," future.
         future n.将来,未来;前途,前景a.将来的,未来的
  4. Zero-grade form *bhū‑ (< *bhuə‑).
      1. from Old English būr, "dwelling space," bower, room;
           bower 树荫
      2. from Old English gebūr, dweller (ge‑, collective prefix; see kom );
        neighbor n.(neighbour)邻居
      3. from Middle Dutch gheboer, ghebuer, peasant. a-c all from Germanic *būram, dweller, especially farmer.
           Boer  布尔人(荷裔南非人)
           boor  粗鲁的人
    1. from Old English bȳre, stall, hut, from Germanic *būrjam, dwelling.
         byre  牛棚
    2. from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bȳr, settlement, from Germanic *būwi‑.
         bylaw n.次要法规,(社、团制定的)规章制度
    3. Suffixed form *bhū-lo‑. from Greek phūlon, tribe, class, race, and phūlē, tribe, clan.
         phyle ____
         phyletic ____
         phylum
         phylogeny n.语系发生,发展史
  5. Zero-grade reduced suffixal form *-bhw‑, in Latin compounds.
    1. Latin dubius, doubtful, and dubitāre, to doubt, from *du-bhw-io‑ (see dwo-).
    2. Latin probus, upright, from *pro-bhw-o‑, "growing well or straightforward" (see per1).
    3. Latin superbus, superior, proud, from *super-bhw-o‑, "being above" (see uper).
  6. Possibly Germanic *baumaz (and *bagmaz), tree (? < "growing thing").
    1. from Old English bēam, tree, beam;
         beam  n.(横)梁,桁条;(光线的)束,柱v.微笑
    2. from Middle Dutch boom, tree;
         boom-2 ____
    3. from Flemish boom, tree.
         bumpkin 乡巴佬
         bumpkin-2 ____
[Pokorny bheu‑ 146.]

   been  vbl.(be)的过去分词,到过,去过,是,有,来过又走了
   being n.生物,生命,存在;
   bustling adj.熙熙攘攘的,忙乱的
   builder n.建筑者,施工人员,营造商,增洁剂
   building n.建筑(物),房屋,大楼[同]structure
 rebuild v.重建,改造
   rebuilt n.重建 v.重建( rebuild的过去式和过去分词 ),重新组装,再形成某事物,恢复
   physical a.物质的;肉体的,身体的;自然科学的,物理的
   physicality 肉体性
   physically ad.身体上地,实际上,按照自然规律地
   physicist n.物理学家
   impish 顽皮的
   futurism 未来主义
   futurist n.未来主义者,未来派艺术家
   futuristic adj.未来派的
   futurity n.未来,未来的事
neighborhood n.(neighbourhood)邻居;四邻,街道
neighboring adj.邻近的 v.<美>邻居,邻国( neighbor的现在分词 ),邻近的,邻接的
neighborly adj.友善的,睦邻的,友好的
   boorish adj.粗野的,粗鲁的,笨拙的,乡巴佬的
   beaming adj.照耀的,光亮的,喜气洋洋的,愉快的 v.发出光与热( beam的现在分词 ),面露喜色,播送,1 笑容满面,眉开眼笑

   built vbl.build的过去式和过去分词
   inbuilt 内在的
   boom  v.迅速发展,兴旺;发出隆隆声
   boomer n.生育高峰中出生的人
   booming adj.急速发展的 v.激增( boom的现在分词 ),猛涨,发出隆隆声,以低沉有力的声音说话
   beware v.当心,小心,注意,提防
   neighbour n.邻居(美作:neighbor)
metaphysical adj玄学的,形而上学的,超自然的
metaphysically 形而上学的;抽象的
metaphysics n.玄学,形而上学
   imply v.意指,含…意思,暗示

回目录↑; 030,bʰeug-3(bʰeug-),弯躬苯环 To bend ;; bent, pliable, or curved objects.
To bend; with derivatives referring to bent, pliable, or curved objects.
Derivatives include bagel, buxom, and bog.
  1. Variant form *bheugh‑ in Germanic *beug‑.
      1. from Old English bēag, a ring;
           bee-2 ____
      2. from Old High German boug, a ring. Both a and b from Germanic *baugaz.
           bagel n.百吉饼(先蒸后烤的发面圈)
      1. from Old English boga, a bow, arch;
           bow-3 ____
           akimbo 叉腰的
      2. Germanic compound *elino-bugōn‑ (see el-);
      3. from a source akin to Middle Low German boog, bow of a boat;
           bow   v./n.鞠躬,点头n.弓(形);蝴蝶结
      4. from Middle Low German bōch, bow of a boat. a-d all from Germanic *bugōn‑.
           bowline n.帆脚索
           bowsprit 船头斜桁
    1. from Old English būgan, to bend, from Germanic būgan.
         bow-2 ____
         buxom 丰满的
    2. from Middle English beil, a handle, perhaps from Old English *bēgel or from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish *böghil, both from Germanic *baugil‑.
         bail-3 ____
    3. from Old English byht, a bend, angle, from Germanic *buhtiz.
         bight 海湾
  2. from Scottish and Irish Gaelic bog, soft, from Celtic *buggo‑, "flexible.".
       bog   n.沼泽
[Pokorny 3. bheug‑ 152.]

   bowed adj.弯如弓的,有弓的
   bowing n.运弓法,弓纬,凸肚形,卷边
 unbowed adj.不屈服的
   boggy adj.沼泽多的

回目录↑; 031,bʰlē-2(bʰlē-),吹气通膨 To blow.
To blow. Contracted from *bhleh1, or possibly lengthened grade *bhlēh2 from alternative root *bhleh2. Possibly identical to bhel-3 II*bhlē‑ above.
Derivatives include blaze3, flatus, and flavor.
  1. from Old English blāwan, to blow, from Germanic suffixed form *blē-w‑.
       blow  vi.吹,吹气,打气;吹奏;爆炸;n.打,打击
    1. from Old English blǣdre, blister, bladder;
         bladder n.膀胱,气泡
    2. from Old Norse bladhra (noun), bladder, and bladhra (verb), to prattle. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *blēdram, "something blown up.".
         blather 喋喋不休的说
    1. from Old English blǣst, a blowing, blast;
         blast n.一阵(风);爆炸冲击波;管乐器声v.爆炸
    2. from Middle Dutch blas(e), a bladder;
         isinglass n.鱼胶,明胶(用作胶粘剂和印刷油墨),云母,鳔胶,白明胶
    3. from Middle Dutch blāsen, to blow up, swell. a-c all from Germanic extended form *blēs‑.
         blasé ____
         blaze-3 ____
  2. Zero-grade form *bhl̥ə‑ (> *bhlā‑) from Latin flāre, to blow.
       flabellum ____
       flageolet ____
       flatulent 浮夸的
       flatus 肠胃胀气;屁;气息;阵风
       flavor n.(flavour)情味;风味;滋味v.给…调味
     afflatus ____
    conflate 合并
     deflate vt.放气;使缩小;紧缩通货;打击;使泄气vi.缩小;物价下降
     inflate 往里吹:vt.使充气;使通货膨胀vi.膨胀;充气
    insufflate ____
    souffl ____
[In Pokorny 3. bhel‑ 120.]

   blew  vbl.blow的过去式和过去分词
   blower n.吹制工,送风机
   blowing n.吹风,排泄,鼓风 v.吹气( blow的现在分词 ),刮风,吹响,炸开
overblown adj.停息的,盛开过的
   blasted adj.枯萎的,被害的,被诅咒的
   blaster n.爆破工,放炮工
   blasting n.爆破(作业) v.(用炸药)炸毁( blast的现在分词 ),狠打,发出刺耳的高音,向…猛吹,(用水)向…喷射
   flatulence n.<医>胃肠气胀,浮夸,自负
   flavored v.给…调味( flavor的过去式和过去分词 ),给…增添风趣
   flavorful adj.充满…味道的,可口的
   flavoring n.调味品,调味料 v.给…调味( flavor的现在分词 ),给…增添风趣
   flavorless adj.<美>无味的,无滋味的
 deflation n.通货紧缩,风蚀,降阶
 deflationary adj.放出空气的,通货紧缩的,物价低廉(尤指成本不降低时的反常情形)的
 deflator 紧缩指数,消除通货膨胀指数,减缩指数
disinflation n.<经>制止通货膨胀,通货紧缩(政策)
 inflatable adj.通货膨胀,膨胀的
 inflated adj.膨胀的,夸张的,通货膨胀的
 inflation n.通货膨胀
 inflationary adj.通货膨胀的,通货膨胀倾向的
souffle n.[医]杂音,吹气音

   flout 藐视
   flautist 长笛手
   flute n.长笛.v.吹长笛,刻槽
   fluted 外部有凹槽的
   fluting n.有沟槽的衣料,吹笛子,笛声,刻凹槽
   flutist 长笛手
   flavour n.滋味,香味

回目录↑; 032,bʰleu-,鼓胀溢流 To swell, well up, overflow.
To swell, well up, overflow. Extension of bhel-2.
  1. Possibly Germanic *blaut‑. from Old Norse blautr, soft, wet.
       bloat 浮肿
  2. Extended form *bhleugw. from Latin fluere, to flow, and -fluus, flowing.
       fluctuate v.(使)波动;(使)起伏
       fluent a.流利的,流畅的
       fluid a.流动的,液体的n.流体,液体
       flume 水滑道,引水渠
       fluor 流体,氟石
       fluoro-
       flush-2 ____
       fluvial 河流的
       flux  n.涨潮,变迁,[物]流量,通量 vi.熔化,流出 vt.使熔融,用焊剂处理
     affluent adj.富裕的,丰富的,流畅的n.支流,富人。美国经济学家约翰?加尔布雷斯(JohnGalbraith)在其著作《富裕社会
    confluent adj.汇合的
     effluent adj.流出的n.污水,废气,流出物
     effluvium n.臭气,恶臭,放出,无声放电
     efflux n.流出物,流出,(时间的)消逝,流逝
       fluoride 氟化物
       fluviomarine ____
     influence n.(on)影响,感化;势力,权势v.影响,感化
     influenza n.<医>流行性感冒,兽医家畜流行性感冒,流感
     influx n.流入,汇集
       mellifluous 甜美流畅的
     reflux n.逆流,退潮
    solifluction ____
    superfluous adj.多余的,奢侈的,不必要的
  3. Zero-grade form *bhlu‑. from Greek phlūein, phlūzein, to boil over.
       phlyctena ____
  4. Possibly Greek phloos, phloios, tree bark (< "swelling with growth")
       phloem 韧皮部(由筛管将叶制造的糖分输送到各部位的植物组织)
[Pokorny bhleu‑ 158.]

   bloated adj.浮肿的,发胀的,傲慢的
   fluency n.流畅,流利
   fluidity n.流动性;流质;易变性
 affluence n.富裕;丰富;流入;汇聚
confluence n.汇合、汇流点;聚集
   fluoridation n.加氟作用,氟化反应
 influential a.有影响的;有权势的
superfluity n.过多, 过剩,多余物, 过剩品

   fluctuation n.起伏,波动
   flush v.冲洗,(脸)发红

回目录↑; 033,bʰoso-,光秃空白 Naked.
Naked.
  1. from Old English bær, bare;
       bar a.赤裸的,空的;稀少的,仅有的v.露出,暴露
  2. from Old Swedish and Old Danish bar, bare;
       ballast n.压舱物,沙囊
  3. perhaps from Old Norse berr, bare. a-c all from Germanic *bazaz.
       berserker n.(北欧传说中的)狂暴战士,象狂暴斗士般行动的人
[Pokorny bhoso-s 163.]

   barely ad.赤裸裸地,无遮蔽地;仅仅,勉强,几乎没有
   bareness n.赤裸,裸露

回目录↑; 034,bʰrāter-,兄弟分支 Brother, male agnate.
Brother, male agnate.
    1. from Old English brōthor, brother;
         brother n.兄弟;同胞;教友
    2. from Middle Dutch broeder, brother. Both a and b from Germanic *brōthar‑.
         bully n.欺凌弱小者 vt.威吓,威逼
  1. from Latin frāter, brother.
       Fra   ____
       fraternal adj.兄弟般的;友好的
       fraternity n.友爱;兄弟会;互助会;大学生联谊会
       fraternize vi.结交,交友,(尤指)亲敌
       friar n.男修道士,行乞修道士
       confrere n.会友,同行,同事
       fratricide 杀兄弟罪
  2. from Greek phrātēr, fellow member of a clan.
       phratry ____
  3. from Sanskrit bhrātā, bhrātar‑, brother.
       pal   n.[口]好朋友,伙伴,同志; vi.结为朋友;Phase Alternating Line,PAL制式(逐行倒相制式)
[Pokorny bhrāter‑ 163.]

   brotherhood n.手足情谊,兄弟关系
   brotherly adj.兄弟的,兄弟般的,兄弟姐妹般的,情同手足的 adv.兄弟般地,友爱地,亲切地
   fraternization n.结有深交,友善

   pal 厌倦,厌烦
   brethren 同仁
   paling 尖木桩,围栏

回目录↑; 035,bʰreg-,掰断揉碎 To break.
To break.
Derivatives include breach, fraction, frail1, infringe, and suffrage.
    1. from Old English brecan, to break;
         break vt.打破;中止;违反vi.破(裂)n.休息时间
    2. from Old English brēc, a breaking;
         breach n.破坏,裂口.vt.打破,突破
    3. from Italian breccia, breccia, rubble, breach in a wall, from Old High German *brehha, from brehhan, to break;
         brash-2 ____
         breccia n.角砾岩,角蛮岩
    4. from Old French breier, to break;
         bray-2 ____
    5. from Old French brier, dialectal variant of broyer, to knead. a-e all from Germanic *brekan.
         brioche 黄油鸡蛋圆面包
    1. from Middle English brake(n), bracken, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *brakni, undergrowth;
         bracken 欧洲蕨
         brake-4 ____
    2. from Middle Low German brake, thicket. Both a and b from Germanic *brak‑, bushes (< "that which impedes motion").
         brake-5 ____
  1. from Middle Low German brake, flax brake, from Germanic *brāk‑, crushing instruments.
       brake-2 ____
  2. Nasalized zero-grade form *bhr̥-n-g‑. from Latin frangere, to break.
       fractal 分形,不规则碎片形
       fracted ____
       fraction n.碎片,小部分,一点儿;分数
       fractious 暴躁的,易怒的
       fracture n.破裂,断裂;骨折vi.破裂;折断vt.使破裂
       fragile adj.脆的;易碎的
       fragment n.碎片,小部分,片断
       frail adj.脆弱的,虚弱的
       frangible ____
     anfractuous ____
       chamfer 斜切面
     defray 支付
    diffraction n.衍射,宽龟裂状的
     infract ____
     infrangible ____
     infringe breakin:vt.侵犯;违反;破坏vi.侵犯;侵害
    irrefrangible ____
    ossifrage ____
     refract 折射
     refrain-2 ____
     refringent ____
       sassafras n.檫木(产于北美东部的一种樟科植物),此树的干燥根皮,檫树
    saxifrage n.虎耳草属植物
    1. from Latin suffrāgium, the right to vote, from suffrāgārī, to vote for (? < "to use a broken piece of tile as a ballot");
      suffragan 副主教
      suffrage 在下面用碎瓦片或叫喊声投票n.选举权;投票;参政权;代祷;赞成票
    2. from Latin refrāgārī, to vote against.
      irrefragable ____
[Pokorny 1. bhreg̑‑ 165 (but not on good evidence).]

   breakable adj.易碎的 n.易碎的东西,易破的东西
   breakage n.破坏,破损,破损量
   breaker n.断路器
   breaking n.破坏,阻断 v.打破,折断,弄坏( break的现在分词 ),(使)破,打破(纪录),(常指好天气)突变
   broke adj.一文不名的 vbl.break的过去式
   broken adj.坏掉的,患病的,被制服的,断掉的 vbl.break的过去分词
 unbroken a.不间断的,(记录)未打破的
   fractional adj.数分数的,小数的,微小的,极小的,部分的,少量的,零碎的
   fractionally adv.部分地,略微地
   fractionation n.分别,分馏法
   fractured v.(使)折断,破碎( fracture的过去式和过去分词 )
   fracturing n.破裂,碎裂,龟裂,(水力)压裂 v.(使)折断,破碎( fracture的现在分词 )
   fragility n.脆弱;易碎性;虚弱
   fragmentary adj.碎片的;不完全的;断断续续的
   fragmentation n.破碎;分裂;存储残片
   fragmented adj.成碎片的,片断的
 infraction n.违反,违背
 infringement n.侵犯;违反
 refraction n.折射(程度),折射角
 refractive 折射的
suffragette 争取妇女获取投票权运动的人
suffragist 参政权扩大论者,妇女政权论者

   brash adj.仓促的,无礼的,性急的,傲慢的 n.胃灼热,骤雨,碎片
   brashness n.自以为是,莽撞无礼
   bray  驴子嘶叫
   brake v./n.制动(器),闸,刹车
 refractory 倔强的,顽固的
   brunch n.早午餐
   broker n.掮客,经纪人
   brokerage n.经纪人之业务,回扣
   brokered adj.由权力经纪人安排(或控制)的 v.做掮客(或中人等)( broker的过去式和过去分词 ),作为权力经纪人进行谈判,以

回目录↑; 036,bʰreuə-,冒泡发热 To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn ; cooking and brewing.
Also bhreuə‑, bhreəu-.
To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn; with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing. Oldest form *bhreuh1.
Derivatives include brew, bread, broth, brood, breed, ferment, and fervent.
    1. from Old English brēowan, to brew, from Germanic *breuwan, to brew.
         brew  v.酿造,酝酿
    2. from Old English brēad, piece of food, bread, from Germanic *braudam, (cooked) food, (leavened) bread.
         bread n.面包
      1. from Old English broth, broth;
           broth n.肉汤
      2. from Vulgar Latin *brodum, broth. Both a and b from Germanic *brudam, broth.
           broil-2 ____
         embroil vt.使卷入,牵连,使纠缠
           imbroglio 乱局
  1. Variant form *bhrē‑ (from *bhreə‑).
      1. from Old English brōd, offspring, brood;
           brood vi.沉思,孵蛋.n.一窝
      2. from Old English brēdan, to beget or cherish offspring, breed, from Germanic denominative *brōdjan, to rear young. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brōd-ō, "a warming," hatching, rearing of young.
           breed v.(使)繁殖,生殖;产生;教养,抚养n.品种
      1. from Old High German brāt, brāto, roast meat;
           bratwurst n.(供煎食的)德国式小香肠
           sauerbraten ____
      2. from Old French braon, meat. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brēd-ōn‑, roast flesh. Both 1 and 2 from Germanic *brēdan, to warm.
           brawn 体力
  2. Variant form *bhres‑.
    1. from Old French brese, burning coal, ember;
         braise
         braze-2 ____
         brazier-2 ____
         breeze-2 ____
         bresaola ____
    2. from Italian dialectal braṣa, burning coal
         braciola ____
    3. from Old Spanish brasa, burning coals. a-c all from Germanic *bres‑.
         brazilwood ____
  3. Reduced form *bher‑, especially in derivatives referring to fermentation.
      1. Suffixed form *bher-men‑, yeast. from Old English beorma, yeast, from Germanic *bermōn‑;
           barm  ____
           barmy 发疯的
      2. further suffixed form *bhermen-to‑. from Latin fermentum, yeast.
           ferment n.发酵;酵素;动乱vi.发酵;动乱vt.使发酵;酝酿;使动乱
    1. Extended form *bherw‑. from Latin fervēre, to be boiling or fermenting.
         fervent adj.热心的;强烈的;炽热的;热烈的
         fervid 异常强烈的
         fervor n.热情;热烈;热心;炽热。等于fervour
       defervescence ____
       effervesce 兴奋;沸腾;起泡沫
  4. As a very archaic word for a spring.
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhru-n(e)n‑. from Old English burn, burna, spring, stream, from Germanic *brunnōn‑.
         bourn ____
         burn-2 ____
    2. Suffixed form *bhrēw-r̥. from Greek phrear, spring.
         phreatic ____
[Pokorny bh(e)reu‑ 143, 2.bher‑ 132.]

   brewer n.啤酒制造者
   brewery n.酿酒厂
   brewing n.酿造 v.调制( brew的现在分词 ),酝酿,沏(茶),煮(咖啡)
   brooding n.孵卵 adj.郁闷的,沉思的,徘徊不去的 v.孵蛋(brood的现在分词),沉思
   bred  vbl.breed的过去式和过去分词
   breeder n.(动物)饲者,种畜
   breeding n.饲养,教养
interbreed 杂交繁殖
   brawny adj.<非正>健壮的,肌肉发达的,严重肿胀的,顽强的
   fermentation n.发酵,激动,纷扰
 effervescence n.冒泡,泡腾,活泼
 effervescent 热情的

   broil v.烤(肉),酷热
   broiler n.争吵者,酷热的日子
   broiling adj.酷热的,炽热的,似烧的
   breeze n.微风;轻而易举的事vi.来去匆匆,急速走
   breezily adv.微风地,活泼轻松地
   breezy adj.有微风的,通风好的,活泼的,轻松愉快的

回目录↑; 037,bʰrū-,眉毛鼻梁 Eyebrow.
Eyebrow. Oldest form *bhruhx, becoming *bhrū.
  1. from Old English brū‑, eyebrow, eyelid, eyelash, from Germanic *brūs.
       brow  n.眉(毛);额
  2. Possibly in the sense of a beam of wood, and perhaps a log bridge. from Old English brycg(e), bridge, from Germanic *brugjō (with cognates in Celtic and Slavic).
       bridge n.桥;桥牌;鼻梁vt.架桥;渡过
[Pokorny 1. bhrū‑ 172, 2.bhrū‑ 173.]

   bridging n.剪刀撑 v.在…建桥( bridge的现在分词 )

回目录↑; 038,pā-,爸把保养 To protect, feed.
To protect, feed. Oldest form *peh2, colored to *pah2, becoming *pā‑.
Derivatives include fodder, forage, fur, food, foster, pasture, pantry, and company.
  1. Suffixed form *pā-trom.
    1. from Old English fōdor, fodder;
         fodder n.饲料,草料,素材
    2. from Old French feurre, fodder;
         forage n.草料,
         foray v.|n.突袭,偷袭
         fourragère ____
    3. from Old French forre, fuerre, trimming made from animal skin, fur (< "sheath, case, lining"). a-c all from Germanic *fōdram.
         fur   n.毛,毛皮
         furrier 毛皮商
  2. Suffixed form *pā-dhlom (doublet of *pā-trom) from Latin pābulum, food, fodder.
       pabulum n.精神食粮,食物,燃料,平淡而无味的文章(或想法)
  3. Extended form *pāt‑.
    1. from Old English fōda, food, from Germanic *fōd‑, food;
         food  n.食物,粮食,养料
    2. from Old English fēdan, to feed, from Germanic denominative *fōdjan, to give food to;
         feed  v.(on,with)喂养,饲养;(with)向…供给
    3. suffixed form *pāt-tro‑. from Old English fōstor, food, nourishment, from Germanic *fōstra‑.
         foster vt.收养,培养,促进
  4. Extended form *pās‑.
    1. Suffixed form *pās-sko‑. from Latin pāscere, to feed;
         pasture n.草地;牧场;牧草vt.放牧;吃草
      antipasto 开胃菜
       repast 餐,饭菜
    2. suffixed form *pās-tor‑. from Latin pāstor, shepherd;
         pastern 骹关节
         pastor 放牧的人:n.牧人,牧师vt.做……的牧师
         pester vt.使烦恼,纠缠
    3. suffixed form *pās-t-ni‑. from Latin pānis, bread.
         panada ____
         panatela ____
         panic grass ____
         pannier 挂篮
         panocha ____
         pantry n.食品室,餐具室
         pastille 锭剂
         penuche ____
       appanage ____
      companion n.同伴,共事者;伴侣
      company n.公司;陪伴;宾客;连(队),(一)群,队,伙
         panforte ____
         panko ____
  5. Suffixed form *pā-tor‑. from Persian pād, protecting against, from Iranian *pātar‑ (Avestan pātar‑).
       bezoar ____
  6. Suffixed form *pā-won‑, protector. from Old Persian khshathra-pāvā, protector of the province.
       satrap n.太守,总督,有最后决定权的人,主管人
[Pokorny pā‑ 787, 1. pō(i)‑ 839.]

   forager n.强征(粮食)者,抢劫者
   foraging v.搜寻(食物),尤指动物觅(食)( forage的现在分词 ),(尤指用手)搜寻(东西)
   furry adj.毛皮的,盖着毛皮的,有锅垢的,有舌苔的
   fed   一种显示技术
   feeder n.饲养员
   feeding n.给食,喂,饲养,吃,输送 adj.给食的,饲用的,逐渐强烈的,供给饲料的,摄取食物的
   overfed v.给吃得过多,吃得太多( overfeed的过去式和过去分词 )
overfeed 喂食过度
   underfed adj.营养不良的,吃得不饱的 v.由下部加添燃料的( underfeed的过去式和过去分词 ),未给予足量食物,添加燃料
   fostering v.培养,促进( foster的现在分词 ),收养,养育
   pasturage 牧场
   past  a.过去的ad.过n.过去,昔日prep.(经)过
   pastoral adj.牧师的;牧人的;田园生活的;乡村的n.牧歌;田园诗;田园景色
companionable adj.友善的,表示友好的
companionably adv.和善地
companionship n.友谊,交谊,陪伴

回目录↑; 039,paəwr̥,热火保养 Fire.
Fire. Oldest form *peh2wr̥, colored to *pah2wr̥, with zero-grade *ph2ur‑ metathesized to *puh2r‑. Zero-grade form *pūr‑ (from *puh2r‑).
  1. from Old English fȳr, fire, from Germanic suffixed form *fūr-i‑.
       fir n.火;火灾,失火;炉火vi.开火vt.放(枪)
  2. from Greek pūr, fire.
       pyr (火葬或祭祀用的)柴堆
       pyretic 发热的,热病的
       pyrites 硫化铁矿
       pyro-
       pyrosis ____
       pyrrhotite ____
     ekpyrotic ____
     empyreal 最高天的;九天的;崇高的
[Pokorny peu̯ōr 828.]

   fiery adj.火的,火焰的,炽热的,热烈的,暴躁的,[眼]炯炯有神的
   fired v.开火,射击( fire的过去式和过去分词 ),<口>解雇,射(箭),激励
   firing n.开火,生火.v.开火,烧制
misfire 不奏效
   pyrite 硫化矿物

回目录↑; 040,pag-,捆紧压平 To fasten.
Also pak-.
To fasten. Oldest forms *pag̑‑, *pak̑‑, becoming *pag‑, *pak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include fang, peace, pact, palisade, and travel.
  1. Lengthened-grade form *pāk‑. from Old English fēgan, to fit closely, from Germanic *fōgjan, to join, fit.
       fay   ____
  2. Nasalized form *pa-n-g‑, also *pa-n-k‑.
      1. from Old English fang, feng, plunder, booty, from Germanic *fangam, *fangiz;
           fang  n.(犬,狼等的)尖牙,犬牙,(毒蛇的)毒牙,牙根,尖端 vt.灌水引动(水泵)
      2. from Dutch vangen, to catch, from remade Germanic verb *fangan;
           vang  ____
      3. from Middle English *-fangel, taken, akin to Old High German -fangolon, to close, from Germanic *fanglōn, to grasp. (i)-(iii) all derivatives of Germanic *fanhan, to seize.
           newfangled 新奇时髦的
    1. from Latin pangere, to fasten.
      compact a.紧密的,结实的;简明的v.使紧凑,压缩
       impact n.冲击,碰撞;影响v.影响;挤入,压紧
       impinge 推压进去:vi.撞击;侵犯vt.撞击
         spinto ____
  3. Root form *pā̆k‑.
    1. from Latin pāx, peace (< "a binding together by treaty or agreement");
         pace-2 ____
         pax   ____
         pay   v.付款,付出代价,给予注意n.工资,薪金
         peace n.和平;平静,安宁
       appease vt.安抚,使平息,对……让步
         pacific 太平洋;太平洋的;和平的;和解的;温和的
         pacify vt.安抚,使平息
    2. from Latin pacīscī, to agree.
         pact  n.协定;公约;条约;契约
         patio n.天井,院子
  4. Suffixed form *pak-slo‑.
    1. from Latin pālus, stake (fixed in the ground);
         pal a.苍白的,灰白的;浅的,暗淡的
         palisade 木栅栏
         pawl  ____
         peel-3 ____
         pole-2 ____
       impale 刺穿
         travail n.辛苦
      travel n.旅行v.旅行;行进,传播
    2. probably Latin pāla, spade
         palette n.调色板,颜料
         peel-2 ____
  5. Lengthened-grade form *pāg‑.
    1. from Latin pāgus, "boundary staked out on the ground," district, village, country;
         pagan n.异教徒 adj.异教的
         peasant n.(不用于英国或美国)小农;佃农;农民
    2. from Latin pāgina, "trellis to which a row of vines is fixed," hence (by metaphor) column of writing, page;
         pag n.页,记录,事件,专栏vt.给...标页码
         pageant n.盛会,庆典,游行,虚饰,露天表演
    3. from Latin prōpāgāre, to propagate (< "to fix before"; prō‑, before, in front; see per 1);
      propagate 嫁接嫩芽、接穗:vt.传播;传送;繁殖;宣传vi.繁殖;增殖
    4. from Greek pēgnunai, to fasten, coagulate, with derivative pagos (< *pag-o‑), mass, hill.
         pectin 果胶
         pegmatite ____
      Areopagus ____
         mastopexy ____
[Pokorny pā̆k̑‑ 787.]

compacted v.压紧, (使)坚实( compact的过去式和过去分词 )
compaction n.压紧,紧束的状态,压实
compactly adv.细密地,简洁地
compactness n.紧密,坚实,紧凑,小巧
 impacted adj.压紧的,结实的,冲击式
 impaction n.装紧,压紧,嵌塞,嵌入
 impingement n.侵犯,冲击,反跳
   payable adj.可付的,应付的
   payee n.收款人
   payer n.支付者,付款人
   paying adj.支付的,有利的 n.付,支付 v.付给( pay的现在分词 ),付款,有利可图,(对…)有利
   payment n.支付,付款额
prepay vt.预付,先付,预付(邮资等)
prepayment 预先支付
 repaid vbl.repay的过去式和过去分词
 repay  v.偿还,报答,还钱给
 repayment n.偿还的款项,报答,报复
underpaid adj.所得报酬过低的 v.付给(雇员等)报酬过低( underpay的过去式和过去分词 )
underpay vt.付给(雇员等)报酬过低
   peaceable 和平的,平静的
   peaceably adv.息事宁人地,和平地,温和地
   peaceful a.和平的,平静的,安宁的,爱好和平的
   peacefully ad.平静地,和平地
 appeasement n.平息,缓和,姑息,绥靖政策
   pacification n.平定,绥靖,和解,讲和
   pacifier 婴儿奶嘴
traveled adj.富有旅行经验的,旅客多的,旅客使用的,旅客常到的
traveler n.旅行支票,旅行信用卡,(常)出远门的人,巡回推销员
traveling adj.同行的,活动的,移动的 n.<篮球>带球走步,走步违例
travelled =traveled.;动词travel的过去式和过去分词. adj. 有旅行经验的;旅客多的
traveller n. 旅行者
travelling adj.旅行的,巡回的,旅行用的 n.旅行
   paganism n.信奉异教,不信教,异教徒的信仰和实践
   pager n.呼机,寻呼机
   pagination 页码
   paging n.内存分页,页面调度,页式,调页
propagation n.传播;繁殖;增殖
propagator 植物的繁殖盒

   pai vbl.pay的过去式和过去分词
prepaid adj.先付的,已支付的
 unpaid adj.未付款的,不受报酬的
   peel  v.剥,剥皮,剥落n.皮
   peeler 削皮器
   peeling n.剥皮,剥下的皮 v.削剥去(水果或蔬菜的皮)( peel的现在分词 ),覆盖层脱落,剥落,剥落,脱落
   despatch v. n.派遣
propaganda n.宣传,[天主教]传道总会
propagandist n.宣传员 adj.宣传的
propagandistic adj.宣传的,宣传家的
propagandize 宣传,煽动,鼓动
   pacifism 和平主义,绥靖主义
   pacifist n.和平主义者
   pacifistic adj.和平主义(者)的,不抵抗主义(者)的

回目录↑; 041,pāl-,摸拍感触 To touch, feel, shake. Earlier *peh₂l-,
To touch, feel, shake. Earlier *peh2l‑, colored to *pah2l‑, becoming *pāl‑.
    1. from Old English fēlan, to examine by touch, feel;
         feel  v.触;认为vi.摸上去有…感觉;摸索;觉得
    2. from Old High German vuolen, to feel. Both a and b from Germanic *fōljan, to feel.
         sprachgefühl ____
  1. Reduplicated zero-grade form *pal-p‑ (from *pəl-p(ə)‑.
    1. from Latin palpus, a touching;
         palp  n.触须,触器
    2. from Latin palpārī, palpāre, to stroke gently, touch;
         palpable adj.明显的;可感知的;易觉察的
         palpate 触摸,触诊
         palpitate 急速跳动,悸动
    3. from Latin palpebra, eyelid (< "that which shakes or moves quickly").
         palpebra ____
  2. Perhaps expressive reduplicated form *pal-pal‑. from Latin pāpiliō, butterfly.
       papilionaceous ____
       papillon 彩蝶,蝴蝶,蝴蝶犬
       papillote ____
       pavilion n.大帐蓬,亭,阁 vt.搭帐蓬,笼罩
  3. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *pal-yo‑. from Greek pallein, to sway, brandish.
    catapult v.弹射,猛投n.弹射器,投石车,石弩,弹弓
  4. Perhaps suffixed form *psal-yo‑. from Greek psallein, to pluck, play the harp (but more likely of imitative origin).
       psalm 赞美诗,赞美歌
       psaltery 古代弦乐器
[Pokorny 1. G. pel‑ 801, polo‑ 841.]

   feeler n.(昆虫的)触须,对他人观点或反应的试探
   feeling n.感情;心情;知觉;同情
 unfeeling adj.失去感觉的,无感觉的,无情的,无同情心的
 impalpable 触摸不到的
   palpably adv.可触之地,易觉察地
   palpation 触诊,扪诊
   palpitation 心悸
   psalmist n.赞美诗作者,诗篇作者

回目录↑; 042,pan-,织布苍白 Fabric.
Fabric.
    1. from Old English fana, flag, banner, weathercock;
         van 叶片,风向标
    2. Germanic compound *gund-fanōn‑ (see gwhen-). Both a and b from Germanic *fanōn.
  1. Extended form *panno‑. from Latin pannus, piece of cloth, rag.
       pan n.窗格玻璃,长方块
       panel n.面,板;控制板,仪表盘;专门小组
       panna cotta ____
[Pokorny pā̆n‑ 788.]

   paneling n.(总称)嵌板,镶板,嵌板板材,嵌板细工
   panelist n.小组辩论,猜谜参加者

回目录↑; 043,pant-,抱紧全部 All. Attested only in Tocharian and 希腊语.
All. Attested only in Tocharian and Greek.

   pan-  全,泛,亲
   diapason ____
   pancratium ____
   pancreas n.[解]胰腺 from Greek pās (neuter pan, stem pant‑), all.
[In Pokorny 1. k̑eu‑ 592.]


   pantomime 哑剧

回目录↑; 044,papa,爸爸保养 A child's word for father
A child's word for "father," a linguistic near-universal found in many languages.
  1. from French papa, father.
       pap n.爸爸
  2. from Greek pappās, father, and pappos, grandfather.
       pappus ____
       pop n.罗马教皇,主教,大腿上要害部位
[Pokorny pap(p)a 789.]

   papal adj.罗马教皇的,教皇制度的
   popery 教皇主义(对罗马天主教的贬称)
   popish 教皇的,天主教的

回目录↑; 045,past-,捆紧禁锢 Solid, firm.
Solid, firm.
    1. from Old English fæst, fixed, firm;
         fast  a.快的,迅速的;坚固的ad.紧紧地;迅速地
         shamefaced 羞愧的,惭愧的
      steadfast adj.坚定的
    2. from Middle Dutch vast, firm, fast. Both a and b from Germanic *fastuz, firm, fast.
         avast ____
  1. from Old English fæstnian, to fasten, establish, from Germanic *fastinōn, to make firm or fast.
       fasten v.扎牢,使固定
  2. from Old Norse festa, to fix, affirm, from Germanic causative *fastjan, to make firm.
    handfast ____
    1. from Old English fæstan, to abstain from food;
         fast-2 ____
    2. from Old Norse fasta, to abstain from food. Both a and b from Germanic *fastēn, to hold fast, observe abstinence.
      breakfast n.早餐v.(给某人)吃早餐
[Pokorny pasto‑ 789.]

   faster adj.更快的,快的( fast的比较级 ),走得快,感光快的,摄影术快动作的(镜头) adv.更快地
   fasting adj.禁食的 n.禁食
   fastness 要塞
   fastener n.扣件,纽扣,按钮,使系牢之物
   fastening n.(尤指衣服的)扣处,扣法 v.(使两物)系牢( fasten的现在分词 ),系紧,使牢固,(使)关紧
 unfasten vt.解开(尤指衣服或带子),松开 vi.解开,脱开,松开

回目录↑; 046,pau-1,破贫少小 Few, little.
Few, little. Oldest form *peh2u‑, colored to *pah2u‑.
Derivatives include few, pauper, foal, pony, and pullet.
  1. Adjectival form *pau‑, few, little.
    1. from Old English fēawe, few, from Germanic *fawaz.
         few   a.[表肯定]有些,几个;[表否定]几乎没有的
    2. Suffixed form *pau-ko‑. from Latin paucus, little, few.
         paucity n.缺乏;少数;少量
         poco  adv.少,稍
    3. Suffixed form *pau-ro‑ in metathetical form *par-wo‑. from Latin parvus, little, small, neuter parvum, becoming parum, little, rarely.
      paraffin 石蜡,煤油
         parvorder ____
         parvovirus ____
    4. Compound *pau-paros, producing little, poor (*par-os, producing; see perə-1). from Latin pauper, poor.
         pauper 穷人,贫民
         poor  a.贫困的;可怜的;贫乏的;贫瘠的;低劣的
         poverty n.贫穷,贫困
       depauperate ____
       impoverish 使贫穷
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *pu-lo‑, young of an animal.
    1. from Old English fola, young horse, colt, from Germanic *fulōn‑.
         foal  小马驹
    2. from Old Norse fylja, young female horse, from Germanic derivative *fuljō.
         filly 小牝马
  3. Basic form *pau‑ and zero-grade form *pū̆‑, boy, child.
    1. Suffixed form *pu-ero‑. from Latin puer, child.
         puerile 孩子气的
         puerperal ____
    2. Extended form *put‑.
      1. from Latin pullus (< *putslo‑), young of an animal, chicken;
           poltroon 胆小鬼,懦夫
           pony  n.矮种马,小马
           pool-2 ____
           poulard ____
           poulter's measure ____
           poultry n.家禽
           pullet 小母鸡
           Punchinello ____
           catchpole ____
      2. from Latin pusillus (< *putslo-lo‑), old diminutive of pullus;
           pusillanimous 胆怯的
      3. further suffixed form *put-o‑. from Latin putus, boy.
           putto ____
    3. Suffixed form *paw-id‑. from Greek pais (stem paid‑), child (> paideia, education).
         pedo--2 ____
       encyclopedia 包含所有知识的东西:n.百科全书
         orthopedics n.整形手术,矫形术,整形外科,矫形学
[Pokorny pōu‑ 842.]

   poorly a.不舒服的ad.贫穷地
 impoverished adj.穷困的,无力的,用尽了的
 impoverishment n.贫穷,穷困,贫化
   orthopedist n.整形外科医师

   pool  n.水池,游泳池;合资经营v.合伙经营,联营
   orthopedic adj.整形外科的(等于orthopaedic)
   pedant 迂夫子,学究
   pedantic adj.卖弄学问的,学究式的,迂腐的,卖弄笔墨
   pedantry 迂腐,学究气的

回目录↑; 047,pau-2,砍减计算 To cut, strike, stamp.
To cut, strike, stamp. Oldest form *peh2u‑, colored to *pah2u‑.
  1. Suffixed (participial) zero-grade form *pu-to‑, cut, struck.
    1. from Latin putāre, to prune, clean, settle an account, think over, reflect;
         putamen ____
         putative adj.推定的,假定的,公认的
       account a.叙述,说明;账目,账户vi.说明,解释
       amputate vt.切除(手臂,腿等)
      compute v./n.计算,估计
         count v.数,计算;算入;看作,认为n.计数,总数
       depute vt.委任;授权给;指定…为代理人
      dispute n.争论,争执v.争论,辩论;反驳;怀疑;阻止
       impute 归因于,归咎于
       repute 多次考虑:vt.认为,把……称为n.名誉,声望
    2. possibly Latin puteus, well
         pit   n.坑,陷阱;煤矿,矿井
  2. Basic form *pau‑.
    1. Suffixed form *pau-yo. from Latin pavīre, to beat;
         pav v.铺砌,铺(路)
         pav ____
    2. suffixed (stative) form *paw-ē‑. from Latin pavēre, to fear (< "to be struck");
         pavid ____
    3. perhaps Greek paiein, to beat
      anapest 抑抑扬格
[Pokorny 3. pēu‑ 827.]

 accountability n.有责任,有义务,可说明性,会计责任,可计量性,责任制
 accountable 可解释的,有责任的,有解释义务的
 accountancy n.会计师之职,会计学
 accountant n.会计人员,会计师
 accounting n.会计,会计学,记账 v.记述,报告(account的现在分词)
unaccountable adj.不负责任的,无责任的,不能理解的,难以说明的
unaccountably adv.不能说明地,不可解释地,无责任地
 amputation n.<医>截肢(术),切断,切除,删除
computation n.估计,计算
computational adj.计算的
computer n.计算机,电脑;计算者
computerization n.计算机的使用,计算机化
computerize vt.用计算机做操纵,操作,编排等,将(资料)存入计算机,(给…)装备电子计算机,(使)电子计算机化
computing n.计算机的运作 v.计算,估算( compute的现在分词)
microcomputer n.微型(电子)计
   supercomputer n.[计] 超型计算机
   countable adj.<语法>(指名词)可数的
   countless adj.无数的,数不尽的,
miscount 误数
 recount v.叙述,重新计算
 uncounted adj.无数的,没有数过的
 deputation n.代表团
disputable adj.可争辩的,可商榷的,有争议的
disputation n.辩论,争论
disputatious adj.争辩的,好争辩的
indisputable adj.无争论之余地的,明白的
indisputably adv.无可置辩地,无法反驳地
 imputation n.归罪,负责,诋毁,非难
 imputed v.把(错误等)归咎于( impute的过去式和过去分词 )
disreputable adj.名誉不好的,不体面的,不名誉,为人所不齿
disrepute 不敬
 reputable adj.声誉好的;受尊敬的;卓越的
 reputation n.名誉,名声,声望
 reputed adj.名誉好的,被称为...的,有...名气的,挂名的,号称的
   pitted 表面坑坑洼洼的
   pitting n.蚀损斑,氢气泡疤,点蚀,锈斑,凹痕
   pavement n.人行道,公路
   paving n.块石面路

   countess n.女伯爵,伯爵夫人
 deputize vi.担任代表
 deputy n.代理人,代表a.副的,代理的
discount n.折扣;贴现(率)vt.打折扣;不重视
discounter n.经 折扣商店,廉价商店

回目录↑; 048,ped-1,脚踏前行 Foot.
Foot.
Derivatives include foot, fetter, pioneer, millipede, impeach, pajamas, fetch1, pessimism, and impeccable.
  1. Nominal root.
    1. Lengthened o-grade form *pōd‑.
      1. from Old English fōt, foot.
           foot  n.(pl.feet)脚,足;英尺;底部
      2. from Old High German fuoz, foot. Both a and b from Germanic *fōt‑.
           foosball n.桌上足球
    2. Suffixed form *ped-ero‑. from Old English fetor, feter, leg iron, fetter, from Germanic *feterō.
         fetter 锁链
    3. Suffixed form *ped-el‑. from Middle English fitlock, fetlock, fetlock, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German vizzelach, fetlock, from Germanic *fetel‑.
         fetlock n.(马等蹄后上部的)丛毛,球节(生距毛的突起部分)
    4. Basic form *ped‑. from Latin pēs (stem ped‑), foot.
         pawn-2 ____
        -ped 
         pedal 脚用的(东西):adj.脚的,脚踏的n.踏板,脚蹬子v.骑(自行车),踩踏板
         pedate ____
         pedestrian n.行人,步行者adj.徒步的,缺乏想象力的
         pedi-
         pedicel ____
         peduncle ____
         peon  苦工,苦力
         pes  
         pioneer n.先驱,倡导者,开拓者
      millipede 千足虫
      sesquipedal ____
      tripedal ____
         trivet 三脚火炉架,三脚铁架
         vamp  妖妇
    5. Suffixed form *ped-yo‑.
      1. from Latin expedīre, to free from a snare (ex‑, out of; see eghs );
         expedite vt.加快,促进,分发畅通的;adj.迅速的;方便的
      2. from Latin impedīre, "to put in fetters, hobble, shackle," entangle, hinder (in‑, in; see en ).
         impede 放进脚镣:vt.妨碍,阻止
    6. Suffixed form *ped-ikā‑. from Latin pedica, fetter, snare.
       impeach 放进脚镣vt.弹劾;归咎;怀疑n.控告,检举;弹劾;怀疑
    7. O-grade form *pod‑.
      1. from Greek pous (stem pod‑), foot;
           pew   n.教堂内的靠背长凳 vt.排座位
          -pod 
           podium 立足之地:n.乐队指挥台;矮墙;墩座墙
        antipodes 地球上处于正相对应的两个地区;正好相反的食物
          apodal ____
         appoggiatura ____
          Apus  ____
        chenopod ____
        lycopodium ____
        macropod ____
        monopodium ____
        octopus 八爪鱼:n.章鱼
        Oedipus ____
        pelecypod ____
           phalarope n.矶鹞之类
           platypus 鸭嘴兽
           podagra ____
           podiatry 足部医疗
           podophyllin ____
           polyp n.珊瑚虫(水螅型),息肉
        polypod ____
        rhizopus ____
        sympodium ____
        xenopus ____
      2. from Russian pod, under.
           podzol ____
    8. Suffixed form *ped-ya. from Greek peza, foot.
         trapezium 梯形
    9. Suffixed form *ped-o‑.
      1. from Greek pedon, ground, soil;
           pedo-
           pedon ____
        parallelepiped 平行六面体
      2. from Sanskrit padam, footstep, foot, and pāt, foot;
           pada  ____
           paisa 派士
           pice  n.印度铜币
           pie-3 ____
           pug-3 ____
      3. from Middle Persian pāī, leg, foot;
           charpoy ____
           pajama 睡衣;宽长裤
           teapoy 小桌
      4. lengthened-grade form *pēd-o‑.
        1. from Greek pēdon, rudder, steering oar;
             pilot n.飞行员;领港员v.驾驶(飞机等);领航,引水
        2. from Greek pēdān, to leap.
          diapedesis ____
    10. Suffixed form ped-ī‑. from Greek pedilon, sandal.
      cypripedium ____
  2. Verbal root *ped‑, to walk, stumble, fall.
    1. from Old English fetian, feccean, to bring back, from Germanic *fetēn.
         fetch v.取来;接来;引出;售得;吸引n.取得;拿
      1. Suffixed (comparative) form *ped-yos‑. from Latin pēior, worse (< "stumbling");
           pejoration ____
         impair v.损害,削弱.vt.(计算机)损伤
      2. suffixed (superlative) form *ped-samo‑. from Latin pessimus, worst;
           pessimism n.悲观,悲观情绪;厌世主义
      3. suffixed form *ped-ko‑. from Latin peccāre, to stumble, sin. a-c all from Latin *ped‑.
           peccadillo 小罪过,岔子,小错
           peccant 犯罪的
           peccavi ____
         impeccable adj.无瑕疵的,无缺点的,无懈可击的
[Pokorny 2. pē̆d‑ 790.]

   feet  n.脚(pl.),(foot的复数),英尺,韵脚
   footed adj.有脚的,…脚的
   footer n.页脚,高…英尺的人(或物) vi.(苏格兰)摆弄,玩弄,摸弄
   footing n.立足处,(社会)地位,关系
forefoot n.(四足动物的)前足,前脚
underfoot ad.在脚下面,踩着地
 unfettered adj.被除去脚镣的,无拘无束的
 impediment n.口吃;妨碍;阻止
 impeachment n.弹劾,控告,怀疑
unimpeachable adj.无可指责的,无可怀疑的,可靠的 adv.无可怀疑地,可靠地
   podiatrist 足科医生
   pajamas n.睡衣,宽长裤
   piloting n.领航的职业,(船)近岸航行法,(航空)地标领航
   pilotless adj.无驾驶员的
   fetched v. 吸引;使发出;售得(若干价钱);接来(某人)
   fetching adj.动人的,吸引人的,迷人的 v.接来(某人)( fetch的现在分词 ),使发出,吸引,售得(若干价钱)
   fetchingly 迷人的;动人的;引人的;fetch的现在分词形式.
 impaired adj.受损的,出毛病的,有(身体或智力)缺陷的 v.损害,削弱( impair的过去式和过去分词 )
 impairment n.损害,损伤
   pessimist n.悲观主义者
   pessimistic a.悲观(主义)的
   pessimistically adv.悲观地
 impeccably 完美地,毋庸置疑地,无瑕疵地

   pawn  n.典当,抵押物,人质,(象棋)兵、卒,爪牙,被人利用的人 vt.当掉,以...担保
   pug   哈巴狗
   toot  汽车喇叭声
 expedition 摆脱束缚:n.远征,探险,考察,探险队,敏捷
 expeditionary adj.探险的,出征的(尤指军事上)
 expeditious adj.迅速而有效率的,迅速完成的
   pedagogic adj.教师的,教育学的,教授法的
   pedagogical a.教学(法)的
   pedagogically adv.教学法上
   pedagogy n.教育,教育学,教学法
 expedience n.方便,私利,权宜
 expediency n.适宜,方便,合算,利己
 expedient 权宜之计
   peddle vi.挑卖,沿街叫卖 vt.叫卖,散播
   peddler n.小贩,传播者
   peddling adj.忙于琐事的,无关紧要的 n.行商 v.(沿街)叫卖( peddle的现在分词 ),兜售,宣传,散播
   trapezoid 不规则四边形
   trapezoidal adj.梯形的
 revamp v.修补

回目录↑; 049,pē(i)-,劈啪伤害 To hurt.
Also pē‑, pī-.
To hurt. Contracted from *peə1(i)‑; zero-grades *piə1‑,*pə1.
  1. Suffixed (participial) form *pī-ont‑ (< *piə-ont‑) from Old English fēond, fīond, enemy, devil, from Germanic *fījand‑, hating, hostile.
       fiend 恶魔
  2. Possibly *pē‑ in suffixed zero-grade form *pə-to‑. from Latin patī, to suffer.
       passible ____
       passion n.热情,激情,爱好;激怒;强烈感情
       passive a.被动的,消极的
       patient a.有耐心的,能忍耐的n.病人,患者
    compassion 一道忍受:n.同情,怜悯
[Pokorny pē(i)‑ 792.]

   fiendish adj.残酷的,刁钻的,非常不愉快的,(困难、机敏等)非常的 adv.残酷地,凶猛地,刁钻地 n.棘手
dispassion n.冷静,公平
 impassioned adj.充满激情的;感激的
   passionless adj.没热情的
   passivity n.被动性
 impatience n.急躁,不耐烦
 impatient a.不耐烦的,急躁的
 inpatient n.住院病人
   patience n.耐心,忍耐
   patiently adv.耐心地,坚韧不拔地
compassionate adj.慈悲的,富有同情心的vt.同情,怜悯

compatibility n.[计]兼容性
compatible a.能和睦相处的,合得来的;兼容的
incompatibility n.不一致,合不来,不兼容,不匹配
incompatible adj.不相容的;矛盾的;不能同时成立的n.互不相容的人或事物
 impassive adj.冷漠的,无感觉的
 impassivity n.平静,无神经,泰然自若

回目录↑; 050,peiə-,蓬松虚胖 To be fat, swell.
To be fat, swell.
Derivatives include fat, pituitary, and Irish.
  1. Zero-grade form *pī‑ (contracted from *piə‑).
    1. Possibly suffixed form *pī-tu‑. from Latin pītuīta, moisture exuded from trees, gum, phlegm.
         pip-5 ____
         pituitary 脑垂体
    2. Possibly suffixed form *pī-nu‑. from Latin pīnus, pine tree (yielding a resin).
         pine  n.松树
         pineal 松果体
         pinnace n.装载于舰上的中型艇
         piñon ____
         Pinot ____
         piña cloth ____
    3. Suffixed form *pī-won‑. from Greek pīōn, fat.
         propionic acid ____
    4. Suffixed form *pī-wer‑, "fat, fertile."
      1. from Old English Īras, the Irish, from *Īwer-iū, the prehistoric Celtic name for Ireland;
           Erse  苏格兰盖尔语
           Irish n.|a.爱尔兰人(的),爱尔兰语(的)
      2. from Greek Pīeriā, a region ofMacedonia, from *Pīwer-iā‑.
           Pierian Spring ____
  2. Extended o-grade form *poid‑. from Old English fǣt(t), fat, from Germanic past participle *faitidaz, fattened, from derivative verb *faitjan, to fatten, from *faitaz, plump, fat.
       fat   a.多脂肪的,肥胖的;丰厚的n.脂肪,肥肉
[Pokorny pei̯(ə)‑ 793.]

   pinon n.矮松,矮松果
   fatness n.肥胖,肥沃,油腻
   fat n. 肥肉;(人体摄入的动植物)脂肪;(食用的)动植物油
   fatten v.养肥,使肥沃
   fattening adj.(食物)要使人发胖的 v.喂肥( fatten的现在分词 ),养肥(牲畜),使(钱)增多,使(公司)升值
   fatty a.脂肪的

   pip   种子,籽

回目录↑; 051,peig-1,刻画锉刀 To cut, mark (by incision).
Also peik-.
(earlier *peik̑‑, remaining as such in satem languages). To cut, mark (by incision).
  1. Alternate form *peik‑. from Old English fīl, file, from Germanic *fīhala, cutting tool.
       file-2 ____
  2. Nasalized zero-grade form *pi-n-g‑. from Latin pingere, to embroider, tattoo, paint, picture.
       paint n.油漆,颜料v.油漆;涂,涂漆;画;描绘,描述
       Pictor ____
       picture n.画,图片;影片;美景v.画,描述,想象
       picturesque adj.图画般的,生动的,别致的
       pigment n.色素,颜料v.上色,呈现颜色
       pimento 西班牙甜椒
       pint  n.品脱
       pinto 黑白斑纹的
     depict v.描绘;描写,描述
       pictograph n.象形文字,形符
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *pik-ro‑. from Greek pikros, sharp, bitter.
       picro-
  4. O-grade form *poik‑. from Greek poikilos, spotted, pied, various.
       poikilotherm ____
[Pokorny 1. peig‑ 794.]

   painted adj.描画的,着色的 v.画,绘画( paint的过去式和过去分词 ),描绘,在…上涂涂料油漆,往(指甲、嘴唇等上)施化妆品
   painter n.漆工,画家
   painterly adj.美术的
   painting n.上油漆,着色;绘画;油画;画法
 repaint vt.再次(重新)油漆,再次(重新)画,恢复…原来的色彩 n.重新涂漆的东西
   pigmentation 色素沉着
 depiction n.描绘,描述
   pictographic adj.象形文字的

   pictorial adj.绘画的,形象化的n.画报,画刊
   pictorially adv.绘画般地

回目录↑; 052,peku-,动产财富 Wealth, movable property.
Wealth, movable property. Oldest form *pek̑u‑, becoming *peku‑ in centum languages.
    1. from Old Norse , property, cattle;
         fellow n.人,家伙;伙伴,同事a.同样的,同事的
    2. from Old French fie, fief, and Old English feoh, cattle, goods, money;
         fee   n.费(会费,学费等);酬金
         fief  封地,采邑
       enfeoff ____
         feoffment ____
    3. from Medieval Latin feudum, feudal estate. a-c all from Germanic *fehu‑.
         feud-2 ____
  1. from Latin pecus, cattle.
       pecorino n.佩科里诺干酪,羊乳干酪
  2. Suffixed form *peku-n‑. from Latin pecūnia, property, wealth.
       pecuniary 金钱的
     impecunious 不名一文的,贫穷的
  3. Suffixed form *peku-l‑. from Latin pecūlium, riches in cattle, private property.
       peculate 盗用,挪用
       peculiar a.古怪的,异常的;特殊的,特有的
[In Pokorny 2. pek̑‑ 797.]

   fees  n. 费用
   fiefdom n.封地,采邑
   peculiarity n.特性;特质;怪癖;奇特

   feudal adj.世仇的,封建制度的,封地的,领地的
   feudalism 封建主义

回目录↑; 053,pekʷ-,成熟炒饭 To cook, ripen.
To cook, ripen.
  1. Assimilated form (in Italic and Celtic) *kwekw.
    1. from Latin coquere, to cook;
         cook  n.厨师v.烹调,烧煮;纂改(账目),捏造
         cuisine n.烹饪,烹调法
         kitchen n.厨房
         quittor ____
         apricot n.杏,杏树
         biscotto ____
      biscuit n.饼干,点心
         charcuterie n.猪肉店,熟食店
      concoct 一起煮:vt.捏造,炮制,调合,图谋
       decoct 煎;熬;使浓缩
      precocious adj.早熟的,过早发育的
         ricotta n.意大利乳清干酪
      sancocho ____
         terra cotta ____
    2. from Latin culīna, kitchen, deformed from coquīna.
         culinary adj.厨房的;烹调用的
         kiln  n.窑,炉
  2. from Greek pepōn, ripe.
       pepo  ____
       pumpkin n.南瓜
  3. from Greek peptein, to cook, ripen, digest (> peptos, cooked).
       peptic adj.消化的,有助消化的n.消化器官
       peptize ____
       drupe ____
     eupeptic ____
       pepsin 胃蛋白酶
       peptone ____
  4. from Greek -pepsiā, digestion.
    dyspepsia 消化不良
  5. from Sanskrit pakva‑, ripe.
       pukka 真品的,高质量的
       pakora 油炸蔬菜
  6. from Old Iranian *-pāka‑, cooked (Avestan -pāka‑).
       ceviche n.酸橘汁腌鱼
       escabeche ____
[Pokorny pek 798.]

   cooked adj.煮烹熟的 v.烹调( cook的过去式和过去分词 ),编造,篡改,密谋
   cooker n.炊具,蒸(煮)机,(非生吃的)为烹食所种水果
   cookery n.烹调术
   cooking n.烹饪
precooked v.预煮,预先烹调(食物)( precook的过去式和过去分词 )
concoction n.混合;调合;调合物
 decoction n.煎煮,煮出的汁,煎熬的药,煎法,熬出物,汤液
precocity n.早熟,早成
dyspeptic adj.消化不良的,胃弱的,患胃病的 n.消化不良的人

回目录↑; 054,pel-2(pel-1),平淡苍白 Pale.
Pale.
Derivatives include pallor, falcon, and poliomyelitis.
  1. Suffixed variant form *pal-wo‑.
      1. from Old English fealu, fealo, reddish yellow;
           fallow deer ____
      2. from Frankish *falw‑, reddish-yellow. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *falwaz.
           fauvism ____
    1. from Latin pallēre, to be pale;
         pale-2 ____
         pallid 苍白的
         pallidum ____
         pallor 苍白,恐惧
         appall v. 使...胆寒;使...惊骇
    2. from Latin palumbēs (influenced in form by Latin columbus, dove), ringdove, "gray-bird.".
         palomino 帕尔米洛马
  2. Probably suffixed form *pel-ko‑. from Late Latin falcō, falcon, from Germanic *falkōn‑, falcon (< "gray bird"; but this is also possibly from the Late Latin).
       falcon 嘴像弯钩的:n.猎鹰;隼
    gyrfalcon n.矛隼(产于北极和近北极地区)
  3. Suffixed extended form *peli-wo‑.
    1. from Greek pelios, dark;
         Pelops ____
    2. o-grade form *poli-wo‑. from Greek polios, gray.
         poliomyelitis 脊髓灰质炎,小儿麻痹症
  4. Perhaps Greek pelargos, stork (< *pelawo-argos, "black-white bird"; argos, white; see arg-)
       pelargonium n.天竺葵属的植物
[Pokorny 6. pel‑ 804.]

   palely adv.苍白地,暗淡地
   paleness n.苍白,暗淡,失色
   appalled v.<美>使惊骇,使充满恐惧( appall的过去式和过去分词) adj.惊骇的,丧胆的
   appalling adj.可怕的,令人震惊的
   appallingly adv.令人毛骨悚然地
   falconer n.以鹰狩猎者,养鹰者,放鹰者
   falconry 鹰猎

 appal  v.惊骇

回目录↑; 055,pel-3(pel-2),多层重叠 To fold.
To fold.
  1. Extended o-grade form *polt‑.
    1. from Old English fealdan, faldan, to fold;
         fold  v.折叠;合拢;抱住n.褶,褶痕;羊栏;信徒
    2. from Old High German faldan, to fold;
         faltboat ____
    3. from Italian falda, fold, flap, pleat;
         furbelow ____
      1. from Medieval Latin compound faldistolium, folding chair;
           faldstool ____
      2. from Old French faldestoel, faldstool. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *faldistōlaz, "folding stool" (*stōlaz, stool; see stā- ).
           fauteuil ____
    4. from Old English -feald, -fald, -fold, from Germanic combining form *-falthaz, *-faldaz. a-e all from Germanic *falthan, *faldan.
        -fold 表示"由…部分构成";表示"...倍"
  2. Combining form *-plo‑.
    1. from Latin -plus, -fold (as in triplus, threefold);
      decuple ____
         multiple a.多样的,多重的n.倍数v.成倍增加
      octuple ____
         quadruple adj.四倍的;四重的vt.使…成四倍vi.成为四倍n.四倍
      quintuple 五倍
      septuple ____
      sextuple ____
      triple adj.三倍的,三方的三倍数;三个一组vi.增至三倍vt.使成三倍
    2. from Greek -plos, -ploos, -fold (as in haploos, haplous, single, and triploos, triple).
         -ploid
         triploblastic ____
[Pokorny 3a. pel‑ 802.]

 enfold 拥抱
   folded adj.折叠的 v.折叠,对折交叠( fold的过去式和过去分词 ),包围,包起,笼罩
   folder n.文件夹,折叠器,折叠机,折叠式印刷品
   folding adj.可折叠的
 unfold v.展开,显露,展现
 unfolded adj.展开的,解开的 v.显露,展现( unfold的过去式和过去分词 ),展开,打开
   multiplication n.乘法
   multiplicative n.乘法 adj.增加的,乘法的
   multiplicity n.多样性,多重性
   multiplier 倍数
   multiply v.(by)乘,使相乘;倍增,增加,繁殖
   quadrupling n.四倍 v.(使)成四倍( quadruple的现在分词 )
   triplicate 一式三份
   tripling n.三重 v.(使)增至三倍( triple的现在分词 )
   triply adv.三重地

回目录↑; 056,pel-4(pel-3),皮毛包膜 Skin, hide.
Skin, hide.
  1. Suffixed form *pel-no‑. from Old English fell, skin, hide, from Germanic *felnam.
       fell-3 ____
  2. from Old English filmen, membrane, from Germanic suffixed form *fel-man-ja‑.
       fil n.电影;胶片;薄膜,薄层vt.把..拍成电影
  3. Suffixed form *pel-ni‑. from Latin pellis, skin.
       pelisse ____
       pellicle ____
       pel n.投掷,毛皮.v.剥...的皮,投掷
       peltry ____
       pillion 摩托车后座
       pellagra 糙皮病
       surplice 教士和唱诗班穿的白色罩衣
  4. from Greek -pelas, skin.
    erysipelas ____
  5. Suffixed form *pel-to‑. from Greek peltē, a shield (made of hide).
       peltate ____
[Pokorny 3b. pel‑ 803.]

   filming n.拍摄电影,薄膜形成 v.拍摄(film的ing形式),以薄膜覆盖
   filmy 薄膜般的
   pelting adj.<古>微不足道的,无价值的,<英方>盛怒的 v.(连续地)投掷( pelt的现在分词 ),连续

回目录↑; 057,pel-5(pel-4),卖出铺货 To sell.
To sell.
Lengthened o-grade form *pōl‑.
   bibliopole ____
monopoly n.垄断(者) from Greek pōlein, to sell.
[Pokorny 5. pel‑ 804.]

monopolist n.专利者,大资本家
monopolistic adj.独占的,垄断的,专利的
monopolization n.独占,专卖,垄断
monopolize vt.独占,垄断,拥有…的专卖权

回目录↑; 058,pel-6(pel-5),撞挤推动 To thrust, strike, drive.
To thrust, strike, drive.
Derivatives include anvil, filter, pulsate, polish, and appeal.
  1. Suffixed form *pel-de‑.
      1. from Old English anfilt(e), anfealt, anvil ("something beaten on");
           anvil n.[解]砧骨
        1. from Old English felt, felt;
             felt  n.毡,毡制品,(造纸用的)毛布 vt.把...制成毡,使粘结 vi.粘结 vbl.feel的过去式和过去分词
        2. from Medieval Latin filtrum, filter, piece of felt. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *feltaz, *filtiz, compressed wool. Both a and b from Germanic *felt‑, *falt‑, to beat.
             filter n.滤器,滤纸
             filtrate 滤液
    1. from Latin pellere (past participle pulsus), to push, drive, strike.
         pelt-2 ____
         poussette ____
         pulsate 振动,搏动
         pulse n.脉搏,脉冲
         push  v.推;催逼,逼迫n.推,推力;促进,推进
      compel v.强迫,迫使
      dispel 赶开:vt.驱散,消除
       expel  v.把…开除;驱逐;排出;发射
       impel  赶进去:vt.推动,驱使,激励
       impulse v.推动n.推动;冲动,刺激
      propel 往前赶:vt.推进,驱使,驱策,激励
       repel  赶回去:vt.抵制,击退
      1. Suffixed o-grade form *pol-o‑, fuller of cloth. from Latin polīre, to make smooth, polish (< "to full cloth");
           polish v.磨光,擦亮;使优美,润饰n.擦光剂,上光蜡
      2. suffixed o-grade form *pol-o‑ (with different accentuation from the preceding), fulled (of cloth) from Latin compound adjective interpolis (also interpolus), refurbished (inter‑, between; see en ).
        interpolate 插话,插嘴
  2. Extended form *pelə2.
    1. Present stem *pelnā‑.
      1. from Latin appellāre, "to drive to," address, entreat, appeal, call (ad‑, to; see ad- );
         appeal vi.呼吁,恳求;申诉n.呼吁;申诉;吸引力
           peal  钟鸣,钟响,洪亮的响声,轰隆声
        rappel 绕绳下降
         repeal vt.废除,撤销,废止,放弃,否定n.废除,撤销
      2. from Latin compellāre, to accost, address (com‑, intensive prefix; see kom ).
        compellation 姓名;头衔
    2. Possible suffixed zero-grade extended adverbial form *pl̥ə-ti‑, or locative plural *pl̥ə-si. from Greek plēsios, near (< "pushed toward"), from pre-Greek *plāti or *plāsi.
         plesiomorphy ____
         plesiosaur n.蛇颈龙
[Pokorny 2a. pel‑ 801.]

   filtering n.过滤,滤除,滤清 v.透过( filter的现在分词 ),(光或声)渗入,缓行,(交通指示灯处的交通)仅可左转行驶
   filtration n.过滤;筛选
   pulsation n.脉搏,悸动,脉动,搏动性
   pushed adj.<非正>(时间、钱等)不够用的; 没有空的,忙碌的 v.推,推动( push的过去式和过去分词 ),对…施
   pusher 毒品贩子
   pushing adj.<口>接近(某个年龄)的,接近40岁(或50岁等),莽撞的,死后下葬 v.推,推动( push的现在分词
   pushy adj.有进取心的
compelling adj.引人注目的;强制的;激发兴趣的
compellingly adv. 咄咄逼人地
compulsion n.强制;强迫;强制力
compulsive adj.强制的;强迫的
 expulsion n.驱逐;开除
 impeller n.推进者,叶轮
 impulsive adj.冲动的;受感情驱使的;任性的
propellant 推进剂,喷射剂
propeller 用来推进的东西:n.螺旋桨,推进器
propulsion n.推进;推进力
propulsive adj.对某物(尤指机动交通工具)起推动作用的,推进的,有推进力的,趋于推动
self-propelled adj.自力推进的,机动式的,自推进,自走式
 repellant adj.<主英>排斥的
 repellent adj.排斥的,防水的,弹回的,令人讨厌的n.防护剂,防水布,排斥力
 repulsive adj.排斥的;令人厌恶的;击退的;冷淡的
   polished adj.擦亮的,磨光的,精练的,优美的,无暇的
interpolation n.窜改,添写,插补
 appealing adj.吸引人的,哀诉似的,恳求似的
 appealingly adv.上诉地,哀求地
 appellant adj.上诉的n.上诉人
unappealing adj.不吸引人的, 乏味的,不讨人喜欢的, 令人反感的

 appellate adj.上诉的;受理上诉的
 appellation n.<正>名称,称号,称呼,名目
 impolite adj.无礼的,粗鲁的
   polite a.有礼貌的,客气的;有教养的,文雅的
extrapolate v.推断,[数]外推
extrapolation n.推断,<统>外推(法)
 repulse vt.拒绝;驱逐;憎恶n.拒绝,击退
 repulsion n.厌恶,反感,<物>推斥,排斥力
 infiltrate v.(使)潜入;(使)渗入,(使)浸润n.渗透物
 infiltration n.渗透;渗透物
 infiltrator n.渗透者,渗入者

回目录↑; 059,pelə-1,填满增加 To fill ; with derivatives referring to abundance and multitude.
To fill; with derivatives referring to abundance and multitude. Oldest form *pelh1; variant *pleh1, becoming *plē‑.
Derivatives include fill, plenty, folk, accomplish, expletive, and plebeian.
  1. Zero-grade form *pl̥ə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *pl̥ə-no‑. from Old English full, full, from Germanic *fulnaz, *fullaz, full.
         full  a.(of)满的,充满的a./ad.完全,充分
    2. from Old English fyllan, to fill (from Germanic derivative verb *fulljan, to fill), and fyllu, full amount (from Germanic abstract noun *full-īnō‑, fullness).
         fill  v.(with)填满,充满
    3. from Old High German fullen, to fill, from Germanic derivative verb *fulljan, from *fulla‑, full (see 1 above).
         gefilte fish ____
    4. from Latin plēnus, full, from Latin stem *plēno‑, replacing *plāno‑ (influenced by Latin verb plēre, to fill; see IV. 1. below).
         plenary 全体的,全民的
         plenitude 大量,众多
         plenty n.丰富,大量
         plenum 全体会议
         plenipotentiary 全权代表
       replenish vt.补充,再装满;把…装满;给…添加燃料
         terreplein ____
    5. Suffixed form *pl̥ə-go‑.
      1. from Old English folc, people;
           folk  n.人们;民族;亲属a.民间的
      2. from Old High German folc, people. Both a and b from Germanic *folkam.
           Herrenvolk ____
           volkslied ____
  2. Suffixed form *p(e)lə-u‑.
    1. Obscure comparative form. from Latin plūs, more (Archaic Latin plous). See also IV. 5. below.
         più  ____
         plural a.复数的n.复数
         plus  prep.加上a.正的,加的n.加号,正号
      nonplus 困惑;使困惑;迷惑;使为难;僵局
         pluperfect 过去完成时,极好的
      surplus n.过剩,剩余;余款,余额a.过剩的,剩余的
    2. O-grade form *pol(ə)-u‑. from Greek polus, much, many.
         poly- 多,复,聚
         hoi polloi ____
    3. Possibly from this root (but probably rather from pel-1) is Latin palūs, marsh (? < "inundated"):
         paludal ____
         palustrine ____
  3. Suffixed form *p(e)lə-o‑. Latin compound manipulus (see man-2).
  4. Variant form *plē‑.
    1. from Latin plēre, to fill.
      accomplish v.实现(计划等);达到(目的);完成(任务)
      complete a.完全的,圆满的v.完成,结束,使完满
      compliment 遵守礼节:n.恭维,称赞,问候,致意,道贺
      comply 满足:vi.遵守,顺从
       deplete vt.耗尽,使衰竭
       expletive 填充空白的:adj.填补的,附加的n.填补物
       implement n.(pl.)工具,器具v.贯彻,实现
       replete 反复填充:adj.充满的,装满的
      supply v.(with,to)供给,供应,补足n.供应,供应量
    2. Possibly suffixed form *plē-dhw‑. from Latin plēbs, plēbēs, the people, multitude.
         plebe 一年级学生,新生
         plebeian 平民,平民的,庸俗的
         plebs 市井小民,贱民
         plebiscite 全民公决
    3. Suffixed form *plē-dhwo‑. from Greek derivative verb plēthein, to be full.
         plethora n.过剩,过量
         plethysmograph ____
    4. Suffixed adjective (positive) form *plē-ro‑. from Greek plērēs, full.
         plerocercoid ____
    5. Suffixed (comparative) form *plē-i(s)on‑. from Greek pleōn, pleiōn, more.
         pleo-
         pleonasm 冗言,赘述
         pleiotropy ____
         Pliocene ____
    6. Suffixed (superlative) form *plē-isto‑. from Greek pleistos, most.
         Pleistocene ____
  5. Possibly Sanskrit pūraḥ, cake (< "that which fills or satisfies"):
       poori ____
[Pokorny 1. pel‑ 798.]

   fuller n.漂洗工
   fullness n.满,丰富,成熟
   fully ad.充分地,完全地
   filled adj.满的,填满的,充气的,加载的 v.(使)充满, (使)装满,填满( fill的过去式和过去分词 ),满足,配药,(按订
   filler n.装填者,补白,装填物,活页纸,漏斗
   filling n.填补物,饼馅,纬纱,填充,供应
 refill v.再装满,再充填
   plentiful a.富裕的,丰富的
   plentifully adv. 许多地;丰饶地
 replenishment n.补给,补充
   folksy 民间的,大众的
   pluralism n.复数,兼职,多元主义,多元论
   pluralist n.兼管数个教堂者,兼职者
   pluralistic adj.兼职的,多元论的,多元化的
   plurality n.多数;复数;兼职;胜出票数
   pluralization n.多元化(pluralize的变形)
accomplished adj.完成的;熟练的,有技巧的;有修养的;有学问的
accomplishment n.成就;完成;技艺,技能
completely adv.完全地,彻底地;完整地
completion n.完成,结束,实现
incomplete a.不完全的,不完整的
complimentary adj.赠送的;称赞的;问候的
uncomplimentary adj.贬降的,贬损的
compliance n.顺从,服从;承诺
compliant adj.顺从的;服从的;应允的
 depletion n.消耗;损耗;放血
 implementation n.实现;履行;安装启用
supplier n.供应者,补充者
   pleonastic 冗言的,赘述的

complement 用来满足之物:n.补足物,补语,补角
complementarity n.补充,补足,并协性
complementary a.补充的,补足的
   fille n.<法>少女,姑娘,女佣
   fulsome 过分恭维的
   fulfil vt.实践,履行,实行,结束,满足,完成,达到
   fulfilment n.履行,执行,实现,完成,实践,成就感,满足感
fulfill v.(fulfil)完成,履行,实践,满足
fulfillment n.完成,实现,满足(感),实施过程
self-fulfillment n.自我实现

回目录↑; 060,pelə-2,平地广场 Flat ; to spread.
Flat; to spread. Oldest form *pelh2; variant *pleh2, colored to *plah2, becoming *plā‑.
Derivatives include field, planet, plasma, plastic, and polka.
  1. Suffixed form *pel(ə)-tu‑. from Old English feld, open field, from Germanic *felthuz, flat land.
       field n.田野;运动场;(电或磁)场;领域,范围
  2. Suffixed form *pel(ə)-t-es‑ (by-form of *pel(ə)-tu‑).
    1. from Old High German feld, field;
         feldspar 长石
    2. from Middle Dutch veld, velt, field. Both a and b from Germanic *feltha‑, flat land.
         veld  南非的无树草原
  3. Variant form *plā‑.
    1. Suffixed form *plā-ru‑. from Old English flōr, floor, from Germanic *flōruz, floor;
         floor n.地板,(楼房)的层
    2. suffixed form *plā-no‑. from Latin plānus, flat, level, even, plain, clear.
         llano ____
         piano-2 ____
         plain a.明白的;朴素的;坦率;平凡n.平原,旷野
         planarian ____
         plane n.飞机;平面,水平面
         plane-2 ____
         plane-3 ____
         planish ____
         plano-
         planula ____
       esplanade 广场,空地
       explain v.解释,说明
         pianoforte 钢琴
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *pl̥ə-mā‑. from Latin palma (< *palama), palm of the hand.
       palm  n.手掌,掌状物,棕榈vt.与…握手,藏…于掌中
       palm-2 ____
       palmary ____
       palmier ____
  5. Possibly extended variant form *plan‑.
    1. from Greek planāsthai, to wander (< "to spread out");
         planet n.行星
        aplanatic ____
    2. perhaps Germanic *flan‑. from French flâner, to walk the streets idly, from a source akin to Old Norse flana, to wander aimlessly.
         flâneur ____
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *plə-dh‑. from Greek plassein (< *plath-yein), to mold, "spread out.".
      -plasia
       plasma n.血浆
      -plast
       plaster n.石膏;灰泥;膏药vt.减轻;粘贴;涂以灰泥;敷以膏药;使平服
       plastic n.(常pl.)塑料,塑料制品a.可塑的,塑性的
       plastid 质体;色素体;成形原体
      -plasty
    dysplasia n.发育异常,发育不良,(由发育异常形成的)异常结构
    metaplasm ____
    toxoplasma n.弓形体,弓浆虫
  7. O-grade form *polə‑.
    1. from Russian polyĭ, open;
         polynya ____
    2. from Slavic *polje, broad flat land, field.
         Polack 波兰佬
         polka n.波尔卡舞,女用紧身短上衣
[Pokorny pelə‑ 805.]
See also extensions plāk-1, plat-.

   fielder n.外野手,接球者
midfield n.球场中央部分 adj.中场的
   floored adj.以…为地面材料的;铺有…地板的
   flooring n.[常用作总称]室内地面,地板,地板材料,铺地板
   plainer n.<方>抱怨者
   plainly adv.平坦地,明白地
   plainness n.平坦,明白
 biplane n.双翼飞机,复翼飞机
   planar 平面的
   planer 刨子,刨床
 explainable adj.可解说的
 explanation n.解释,说明
 explanatory adj.说明的,解释性
self-explanatory adj.不解自明的,明显的,自解释
   planetary adj.行星的
   planetoid n.小行星
   plastered 喝醉的
   plasterer n.泥水匠,石膏师
   plasticity n.可塑性,塑性,适应性,柔软性
   plastics n.塑料;整形外科;外科修补术

   veldt n.(南非洲的)草原
   pianist n.钢琴家
   piano n.钢琴
 infield n.(棒球场地的)内场,内野
 infielder n.内野手,内场手
   palmetto 矮棕榈树

回目录↑; 061,pelə-3,城堡高地 Citadel, fortified high place.
Citadel, fortified high place. Oldest form perhaps *pelh3 (but exact laryngeal uncertain). Zero-grade form *pl̥h3.
  1. from Greek polis, city (phonological development unclear).
       police n.警察,警察机关a.警察的v.管辖
       policy n.政策,方针
       polis 古希腊城邦
       politic 政治的,谨慎的,明智的,从政的
       polity n.政治组织,国家组织,政治,政体
    acropolis 卫城(雅典)
    cosmopolis 国际都市
    cosmopolite ____
    megalopolis 大都会
    metropolis 母城:n.大都市;首府;重要中心
    necropolis 墓地
       policlinic ____
    propolis n.蜂胶
  2. from Sanskrit pūr, pur‑, fortress.
       gopuram ____
[In Pokorny 1. pel‑ 798.]

 impolitic 不明智的

  apolitical adj.不关心政治的
   political a.政治的
   politically ad.政治上地
   politician n.政治家,政客
   politicize vi.搞政治 vt.使具有政治性
   politics n.政治,政治学;政纲,政见
   politicking 政治活动

回目录↑; 062,penkʷe,五指拳戳 Five.
Five.
Derivatives include five, Pentecost, quintessence, finger, and foist.
  1. Basic form *penkwe.
    1. Assimilated form *pempe.
        1. from Old English fīf, five, with derivative fīftig, fifty (-tēne, ten; see dekm̥ );
             fiv num.五pron./a.五(个,只...)
             fifty num.五十,五十个
        2. from Old High German finf, funf, five. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fimf.
             fin-2 ____
        1. from Old English fīftēne, fifteen;
             fifteen num.十五pron./a.十五(个,只...)
        2. from Old Norse fimmtān, fifteen. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *fimftehun, fifteen (*tehun, ten; see dekm̥ ).
             femto-
    2. Assimilated form *kwenkwe.
      1. from Latin quīnque, five;
           cinquain ____
           cinque ____
           quinque-
           cinquecento ____
           cinquefoil n.洋莓属的一种,五叶形的装饰,梅花形,五指草,五瓣饰
           quincunx ____
      2. from Latin distributive quīnī, five each;
           keno  ____
           quinate ____
      3. from Latin compound quīndecim, fifteen (decem, ten; see dekm̥ );
           quinceañera ____
           quindecennial ____
      4. from Latin quīngentī, five hundred.
           quincentenary 五百周年纪念
    3. from Greek pente, five.
         penta-
         pentad ____
         penstemon n.钓钟柳,元参属植物
         pentagon 五边形
      pentameter 五音步诗行
         pentathlon 五项全能运动
    4. from Sanskrit pañca, five.
         punch-3 ____
         pachisi ____
  2. Compound *penkwe-(d)konta, "five tens," fifty (*-(d)konta, group of ten; see dekm̥).
    1. from Latin quīnquāgintā, fifty.
         quinquagenarian ____
         Quinquagesima ____
    2. from Greek pentēkonta, fifty.
         Pentecost 五旬节,圣灵降临节
         pinxter flower ____
  3. Ordinal adjective *penkw-to‑.
    1. from Old English fīfta, fifth, from Germanic *fimftōn‑.
         fifth a.第五的
    2. from Latin quīntus (< *quinc-tos), feminine quīnta, fifth.
         quint n.五度音,五胞胎
         quintain ____
         quintet 五重奏
         quintile 五分位值
         quintessence 第五要素,精华,精髓
         quintillion ____
         quintuple 五倍
  4. Suffixed form *penkw-ro‑. from Old English finger, finger, from Germanic *fingwraz, finger (< "one of five").
       finger n.手指;指状物;指针
  5. Suffixed reduced zero-grade form *pn̥k-sti‑.
    1. from Old English fȳst, fist;
         fist  n.拳头vt.用拳头打;紧握
    2. from Dutch vuist, fist. Both a and b from Germanic *funhstiz.
         foist 强加
[Pokorny penke 808, pn̥ksti‑ 839.]

   fifths adj.第五 n.五分之一( fifth的名词复数 )
   fives 英式墙手球
   fiftieth n.第五十,五十分之一 adj.第五十的,五十分之一的
   fifteenth num.第十五
   pentagonal adj.五角的,五边形的
   fingering n.用指摸弄,抚弄,捻弄,用指弹奏
   fingerless 无指的,失去指的
forefinger n.食指
   fistful n.一撮,一把

   fin   n.鳍,鱼翅
   punch n.冲压机,冲床;穿孔机v.冲压,穿孔
   puncher n.打印机,穿孔者,穿孔机,凿孔机,冲床
   fin a.晴朗的,美好的,细致的v./n.罚金,罚款
   finely ad.细微地,美好地
   fineness 精细度
   finer adj. 好的;出色的
   finery 精美华服
   fines n.罚款,罚金( fine的名词复数 ),细屑,细粉
   finest adj. 好的;出色的

回目录↑; 063,pent-,扒开找路 To tread, go.
To tread, go.
Derivatives include find, pontiff, and sputnik.
  1. from Old English findan, to find, from Germanic *finthan, to come upon, discover.
       find  v.(found,found)找到;发现;发觉;感到
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *pont-i‑.
    1. from Latin pōns (stem pont‑), bridge (earliest meaning, "way, passage," preserved in the priestly title pontifex, "he who prepares the way"; -fex, maker; see dhē- );
         pons 
         pontifex ____
         pontiff 教皇,宗座
         pontine ____
         pontoon 浮桥,浮码头
         punt  n.平底船,撑船,[足][橄]踢悬空球(球未落地前踢出) v.踢凌空球
      osteopontin ____
      transpontine ____
    2. from Russian sputnik, fellow traveler, sputnik, from put', path, way.
         sputnik 人造地球卫星
  3. Zero-grade form *pn̥t‑. from Greek patein, to tread, walk.
    peripatetic 巡回工作的,流动的
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *pn̥t-ə‑.
    1. from Old English pæth, path;
         path  n.小路,小径;路线,轨道
    2. from Middle Dutch pad, way, path. Both a and b from Germanic *patha‑, way, path, probably borrowed (? via Scythian) from Iranian *path‑.
         pad-2 ____
      footpad n.(徒步的)拦路贼,垫套式支脚
[Pokorny pent‑ 808.]

   finder n.探测器,发现者
   finding n.发现,发现物;(常pl.)调查/研究结果
   foundation n.基础,根本,建立,创立;地基,基金,基金会
   foundering v.创始人( founder的现在分词 )
 unfounded adj.没有理由的,未建立的
   pontificate 目空一切的言论
   pontifical 教皇的,宗座的
   punter n.用篙撑船的人,船夫
   paths 名词path的复数形式. n. 小路;轨迹;射程;轧辊型缝

   pad   n.垫,衬垫;便笺簿v.加上衬垫
   padded adj.(服装)有衬里的,带衬垫的 v.给…装衬垫,加垫子( pad的过去式和过去分词 ),步行,放轻脚步走
   padding n.填料

回目录↑; 064,per1,噗先前 Base of prepositions and preverbs : forward, through,
Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of "forward," "through," and a wide range of extended senses such as "in front of," "before," "early," "first," "chief," "toward," "against," "near," "at," "around."
Derivatives include far, paradise, afford, first, protein, veneer, probe, privy, pristine, and priest.
  1. Basic form *per and extended form *peri.
      1. from Middle High German vereinen, to unite, from Old High German far‑;
           turnverein ____
      2. from Yiddish farklemmen, to clamp, choke up, from Middle High German verklemmen, from Old High German far‑;
           farklempt ____
      3. from Middle Dutch vieren, to let out, slacken;
           veer-2 ____
      4. Germanic compound *fer-getan (see ghend-);
      5. from Middle Dutch verrompelen, to wrinkle. a-d all from Germanic *fer‑, *far‑, used chiefly as an intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal, or completion.
           frump 衣着老式的女子
    1. Suffixed (comparative) form *per-ero‑, farther away. from Old English feor(r), far, from Germanic *fer(e)ra.
         far   a./ad.远,久远,遥远ad.到…程度,…得多
    2. from Latin per, through, for, by.
         per   prep.每;经,由
         per-  通过,完全的,整个的,表强调
         paramount 往上越过adj.最重要的,主要的;至高无上的n.最高统治者
         paramour 情妇
         parget ____
         parterre 花坛
         parvenu 暴发户,新贵
    3. from Greek peri, around, near, beyond.
         peri- 在周围,在附近
         perissodactyl ____
      1. from Sanskrit pari‑, couch;
           pantoum ____
           puggree ____
      2. from Avestan pairi‑, around;
           paradise n.天堂
      3. from Old Persian pari, around, over;
           bard-2 ____
           purdah (某些穆斯林妇女不见外男的)内房制度
      4. Old Iranian compound *pari-vāraka‑ (see wer-4). a-d all from Indo-Iranian *pari‑, around.
    4. from Old Russian pere‑, around, again, from Slavic *per‑.
         perestroika n.(苏联经济与政治体制的)改革,调整,政治经济重建的
  2. Zero-grade form *pr̥‑.
      1. from Old English for, before, instead of, on account of;
           for   prep.为了;给;代替;向;支持conj.因为?
      2. from Old English for‑, prefix denoting destruction, pejoration, exclusion, or completion. Both a and b from Germanic *fur, before, in.
           for
    1. Extended form *pr̥t‑. from Old English forth, from Germanic *furth‑, forward.
         forth ad.向前;向外,往外
       afford vt.担负得起(损失、费用、后果等),买得起
    2. Suffixed (comparative) form *pr̥-tero‑. from Old English furthra, furthor, farther away, from Germanic *furthera‑.
         further ad./a.更远,更往前;进一步v.促进,增进
      1. Compound *pr̥-st-i‑ or *por-st-i‑, with o-grade form *por‑ (see stā-);
      2. from Latin por‑, forth, forward. Both a and b from Latin por‑ from *pr̥‑.
           porrect ____
    3. Suffixed form *pr̥-sōd. from Latin porrō, forward.
         parget ____
  3. Extended zero-grade form *pr̥ə‑.
    1. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr̥ə-mo‑.
      1. from Old English forma, first, from Germanic *fruma‑, *furma‑;
           former-2 ____
      2. from Old English formest, first, from Germanic *frumista‑, *furmista‑;
           foremost a.最重要的,最初的
      3. Latin compound prandium, "first meal," late breakfast, lunch (probably < *prām-d-ium < *pr̥əm-(e)d-yo‑; second element *-(e)d‑, to eat; see ed-).
    2. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr̥ə-isto‑. from Old English fyrst, fyrest, first, from Germanic *furista‑, foremost.
         first a./ad.第一;最初;首次n.开始pron.第一名
    3. Suffixed form *pr̥ə-wo‑.
      1. from Greek prōira, forward part of a ship, from analogically suffixed form *prōw-arya;
           pro ①船首②勇敢的
      2. from Greek prōtos, first, foremost, from suffixed (superlative) form *prōw-ato‑. Both a and b from Greek *prōwo‑, first, foremost.
           protein n.蛋白质
           protist n.原生生物
           proto-
           proton 基本粒子:n.质子
    4. Suffixed form *pr̥ə-i. from Latin arepennis, half-acre (second element obscure), from Gaulish ari (combining form are‑), before, from Celtic *(p)ari, *are.
         arpent ____
  4. Extended form *pr̥əā̆.
      1. from Old English fore, for, before;
           for a.在前的.n.前头,船头
           fore-
           forefather n.祖先,祖宗
      2. from Old High German fora, before;
           vorlage ____
      3. from Old English beforan, before, from Germanic prefixed and suffixed form *bi-fora-na, in the front (*bi‑, at, by; see ambhi ). a-c all from Germanic *fura, before.
         before prep.(指时间)在…以前,在..前面,在..之前
    1. from Greek para, beside, alongside of, beyond.
         para- 在旁,在周围,辅助,准,超过,相反,保护,防御
         palfrey 骑用的马;妇女骑用的小马
    2. from Sanskrit purā, before.
         Purana ____
  5. Extended form *prō̆.
      1. from Old Norse frā, from, from Germanic *fra, forward, away from;
           frae  ____
           fro   副词
           froward ____
      2. Germanic *fra‑, completely, in compounds (see ed-, aik-).
    1. Suffixed form *prō̆-mo‑.
      1. from Old English fram, forward, from, from Germanic *fram, from;
           frame n.框架;体格;骨架;组织;机构v.设计;制定
           from  prep.从,自从;由于;离;根据,按;去除
      2. from Old French f(o)urnir, to supply, provide, from Germanic derivative verb *frumjan, to further, from Germanic *frum, forward;
           furnish v.供应,提供;装备,布置
           furniture n.家具
           veneer n.薄板,单板,胶合板,饰面,外表,虚饰 vt.镶饰,胶合,虚饰
      3. from Czech prám, raft.
           pram-2 ____
    2. Suffixed form *prō-wo‑.
        1. from Old High German frouwa, lady;
             Fra ____
             Fräulein ____
        2. from Old Norse freyja, lady. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *frōwō‑, lady, lengthened-grade feminine of *frawan‑; lord.
             Freya ____
      1. from Old Norse Freyr, from Germanic *frawa‑, alteration of *frawan‑. lord;
           Frey  ____
      2. form *prō-wo‑, independently created in Slavic. from Old Church Slavonic pravŭ, true.
           naprapathy ____
    3. from Latin prō, prō̆‑, before, for, instead of.
         pride n.自豪;自满;引以自豪的东西v.使自豪
         pro   adv.正面地 (英国)档案局 PRO(Public Record Office)
         pro 在前,向前,拥护,支持,倾向,亲
         prodigality 浪费,挥霍
         proud a.(of)自豪的;引以自豪的;妄自尊大的
         prowess n.威力
       improve v.改善,改进,增进;好转,进步
         purchase v.买,购买n.购买的物品
    4. Suffixed form *prō-no‑. from Latin prōnus, leaning forward.
         prone a.易于…的,很可能…的
    5. Possible suffixed form *pro-ko‑. from Latin compound reciprocus, alternating, "backward and forward" (*re-ko‑, backward; see re- ).
      reciprocal adj.互惠的,相应的,倒数的,彼此相反的 n.倒数,互相起作用的事物
    6. Suffixed adverb *pro-kwe.
      1. from Latin prope, near;
         approach v.靠近,接近n.接近;途径,入门;方式,方法
        rapprochement 再次接近n.友好;恢复邦交;友善关系的建立
         reproach 带过来骂:n.责备,耻辱vt.责备,申斥
      2. suffixed form *prokw-inkwo‑. from Latin propinquus, near;
           propinquity 临近,接近
      3. suffixed (superlative) form *prokw-isamo‑. from Latin proximus, nearest.
           proximate 最接近的,最临近的
         approximate a.近似的vi.(to)接近
    7. Compound *pro-bhw-o‑, growing well or straightforward (*bhw-o‑, to grow; see bheuə-). from Latin probus, upright, good, virtuous.
         probable a.很可能的,大概的;有希望的,可能的
         probe n.探针,探测器v.(以探针等)探查,穿刺,查究
         probity 正直,诚实
         proof n.证据,证明;校样,样张
         prove v.证明,证实;检验;考验;鉴定;结果是,表明是
       approve v.(of)赞成,赞许,同意;批准,审议,通过
       improbity 邪恶;不正直
       reprove 责备,非难
    8. from Greek pro, before, in front, forward.
         pro--2 ____
    9. Suffixed (comparative) form *pro-tero‑. from Greek proteros, before, former.
      hysteron proteron ____
         Proterozoic ____
    10. from Sanskrit pra‑, before, forth.
         Prakrit ____
    11. Celtic *ro‑, intensive prefix. from Old Irish roar, enough, from Celtic compound *ro-wero‑, sufficiency (*-wero‑, from root *wer‑, also the source of Old Irish feraid, he supplies, provides).
         galore adv.很多,大量的,丰富的 n.丰富,充足 adj.丰富的
  6. Extended forms *prai‑, *prei‑.
      1. from Latin prae, before;
           pre 在前,先于,预先
           preterism ____
           preterit ____
      2. compound *prai-ghes-to‑ (see ghes-).
    1. Suffixed (comparative) form *prei-yos‑. from Latin prior, former, higher, superior.
         prior-2 ____
    2. Suffixed form *prei-wo‑.
      1. from Latin prīvus, single, alone (< "standing in front," "isolated from others");
           private a.私人的,个人的,秘密的,私下的
           privilege n.特权,优惠,特许v.给予优惠,给予特权
           privity 默契;私下知悉;参与秘密
           privy adj.私人的;不公开的;秘密参与的n.有利害关系的人;厕所
         deprive vt.使丧失,剥夺
      2. from Latin proprius, one's own, particular (< prōprīvō, in particular, from the ablative of prīvus, single; prō, for; see V. 4.).
           proper a.适合的;合乎体统的;固有的;有礼貌的
           property n.财产,资产,地产,房地产,所有物;性质,特性
         appropriate a.适当的,恰当的,特有的vt.拨给,挪用,盗用
         expropriate 征用
           proprioception n.本体感受
           proprioceptor ____
           proprium ____
    3. Extended form *preis‑.
      1. Suffixed (superlative) form *preis-mo‑.
        1. from Latin prīmus (< *prīsmus; ablative plural prīmīs), first, foremost;
             premier adj.第一的,最初的n.首相,总理
             primal adj.原始的,最初的,主要的
             primary a.最初的,初级的;首要的,主要的,基本的
             primate 首要的:adj.首要的,灵长目动物的n.灵长目动物,大主教,首领
             prime a.首要的;最好的,第一流的n.青春,全盛期
             primitive a.原始的,远古的,早期的;粗糙的,简单的
             primo n.第一,首先
             primus ____
           imprimis ____
             primavera n.白桃花心木(中美洲出产的一种树木或其木材)
             primeval adj.原始的,初期的
             primipara ____
             primogenitor 始祖;祖先
             primogeniture 长子身份
             primordial 第一顺序的:adj.原始的;本初的;根本的;原生的
        2. from Latin compound prīnceps, "he who takes first place," leader, chief, emperor (-ceps,"-taker"; see kap- ).
             prince n.王子,亲王
             principal a.最重要的,主要的n.负责人,校长;资本,本金
             principle n.原理,原则;主义,信念
      2. suffixed form *preis-tano‑. from Latin prīstinus, former, earlier, original.
           pristine a.质朴的,原始的
  7. Extended form *pres‑ in compound *pres-gwu‑, "going before" (*gw-u‑, going; see gwā-). from Greek presbus, old, old man, elder.
       presbyter 长老(指长老教制会中的教徒领袖)
       Prester John ____
       priest n.教士,神父
       presbyopia n.老花眼,远视眼,老视
  8. Extended form *proti. from Greek pros, against, toward, near, at.
       pros-
[Pokorny 2. A. per 810.]
Other possibly related forms are grouped under per-2, per-3, per-4, per-5.

   frumpy adj.心地不良的,不见世面的
   farther ad.更远地,再往前地a.更远的
   furtherance n.促进
 affordable adj.负担得起的
 affordably adv.不太昂贵地
   firstly adv.第一,首先
   framer n.制定者,创作者
   framing n.构架, 框架, 骨架, 构架系统
   furnished adj.家具的,有家具的
   furnishing n.供给(装备),家具,室内陈设
   prideful adj.自傲的,高傲的
   pro abbr. prosecutor 起诉人;prosecuting 起诉;professionals 自由职业者;proscenium (舞台)前部; n. 抵偿物;赞成的意见;交换物;赞成的理由
 improvement n.改进,进步,增进;改进措施
unimproved adj.(土地)未加改良的,未耕种的
   proneness n.俯伏,倾向
reciprocally adv.相互地,相反地
reciprocity n.互惠
 approachability n.可接近,易接近,可接近性
 approachable adj.可亲近的,可接近的
 approaching n.侵入,逼近,接近 adj.侵入的,逼近的,接近的 v.接近,走近,靠近( approach的现在分词 ),(在性质、数量
unapproachable adj.冷漠的,不易亲近的,无与伦比的,(指地方)无法接近的
irreproachable 无可指责的
 reproachful adj.责备的,斥责的
 reproachfully adv.责备地
 approximately adv.近似地,大约,许
 approximation n.近似法;接近;近似值
 improbability n.不大可能的事物,未必有的事
 improbable a.不大可能的,不像会发生的,似不可信的
 improbably adv.未必然地,不像真实地
   probabilistic 基于概率的
   probability n.可能性;机率;[数]或然率
   probably ad.大概,或许,很可能
disprove vt.反驳,证明…是虚假的
   provable adj.可证明的,可证实的
   proven vbl.prove的过去分词
   proving n.校对 v.证明( prove的现在分词 ),检验,试验
 approval n.批准,通过;赞成,同意
 approved adj.经核准的,被认可的 v.赞成,同意( approve的过去式和过去分词 ),批准,认可,核准
 approving adj.满意的
 approvingly adv.赞成地,认可地
disapproval n.不赞成
disapprove v.不赞成
disapprovingly adv.不以为然地,不赞成地,非难地
 reprovingly adv.责备地,挑剔地
   privacy n.隐私;秘密;隐居;隐居处
   privately ad.秘密,一个人,私下地
   privatization 计 私有化
   privatize vt.使私有化;使归私有
 deprivation 剥夺;损失;免职;匮乏;贫困
 deprived adj.缺少食物的;缺乏足够教育的
 improper adj.不正确的,不适当的,不合礼仪的
   properly ad.适当地,正确地
 appropriateness 适当,适合
 appropriation n.拨款,挪用
misappropriate 私吞,挪用
misappropriation 经 侵吞,挪用,滥用,私吞
 expropriation n.征用,征收,收用
   premiership n.总理,首相之职位与任期
   primarily ad.主要地,起初地
   primacy n.首位,卓越,大主教的职位
   primed 待发的
   primer n.初级读物,识字课本,原始物
   priming n.雷管,装填物,起爆药,底漆
   primitivism 原始主义,尚古主义
   princely 巨额的,庞大的
   principality 王公治理的国家,公国,侯国
   principally adv.主要地;大部分
   presbytery 长老会(苏格兰国教)
   priesthood n.教士,僧侣,神父
   priestly adj.僧的,僧侣似的

   former a.以前的,在前的pron.前者
   formerly ad.从前,以前
   premiere 第一次:adj.初次的n.v.初次公演,初次露面,女主角
   veer  vi.转向,(风向)顺(时针)转 vt.使转向,放出(锚) n.转向,方向的转变
   pram  婴儿车
   prior a.优先的,在前的;(to)在…之前
   prioritize vt.把...区分优先次序
   priority n.先,前;优先,重点,优先权
   parasite 在旁边进食:n.寄生虫,食客
   parasitic adj.寄生的
   parasitical adj.寄生的,食客的
   parasitism n.寄生状态,寄生病,寄生性
   protozoan 原生动物
   primp 修饰,打扮
reciprocate v.互换,交换
reciprocation n.互换
 reproof 责备,非难
   prolapse 脱落,下垂
   proximal adj.最接近的,邻近的
   proximity n.接近,邻近
   proviso n.限制性条款,附文,附带条件
   forswear 放弃,发誓弃绝,发伪誓
 reprobate 堕落的人,不道德的人
   proprietary adj.所有的;专利的;私人拥有的n.所有权;所有人
   proprietor n.业主;所有者;经营者
   proprietorship n.所有(权),所有权
   prissy 谨小慎微的,大惊小怪的
   paranoia 理智反常的病:n.偏执狂,妄想症
   paranoiac adj.偏执狂的 n.偏执狂患者
   paranoid adj.类似妄想症的,偏执狂的n.偏执狂患者,妄想症患者
   perspiration n.汗水;流汗;努力
   perspire 流汗,出汗
perform v.履行,执行;表演,演出;完成(事业)
performance n.履行,执行;表演,演出;性能,特性;成绩
performer n.执行人,表演者
performing adj.表演的,履行的 v.执行( perform的现在分词 ),履行,表演,扮演
   procrastinate 拖延,耽搁
   procrastination n.延迟,拖延
   procrastinator n.拖延者,拖拉者,因循者
   prophylactic 预防的
   prophylactically 医adv.预防地,预防上
   prophylaxis 疾病预防
 impropriety n.不适当;不得体;不正当行为
   propriety n.适当;礼节;得体
   biff  吵嘴
   prim  一本正经的,古板的
 approbation 批准
disapprobation 反对
   purpose n.目的,意图;用途,效果
   purposeful adj.有目的的
   purposefully ad.有目的地,蓄意地
   purposeless adj.无目的的,无意义的
   pro n.支持者,倚靠人,道具,螺旋桨 vt.支撑,维持
   props 名词prop的复数形式. n. 小道具
   probate 遗嘱认证,遗嘱检验
   probation n.试用,试用期,缓刑
   probationary adj.试用的,缓刑的
   probationer 见习生,试用员工
   probative adj.检验的
   proconsul n.地方总督,殖民地总督
   impervious adj.不受影响的,无动于衷的;不能渗透的
   portrait n.肖像,画像
   self-portrait n.自画像
   prude 正经过度的人,谈性色变者
   prudery 大惊小怪,假正经
   prudish 大惊小怪的,迂腐的
malapropism 近音词误用

回目录↑; 065,per-2,牵引码头 To lead, pass over. of per1.
To lead, pass over. A verbal root belonging to the group of per1.
Derivatives include fjord, welfare, emporium, opportune, important, and sport.
  1. Full-grade form *per‑.
    1. Suffixed form *per-tu‑. from Old Norse fjördhr, an inlet, estuary, from Germanic *ferthuz, place for crossing over, ford.
         firth 狭长海湾
         fjord 海湾
    2. Suffixed form *per-onā‑. from Greek peronē, pin of a brooch, buckle (< "that which pierces through").
         peroneal adj.腓骨的,腓侧的
    3. Suffixed form *per-yo‑. from Greek peirein, to pierce.
         diapir ____
    4. Suffixed form *per-trā‑. from Greek petrā, cliff, rock (dissimilated from *pertrā‑), with possible earlier meaning "bedrock" (< "what one comes through to").
         petro- 岩石的,石油的
         petrous 岩石的
         pie n.码头,(桥)墩
         parsley n.[植]欧芹
         petrify 使石化,惊呆
         petroleum n.石油
         saltpeter 硝石,硝酸钾
    5. Suffixed form *per-wr̥, *per-wn̥‑, bedrock, "a coming through, what one comes through to," and derived adjective *per-wn̥-to‑, rocky. from Sanskrit parvataḥ, mountain.
         Parvati ____
  2. O-grade form *por‑.
        1. from Old English faran, to go on a journey, get along;
             far n.车费,船费;伙食;乘客v.过活;进展;经营
          warfare n.战争,作战,冲突,竞争
          wayfarer 旅行者
          wayfaring ____
          welfare n.福利;幸福;福利事业
        2. from Old English feldeware, possibly altered by folk etymology in Old English from an earlier *feldefare, from *fare, a goer, from faran (see (i) above).
          fieldfare ____
      1. from Old High German faran, to go, travel;
           gaberdine ____
      2. from Old Norse fara, to go, move. a-c all from Germanic *faran, to go.
           fartlek ____
    1. Suffixed form *por-o‑, passage, journey. from Greek poros, journey, passage.
         pore-2 ____
        aporia 自相矛盾
       emporium 大型商城
         poromeric ____
    2. Suffixed (causative) form *por-eyo‑, to cause to go, lead, conduct.
      1. from Old English ferian, to transport, from Germanic *farjan, to ferry;
           ferry n.摆渡,渡船,渡口 vt.渡运,(乘渡船)渡过,运送 vi.摆渡,(船)来往行驶
      2. from Sanskrit pārayati, pālayati, he leads across, brings to safety.
           guar  abbr.guaranteed 有保证的,有担保的,guaranty 保证,pyt guarantee of payment 付
           wallah 从事某工作的人
    3. Lengthened-grade form *pōr‑.
      1. from Old English (ge)fēra, "fellow-traveler," companion (ge‑, together, with; see kom ), from Germanic suffixed form *fōr-ja‑;
           fer ____
      2. from Old High German fuoren, to lead, from Germanic suffixed (causative) form *fōr-jan.
           führer ____
    4. Possibly suffixed form *por-no‑, feather, wing (< "that which carries a bird in flight").
      1. from Old English fearn, fern (having feathery fronds), from Germanic *farnō, feather, leaf;
           fer n.蕨类植物
      2. from Sanskrit parṇam, leaf, feather.
           paan  ____
  3. Zero-grade form *pr̥‑.
    1. Suffixed form *pr̥-tu‑, passage.
      1. from Old English ford, shallow place where one may cross a river, from Germanic *furdu‑;
           ford  n.浅滩.v.徒涉
      2. from Latin portus, harbor (< "passage").
           port  n.港口
         importune 纠缠
         opportune 适当的,有机会的
        passport n.护照,达到某种目的的手段
    2. Suffixed form *pr̥-tā‑. from Latin porta, gate.
         porch n.门廊,走廊
         port-3 ____
         portal n.大门,入口
         portcullis 铁闸门,吊闸
         porter-2 ____
         portico 门廊
         porttière ____
         portulaca ____
         purslane n.马齿苋
    3. Suffixed (denominative) form *pr̥-to‑. from Latin portāre, to carry.
         port-5 ____
         portable a.轻便的,手提(式)的,可移动的
         portage 陆上搬运
         portamento ____
         portative ____
         porter n.守门人,门房,行李搬运工,服务员
      comport 举止
       deport vt.驱逐出境,放逐;举止
       export v./n.输出,出口n.出口商品
       import v./n.进口,输入,(pl.)进口商品;要旨,含意
       important a.重要的,重大的;有地位的,有权力的
         portfolio 携带纸张(的东西):n.公文包,文件夹,证券投资组合,部长职务
      purport 带到前面n.意图,主旨,意义vt.意图,打算,声称,意指
      rapport 带回来n.默契,密切关系,交往,和谐一致
       report n./v.报告,汇报;传说,传阅
        sport n.(体育)运动(pl.)运动会vi.开玩笑;玩耍
      support n./vt.支撑;支持;赡养;维持n.支持者;支柱
      transport v.运输,运送,搬运n.运输;运输系统,运载工具
[Pokorny 2. B. per 816.]

 importunate 纠缠不休的
inopportune 不合适宜的
 opportunism 机会主义
 opportunist 机会主义者
 opportunistic a.机会主义的,投机取巧的
 opportunity n.机会
   portability n.可携带,轻便
comportment n.举动,行为
 deportation n.驱逐出境;放逐
 deportee n.被放逐者,被判充军的人
 deportment 举止,风度
 exportable adj.可输出的,适于输出的
 exportation n.出口
 exporter n.出口商,输出者,输出国
 importation n.进口,输入品
 importance n.重要,重要性
 importantly adv.重要地
self-importance n.自大,自视过高
self-important adj.高傲的,妄自尊大的
purported adj.传说的,谣传的
purportedly adv.据称
 reportable adj.可报告的,值得报告的
 reportage 报道文体
 reportedly ad.据传说,据传闻
 reporter n.报告人,通讯员;记者,报导者
  sporting adj.运动的,喜爱运动的,公平的
  sportive adj.嬉戏着的,欢闹的,开玩笑的,运动的
  sports 名词sport的复数形式. n. 运动; adj. 运动的,适合运动的
insupportable 忍耐不住的,不能忍受的
self-supporting adj.(指人)自食其力的,自给
supportable adj.可支持的,可援助的,可忍耐的
supporter n.支持者,拥护者
supporting adj.支持的,支撑的 v.支持( support的现在分词 ),帮助,支撑,维持
supportive adj.支持的;支援的;赞助的
transportable adj.可运输的 n.便携式电视机(或计算机)
transportation n.运输(工具、系统)
transported adj.情不自禁的 v.运送,流放( transport的过去式和过去分词 ),使万分激动
transporter n.输送人,运输机

   por n.气孔;小孔
   porosity 孔隙率
   porous adj.多孔渗水的;能渗透的;有气孔的
   portly 肥胖的,粗壮的
   portmanteau 两格式旅行衣箱,复合词
   colt  n.小马,无经验的年轻人 vt.用绳抽打 n. 柯尔特式自动手枪
   coltish adj.公驹(似)的,马驹(似)的,蹦蹦跳跳的,活泼的

回目录↑; 066,per-3,扑冒风险 To try, risk (< to lead over, press forward ).
To try, risk (< "to lead over," "press forward"). A verbal root belonging to the group of per1.
  1. Lengthened grade *pēr‑. from Old English fǣr, danger, sudden calamity, from Germanic *fēraz, danger.
       fear  n.害怕,恐惧;危险vt.畏惧,害怕,担心
  2. Suffixed form *perī-tlo‑. from Latin perīclum, perīculum, trial, danger.
       parlous 危险的,动荡的
       peril 冒险尝试:n.危险;冒险vt.危及;置…于险境
  3. Suffixed form *per-yo‑. from Latin experīrī, to try, learn by trying (ex‑, from; see eghs ).
     experience n./vt.经验;经历;体验;阅历
     experiment n.实验;试验v.(on)进行实验;做试验
     expert n.专家,能手a.熟练的,有经验的;专门的
  4. Suffixed form *per-ya. from Greek peira, trial, attempt.
       pirate 攻击者:n.海盗;盗版;侵犯专利权者vt.掠夺;翻印;剽窃vi.做海盗;从事劫掠
     empiric n.经验主义者,<古>江湖医生
[Pokorny 2. E. per 818.]

   feared v.畏惧( fear的过去式和过去分词 ),为…忧虑(或担心、焦虑),敬畏(神等),感到害怕
   fearful a.可怕的,吓人的;害怕,担心,惊恐
   fearfully adv.可怕地,害怕地,<口>非常,极为
   fearfulness n.可怕,厉害
   fearless a.不怕的,无畏的
   fearlessness n.无畏,勇敢
   fearsome a.可怕的
   perilous adj.危险的,冒险的
 experienced adj.老练的,熟练的;富有经验的
 experiential adj.经验的;经验上的;根据经验的
inexperience n.缺乏经验,不熟练,未熟
inexperienced adj.无经验的,不熟练的
 experimental a.实验(性)的,试验(性)的
 experimentalism n.经验主义
 experimentally adv.实验(性)地,实际上,实际证明,通过实验,用实验方法
 experimentation n.实验,实验法,实验过程
 experimenter n.实验者
 expertise n.专门知识;专门技术;专家的意见
inexpert 不熟练的
inexpertly 不熟练的;非内行的
   piracy n.海盗行为,侵犯版权,非法翻印 盗版
   piratical adj.剽窃的,海盗的,盗版的

回目录↑; 067,per-4,撞击挤压 To strike. A verbal root belonging to the group of per₁.
To strike. A verbal root belonging to the group of per1.
Extended forms *prem‑, *pres‑.
   pregnant-2 ____
   press v.压;压榨;紧迫,催促n.报刊,通讯社;压榨机
   pressure n.压,压力,压迫,强制,紧迫,困苦,困难
   print n.印刷,印刷品,字体v.印刷,出版;洗印
 appressed ____
   après ____
compress vt.压紧,压缩;(把思想、文字等)浓缩
 depress v.压抑,降低;使沮丧,压下
 espresso n.(蒸汽加压煮出的)浓咖啡
 express v.表达,表示a.特快的,快速的n.快车,快运
 impress v.(on)印,盖印;留下印象,引人注目
 imprimatur 批准,同意
 imprint n.印记;痕迹;特征;版本说明vt.加特征;刻上记号
 oppress 对着压:压迫,压抑,使烦恼,使感到沉重
 repress 往后压:v.抑制,镇压,约束
 reprimand n.申斥
   reprisal 反过去抓:n.报复,报复性劫掠
   reprise 重奏,重复
suppress 压下vt.抑制,镇压,废止 from Latin premere (past participle pressus), to press.
[Pokorny 3. per‑ 818.]

   pressing adj.紧迫的 v.挤压
   pressuring 压力;压强;施压;压迫
   pressurize 催促,逼近
   pressurized adj.增压的,加压的 v.增压( pressurize的过去式和过去分词)
misprint n.印刷错误
   printable adj.可印刷的
   printer n.印刷工,打印机
   printing n.印刷,印刷术,[纺]印花
 reprint v.再版
 unprintable adj.不能刊印的,不宜刊印的,猥亵的
compressed adj.压缩的,<生>扁长形的 v.压紧,压缩( compress的过去式和过去分词 ),精简
compressibility n.可压缩性
compressible adj.可压缩的,可压榨的
compression n.压缩,浓缩;压榨,压迫
compressor n.压缩机;压缩物;收缩肌;压迫器
decompress vt.使减压
decompression n.减压,解压
incompressible adj.不能压缩的
antidepressant 抗抑郁药
 depressant 抑制剂
 depressed adj.沮丧的;萧条的;压低的
 depressing adj.抑压的,阴沉的,沉闷的
 depressingly adv.令人忧愁地,使人沮丧地,抑压地,郁闷地
 depression n.沮丧,消沉,萧条(期)
 depressive adj.抑郁的;压抑的
 depressor n.抑压者,抑压物,(检验或手术中用的)压板,压器
 expression n.表达;表情;声调;腔调;榨出;措词;式;符号
 expressionism 印象主义
 expressionist adj.表现主义的 n.表现派作家
 expressionistic adj.表现主义的,有表现派作风的
 expressionless a.无表情的
 expressive adj.表现的;有表现力的;表达…的
 expressiveness n.表现,表示
 expressly adv.明白地,特别地,清楚地
inexpressible 无法形容的
inexpressibly adv.到不能用语言表达的程度
inexpressive adj.无表情的,无意义的
self-expression n.自我表现,自我表达
 impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕
 impressionable 易受影响的
 impressionistic adj.仅凭印象的,主观的
 impressive a.给人深刻印象的,感人的
 imprinting n.胚教,铭记(动物生命早期即起作用的一种学习机能),印记
 oppression n.压抑;镇压;压迫手段;沉闷;苦恼
 oppressive adj.压迫的;沉重的;压制性的;难以忍受的
 oppressor n.压制者,压迫者
 repressed adj.被抑制的,被压抑的
 repression n.抑制,镇压
 repressive adj.抑制的;镇压的
suppression n.抑制;镇压;压抑
suppressive adj.抑制的,镇压的
suppressor 镇压者,压制者

回目录↑; 068,per-5,传送卖出 To traffic in, sell (< to hand over, distribute ).
To traffic in, sell (< "to hand over," "distribute"). A verbal root belonging to the group of per1 . Base of two distinct extended roots.
  1. Root form *pret‑.
    1. from Latin compound inter-pres (stem inter-pret‑), go-between, negotiator (inter‑, between; see en ).
      interpret vt.解释,说明;口译
    2. Suffixed form *pret-yo‑. from Latin pretium, price.
         praise v.赞扬,歌颂;表扬n.称赞,赞美;赞美的话
         precious a.珍贵的,贵重的
         price n.价格,价钱;代价v.标价
       appraise vt.评价,鉴定,估价
       appreciate vt.为...表示感激,感谢;欣赏,赏识,评价
       depreciate 贬值
  2. Variant root form *perə‑ (oldest form *perh2). Suffixed form *p(e)r-n-ə‑, with o-grade *por(ə)-nā‑. from Greek pornē, prostitute, from pernanai, to sell.
       pornography n.色情文学,色情描写
[In Pokorny 2. C. per 817.]

interpretable adj.能说明的,能翻译的,可判断的
interpretation n.解释,阐明
interpretative 理解的,解释的
interpreter n.解释程序,解释者,口译人员,翻译员,讲解员,注释器
interpretive adj.作为说明的,解释的
misinterpret vt.曲解,误解
misinterpretation n.误解,曲解
reinterpret 重新解释
reinterpretation 重新解释,纠正性说明
semiprecious adj.(指宝石)次贵重的,半宝石的
overprice v.将…标价过高,索价过高
   priced adj.附有定价的
   priceless adj.无价的;极贵重的;非常有趣的n.非卖品
   pricey adj.高价的,过分昂贵的
underprice vt.使定价太低; 以低价与…竞争
 appraisal n.评价;估价;估计
 appraiser n.评价者,鉴定者,估价官
 appraising v.估价( appraise的现在分词 ),估计,估量,评价
 appreciable adj.可感知的,相当可观的
 appreciably adv.相当大地,明显地
 appreciation n.欣赏,鉴别;增值;感谢
 appreciative adj.感激的;赏识的;有欣赏力的;承认有价值的
 appreciator n.了解真价者,鉴赏者
 depreciation n.贬值,折旧
   pornographer n.色情作品作者(发行人或出售商)
   pornographic adj.色情的,色情作品的

回目录↑; 069,perd-,放屁 To fart.
To fart.
    1. from Old English *feortan, to fart, from Germanic *fertan, *fartōn.
         fart  n.[俗]屁 vi.放屁
    2. Perhaps perhaps from partial translatation and alteration of Yiddish (arum)fartsn (zikh), to fart (around), from Middle High German varzen, to fart. Both a and b from Germanic *fertan, *fartōn.
         futz  vi.<美俚>闲荡,闲混
  1. from Greek perdix, partridge (which makes a sharp whirring sound when suddenly flushed).
       partridge 山鹑
[Pokorny perd‑ 819.]
Compare pezd-.


回目录↑; 070,perə-1,装配生产 To produce, procure.
To produce, procure. Oldest form *perh2; possibly related to perə-2. See also per-5II.
Derivatives include parade, parry, emperor, parachute, sever, and parent.
  1. Zero-grade form *pr̥ə‑ (becoming *par‑ in Latin).
    1. Suffixed form *par-ā‑. from Latin parāre, to try to get, prepare, equip;
         parade n./v.游行,夸耀n.检阅,阅兵式v.使列队行进
         par vt.修剪,削皮,消减
         parlay n.连本带利的赌博 vt.连本带利地赌博,使增值
         parry 挡开,闪避
         parure ____
       apparatus 配置好的n.(成套的)器械,设备
       apparel 安排好(衣着):vt.给……穿衣,装饰n.服装,盛装
         comprador ____
      disparate 剪开的:adj.迥然不同的,不相干的n.无法相比的东西
       emperor n.皇帝
       imperative adj.必要的,不可避免的,势在必行的,命令的,祈使的n.必要的事,命令,需要,规则,祈使语气
       imperator ____
       imperial a.帝国的,帝王的;(度量衡)英制的
         parachute 防备坠落:n.降落伞vi.跳伞,空投
         parasol 大遮阳伞
      prepare v.准备,预备
      rampart 壁垒,矮墙
       repair n.修理,修补v.补救,纠正;修理
         separate a.(from)分离的,分开的
         sever v.切断
         several a.几个,若干,数个;各个的,各自的
    2. suffixed form *par-yo‑. from Latin parere, parīre, to get, beget, give birth;
        -para
         parity-2 ____
        -parous
         parturient 临产的,分娩的
      postpartum adj.产后的
       repertory n.仓库
       viper  蝰蛇
    3. parallel suffixed (participial) form *par-ent‑. from Latin parēns, parent;
         parent n.父母,母亲;(pl.)双亲;父母
    4. suffixed form *par-o‑, producing:
      1. from Latin iūniperus, juniper, perhaps from compound *yoini-paros, "producing juniper berries" (*yoini‑, juniper berry);
        juniper n.[植]刺柏属丛木或树木
      2. compound *pau-paros (see pau-);
      3. Italic compound *wīwo-paros (see gwei-).
    5. suffixed form *par-ikā‑. from Latin Parcae, the Fates (who assign one's destiny).
         Parcae ____
  2. Suffixed o-grade form por(ə)-sī‑. from Old English hēahfore, calf, a compound (with obscure first element) of fearr, calf, from Germanic *farzī‑.
       heifer 未生育过的小母牛
[Pokorny 2. D. per 818.]

   paring n.削下的皮 v.削皮( pare的现在分词 ),削掉,修剪(指甲等),逐步减小(数量或体积)
disparity n.不同;不一致;不等
 imperialism n.帝国主义,帝制
 imperialist n.帝国主义者 adj.帝国主义的
 imperialistic adj.帝国主义的,帝制的
   parachutist 跳伞者
preparation n.准备,预备;制剂,制备品
preparatory adj.预备的n.预科,预科学校
prepared adj.准备好的,精制的
preparedness n.有准备,已准备
disrepair 失修
irreparable 不能修复的
irreparably adv.不能挽回地,不能恢复地
 repairer n.修理工人,修补者
 reparation n.赔偿;修理;赔款
 inseparable adj.不能分的
 inseparably adv.不能分离地,不可分地
   separable 可分开的
   separately adv.分别地;分离地;个别地
   separateness n.分开,分离,独自
   separation n.分离,分开,间隔
   separatism n.分离主义
   separatist n.分离主义者,独立派
   separator 分离器
   severance n.断绝
   severing v.切断,断绝( sever的现在分词 ),断,裂
   severally adv.各自地,各别地,分头
   parentage 家世,出身
   parental adj.父母亲的,父母的;亲代的,亲本的
   parenthood n.亲子关系;父母身分
   parenting n.养育,抚养,教养 v.教养
   parentless adj.无父母的

 imperious adj.专横的,傲慢的,迫切的

回目录↑; 071,perə-2,装配部件 To grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return).
To grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return). Oldest form *perh3. Possibly related to perə-1. See also per-5II. Zero-grade form *pr̥ə‑ (becoming *par‑ in Latin).
  1. Suffixed form *par-ti‑. from Latin pars (stem part‑), a share, part;
       parcel n.包裹,邮包,部分v.打包,捆扎,分配
       parcener ____
       parse vt.从语法上描述或分析(词句等)
       part  n.部分,角色,一方,零件,地区,部,篇v.使分开
       particle n.粒子,微粒;极小量;小品词,虚词
       partisan adj.党派的;效忠的;偏袒的;盲目推崇的n.游击队;虔诚信徒;党羽
       partita n.变奏曲,组曲
       party n.聚会,政党,当事人v.举行(参加)社交聚会
     bipartite adj.双向的
    compart ____
     impart 分享部分:vt.给予(尤指抽象事物),传授;告知,透露
       participate v.(in)参与,参加;分享,分担;含有,带有
     repartee 快速回答,快问快答
  2. possibly suffixed form *par-tiōn‑. from Latin portiō, a part (first attested in the phrase prō portiōne, in proportion, according to each part, perhaps assimilated from *prō partiōne);
       portion n.一部分,一份
    proportion n.比例;部分;均衡,相称
  3. perhaps Latin pār, equal
       pair  n.一对,一双;一副;夫妇v.配对,成对
       par   n.标准;票面价值;平均数量adj.标准的;票面的
       pareve ____
       parity n.平价;同等;相等
       peer-2 ____
    compare vt.(to,with)比较;(to)把…比作vi.相比
     imparity 不平等;不同;不配合
    nonpareil 无与伦比的人
       pari-mutuel n.赛马赌博的彩金,赛马赌金计算器
[Pokorny 2. C. >per 817.]

counterpart n.副本;配对物;极相似的人或物,对应的人或物
   parted adj.分开的
   partial a.部分的,不完全的;偏袒的,不公平的,偏爱的
   partiality 偏袒
   partially ad.部分地
   parting n.分别,分歧处,(头发的)分缝 adj.离别的,逝去的
antiparticle n.反粒子,反质点
 bipartisan adj.两党连立的
nonpartisan adj. 无党无派的;超乎党派的
nonpartisanship 无党无派的;超乎党派的
   partisanship n.党派性,党派偏见
disproportion 不均衡
proportional adj.比例的,成比例的,相称的,均衡的
proportionality 相称原则,恰当性
proportionally 按比例地,相配合地,适当地
   pairing n.配对,(核子等)成对,摞合,机 双层轧制 v.(使…)成对,(使…)成双( pair的现在分词),交配
 unpaired adj.不成双的,无对手的
comparability n.相似性,可比较性,可比性
comparable a.(with,to)可比较的,比得上的
comparably adv.可比较地,同等地
comparative a.比较的,相当的
comparatively adv.对比地,相对地,比较地,有点
incomparable adj.无与伦比的,不能比较的
incomparably adv.无比地,无敌地,不能比较地

   peer  n.同辈,同等地位的人;贵族v.凝视,隐约出现
   peerless 无双的,无匹敌的
 department n.部,局,处,科,部门;系,学部
 departmental adj.部门的
   particular a.特殊的,苛求的,个别的n.详情,细节,特色
   particularism n.完全忠于一种理论,特殊神宠论
   particularistic 特殊神宠论;完全忠于一种理论;党派意识
   particularity n.特性
   particularly adv.独特地,显著地
 depart vi.离开,起程a.过去的,逝世的
 departed adj.死了的,已往的,过去的
 departure n.离开,起程
   umpire 不平等,第三者n.裁判员,仲裁人vi.当裁判,任裁判vt.仲裁,裁判
   particulate adj.微粒的,粒子的 n.微粒,粒子
 apportion 分摊
 apportionment n.土地分配,分摊,分派
reapportionment n.重新分配,立法机构中席次的重新分配
   partition n.划分,分开;分割;隔墙;隔离物vt.分割;分隔;区分
   partner n.合作者,合伙人,合股人,伙伴,舞伴,配偶
   partnership n.合伙(关系)
disparage 认为不对等:蔑视;毁谤
disparagement n.轻视,轻蔑
disparaging adj.轻蔑的,毁谤的 v.轻视( disparage的现在分词 ),贬低,批评,非难
disparagingly adv.以贬抑的口吻,以轻视的态度

回目录↑; 072,perkʷu-,橡木果 Oak.
Oak.
  1. Zero-grade form *pr̥kw. probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Icelandic fȳri fir from Germanic *furh-jōn‑
       fir   n.[植]冷杉
  2. Assimilated form *kwerkwu‑. from Latin quercus, oak.
       quercetin n.栎精,槲皮素
       quercitron ____
[Pokorny perku-s 822.]


回目录↑; 073,pes-,喷丝悬屌 Penis.
Penis. Suffixed form *pes-ni‑.

   pencil n.铅笔vt.用铅笔写
   penicillium ____
   penis n.阳物,[解]阴茎 from Latin pēnis (< *pesnis), penis, tail.
[Pokorny 3. pes‑ 824.]

   penciled 成射束状的

   penicillin n.[微]青霉素(音译名为盘尼西林)

回目录↑; 074,pet-,飞跑冲动 To rush, fly. Also petə-.
To rush, fly. Also petə- . Oldest form *peth1. Variant *pteh1, becoming *ptē‑.
Derivatives include feather, compete, perpetual, ptomaine, symptom, and hippopotamus.
  1. Suffixed form *pet-rā‑. from Old English fether, feather, from Germanic *fethrō, feather.
       feather n.羽毛
  2. from Latin petere, to go toward, seek.
      -petal
       petition v.请愿,恳求n.请愿,请愿书,诉状
       petulant 易怒的,使性子的,闹脾气的
     appetite n.食欲,胃口;欲望,性欲;爱好,趣味
    compete vi.比赛;竞争;对抗
     impetigo 脓胞病
     impetuous 冲动的
     impetus 瞄准、冲向:n.动力,冲力
    perpetual adj.永久的;不断的;四季开花的;无期限的
     repeat v.重复,重说,重做n.重复
  3. Suffixed form *pet-nā‑. from Latin penna, pinna, feather, wing.
       panache 神气十足
       pen   n.钢笔,圆珠笔,作家,围栏vt.写,关入栏中
       penna ____
       pennate ____
       pennon 三角旗,燕尾旗
       pin   n.钉;大头针,别针,徽章v.(up)钉住,别住
       pinna n.羽,翼,鳍
       pinnacle n.小尖塔,山顶,顶点 vt.造小尖塔,把...放在极高处
       pinnate 羽毛的,羽状
       pinnati-
       pinnule ____
     empennage ____
  4. Suffixed form *pet-ro‑ in compound *aku-petro‑ (see ōku-).
  5. Suffixed form *pet-yo‑. from Latin propitius, favorable, gracious, originally a religious term meaning "falling or rushing forward," hence "eager," "well-disposed" (said of the gods; prō‑, forward; see per 1).
       propitious 吉祥的,吉利的
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *pt-ero‑. from Greek pteron, feather, wing, and pterux, wing.
      -pter
      apteryx ____
    archaeopteryx 始祖鸟
    coleopteran ____
     dipteral ____
    isopteran ____
    mecopteran ____
    monopteros ____
       orthopteran ____
    peripteral ____
    plecopteran ____
       pteridology ____
       pterygoid ____
    sauropterygian ____
  7. Suffixed zero-grade form *pt-ilo‑. from Greek ptilon, soft feathers, down, plume.
       coleoptile ____
  8. Reduplicated form *pi-pt‑. from Greek piptein, to fall, with verbal adjective ptōtos (< *ptō-to‑), falling, fallen, and nominal derivatives ptōsis (< *ptō-ti‑), a fall, and ptōma (< *ptō-mn̥), a fall, fallen body, corpse.
       ptomaine ____
       ptosis ____
    asymptote 渐近线
    peripeteia ____
       proptosis n.突出,(眼球等器官)前垂
    symptom n.(疾病的)症状;(不好事情的)征兆,表征
  9. O-grade form *pot‑. from Greek potamos "rushing water," river (-amo‑, Greek suffix).
       hippopotamus 河马
       potamology 河流学
  10. Suffixed form *pet-tro‑. from Sanskrit pattram, feather, leaf.
       talipot ____
[Pokorny 2. pet‑ 825.]

   feathered adj.有羽毛的,像鸟般飞得快的
   feathering n.附装羽毛状,羽毛箭,肉桂,顺桨,丛毛
   feathery a.生有羽毛的,柔软如羽毛的
   petitioner n.请愿人,申请人
   petitioning v.祈求,请求,请愿( petition的现在分词 ),(向法庭)请求,申请
   petulance n.闹气,性急
 appetitive adj.食欲的,有食欲的,促进食欲的
 appetizer n.开胃菜,开胃食品
 appetizing adj.促进食欲的, 开胃的,鲜美的,诱人的
unappetizing adj.引不起食欲的
competition n.竞争,比赛;角逐,较量;[总称]竞争者
competitive a.竞争的;好竞争的;(价格等的)有竞争力的
competitiveness n.竞争力,好竞争
competitor n.竞争者,对手
uncompetitive adj.无竞争力的
 impetuosity n.激烈,冲动,性急
perpetuity n.永久,永恒,永远
 repeatable adj.可重复的,(实验、实验结果等)可复验的
 repeated adj.重复的,再三的
 repeater 连发枪
 repeating adj.反复的,重复的 v.重做( repeat的现在分词 ),复述,重说,重复发生
 repetition n.重复,反复
 repetitious 重复乏味的
 repetitive a.重复的,反复的
   pinned v.用针别住(pin的过去分词),刺穿,牵制 adj.用针别住的,被压制的
   pin 名词pin的复数形式. n. 腿;别针;插脚;(烧陶瓷用)烧针
asymptotic adj.渐近线的,渐近的
asymptotically 计 渐近
symptomatic adj.症状的,征候的,征兆的,有症状的,表明...的症候
symptomless adj.无症状的,无征候的

   pen adj.被关闭的,郁积的
competence n.能力,胜任;权限;足以过舒适生活的收入。等于
competency 能力;胜任;技能
competent a.有能力的,能胜任的;足够的
incompetence n.无能力,不适当 [律]无行为能力,法律上无资格
incompetency n.无能力,不适当
incompetent adj.无能力的,不胜任的;不合适的;不适当的;无力的n.无能力者
   propitiate 安抚,使息怒
   propitiation n.安抚,和解
   propitiatory 安抚的,使息怒的,为和解的
perpetuate vt.使不朽;保持adj.长存的
perpetuation n.永存,不朽

回目录↑; 075,petə-,传播展开 To spread.
To spread. Oldest form *peth2.
Derivatives include fathom, patent, and compass.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *pot(ə)-mo‑. from Old English fæthm, fathom, from Germanic *fathmaz, "length of two arms stretched out.".
       fathom n.长度单位(6英尺).v.看穿
  2. Suffixed (stative) variant zero-grade form *pat-ē‑. from Latin patēre, to be open.
       patent n.|a.专利(权)(的)
       patulous ____
  3. Probably variant zero-grade form in remade nasalized form *pat-no‑. from Latin pandere (past participle passus < *pat-to‑), to spread out.
       pace  n.步,步伐,步调,速度v.踱步,用步测
       pandy ____
       pas   n.舞步,舞蹈,<口>爸( pa的名词复数 )
       paseo ____
       pass  v.经/通/穿/度过;传递n.通行证;考试及格
       pass ____
       passim 各处,多处(书,文章注释)
       compas ____
    compass n.罗盘,指南针;(pl.)圆规
     expand v.(使)膨胀,(使)扩张;张开,展开
       Paso Fino ____
       pasqueflower ____
       passacaglia ____
       passage n.通过,经过;通路,走廊;(一)段落,(一)节
       passage-2 ____
       passport n.护照,达到某种目的的手段
     repand ____
       spawn vi.产卵.n.卵
  4. Suffixed form *pet-alo‑. from Greek petalon, leaf.
       petal n.花瓣
  5. Suffixed form *pet-ano‑. from Greek patanē (? < *petanā‑), platter, "thing spread out.".
       paella 西班牙杂烩饭
       pan   n.平底锅,盘子,面板
       paten 金属制平碟;圣餐盘;浅碟
       patina n.铜绿,绿锈,薄层,光泽,古色
       patina-2 ____
  6. from Greek petasos, broad-brimmed hat, from Greek suffixed form *peta-so‑.
       petasos ____
[Pokorny 1. pet‑ 824.]

 unfathomable adj.深不可测的,无底的,难解的
   patency n.明显
   patented 有专利权的
   patentee n.专利权所有人
   patently adv.明白地,公然地
   paced 动词pace的过去式和过去分词形式. adj. 步调的;步伐的
 impassable 不能通行的
overpass n.[美]天桥,陆桥 vt.胜过,通过,忽视
   passable 能通过的
   passably adv.尚可地,也还过得去地
   passed adj.已经通过的,已经过去的,考试及格的,(指红利)未及时发放的 v.走过( pass的过去式和过去分词 ),通过,批准,度
   passer n.过路人,使通过者
   passing n.经过,通过,消逝(死) adj.经过的,短暂的,偶然的,及格的
underpass n.地下通道
   passe 过时,陈旧
encompass vt.包含;包围,环绕;完成
 expandable adj.可张开的,可扩大的
 expanded adj.膨胀的,扩大张的,延伸的,展张开的 v.使…变大( expand的过去式和过去分词 ),扩大,伸展,伸开
 expansion n.扩张,膨胀;张开,伸展
 expansionism n.膨胀主义,扩张主义
 expansionist n.扩张主义者,领土扩张论者 adj.扩张主义的
 expansive adj.广阔的;扩张的;豪爽的
 expansiveness 膨胀性,夸张性

   patella 膝盖骨
   patellar adj.膝盖骨的
trespass vi.侵入;犯罪;打扰;冒犯n.罪过;非法侵入;过失;擅自进入
surpass passovervt.超越;胜过,优于;非…所能办到或理解
surpassing adj.无比的,非凡的,卓越的,超群的 v.超过( surpass的现在分词 ),优于,多于,非…所能办到
   pail  n.桶,提桶
   panhandle 行乞,讨钱
   panhandler n.乞丐
   panhandling v.行乞,讨钱( panhandle的现在分词 )

回目录↑; 076,peuə-,刮净 To purify, cleanse.
To purify, cleanse. Oldest form *peuh2.
Suffixed zero-grade form *pū-ro‑ (< *puh2-ro‑)
   pour  v.灌注,倾泻,涌入,流,倾盆大雨
   pur a.纯的,纯洁的;纯理论的,抽象的;完全的
   purrée ____
   purge v.净化,清洗,通便n.泻药,净化
   Puritan 清教徒;清教徒的
compurgation ____
 depurate ____
 expurgate 纯化
   purblind 半盲的;愚钝的;视力不佳的
  spurge n.大戟 from Latin pūrus, pure, and pūrgāre, to purify (< *pūr-igāre < *pūr-agāre; *ag‑, to drive; see ag- )
[Pokorny 1. peu‑ 827.]

 impure 不纯的,有杂质的
 impurity n.杂质,不纯,不洁
   purely ad.仅仅,简单地,纯粹地
   purism n.纯粹主义(指在语言,艺术等方面过于严格遵守传统规范),纯粹派(法国20世纪初的一个艺术流派),纯语主义
   purist n.纯化论者
   purity n.纯洁,纯度
   puree n.菜肴的一种,浓汤 v.(将菜,水果等)煮成浓汤,面包的一种
   purgation n.<正>清除,净化,消除不良影响,通便
   purgative 泻药,通便药物

   piety n.虔诚;孝敬;虔诚的行为或语言
 expiate 接受惩罚,赎罪
 expiation n.赎罪,补偿
   piteous 可怜的
   pitiable 可怜的
   pitiful adj.可怜的,令人同情的
   pitifully adv.可怜地,可恨地,哀
   pitiless 无情的
   pity  v.(觉得)可怜,惋惜n.憾事,怜悯
   pitying adj.怜悯的,同情的 v.同情,怜悯( pity的现在分词 ),觉得…可鄙
self-pity n.(尤指过度的)自怜,自哀
 impious 不敬的
   pious adj.虔诚的;敬神的;可嘉的;尽责的
   purgatorial adj.炼狱的,涤罪的
   purgatory 洗涤罪恶,炼狱,折磨,磨难
   puritanical adj.<贬>清教徒式的,道德极严格的
   pietism 虔诚主义
   purification n.净化;提纯;涤罪
   purifier 净化器
   purify v.净化

回目录↑; 077,peuk-,尖刺点戳 To prick.
Also peug-.
To prick. Oldest forms *peuk̑‑, *peug̑‑, becoming *peuk‑, *peug‑ in centum languages. Zero-grade form *pug‑.
  1. Suffixed form *pug-no‑. from Latin pugil, pugilist, and pugnus, fist, with denominative pugnāre, to fight with the fist.
       poniard 匕首;短剑
       pugilism 拳击;搏击
       pugil stick ____
       pugnacious 好斗的
     impugn 怀疑,质疑
     oppugn ____
     repugn ____
  2. Nasalized zero-grade form *pu-n-g‑. from Latin pungere, to prick.
       bung  瓶塞
       pink-2 ____
       poignant 刺痛的:adj.尖锐的;辛酸的;深刻的;切中要害的
       point n.尖;点;条款;分数,得分;论点v.(at,to)指
       pointillism 点描技法
       pontil ____
       pounce v.突袭 n.突袭
       pounce-3 ____
       puncheon ____
       punctilio ____
       punctual a.严守时刻的,准时的,正点的
       punctuate v.加标点于,强调
       puncture n.v.刺穿,戳破
       pungent adj.辛辣的,刺激的,尖刻的
       bontebok ____
    compunction 内疚,懊悔
     expunge 删除
       spontoon ____
    trapunto ____
  3. from Greek pugmē, fist.
       pygmaean ____
       Pygmy 侏儒;矮人
  4. Seen by some as the base of Germanic fuk(k)‑ in words related to sexual intercourse, but uncertain.
       fuck  vi.性交 vt.欺骗,利用,诅咒,与...性交 n.性交,杂种,性交对象,毫不在乎 int.他妈的
[Pokorny peuk̑‑ 828.]

   pugilist 拳击手
   pugilistic adj.拳击的,拳击家的
   poignancy n.辛辣,辛酸(事)
counterpoint n.[音]对位法,旋律配合,对应物
   pointed adj.尖角的,敏锐的,锐利的,率直的,突出的
   pointer n.指示器
   pointing n.弄尖,指示
   pointless adj.无意义的
   punctuality n.准时,守时
   punctually adv.如期地,准时地,正点
   punctuation n.标点,标点符号
   punctured v.在(某物)上穿孔( puncture的过去式和过去分词 ),刺穿(某物),削弱(某人的傲气、信心等),泄某人的气
   pungency n.(气味等的)刺激性,辣,(言语等的)辛辣,尖刻
   fucker n.傻瓜,笨蛋
   fucking adj.用以增强表示愤怒,烦恼等的语气

   pink  n.粉红色a.粉红色的
   pinkish 粉红色的
 repugnance 厌恶,恶心
 repugnant adj.讨厌的;矛盾的;敌对的
disappoint vt.失望;(希望等)破灭,挫败(计划等)
disappointed adj.失望的
disappointing adj.使人失望的,令人失望的
disappointingly adv. 使人失望地
disappointment n.失望,沮丧

回目录↑; 078,pezd-,放屁 To fart.
To fart.
  1. Suffixed form *pezd-i‑. from Old English fīsting, a breaking wind, and Middle English fisten, to fart, from Germanic *fistiz, a fart.
       feist ____
  2. from Latin pēdere, to fart.
       petard 攻城炸药箱,爆竹
  3. Perhaps Latin pēdis, louse (? < "foul-smelling insect")
       pedicular ____
[Pokorny pezd‑ 829, 2. peis‑ 796.]
Compare perd-.


   feisty adj.易怒的,活跃的

回目录↑; 079,pəter-,父亲祖国 Father.
Father. Oldest form *ph2ter‑.
  1. from Old English fæder, father, from Germanic *fadar.
       father n.父亲;创始人,发明者;(Father)神父
    forefather n.祖先,祖宗
  2. from Latin pater, father.
       padre 牧师,神父
       pater ____
       paternal adj.父亲的;得自父亲的;父亲般的
       patri- 父亲
       patrician 贵族的,上流社会的
       patrimony 文物,祖传遗产
       patron 父亲:n.赞助人;保护人;主顾。古罗马时期平民依赖贵族为生,须仰仗其庇护,尊称为patron(父亲)。后引申为“保护
       père ____
       compadre 老兄
     expatriate 逐出祖国:vt.使移居国外;流放,放逐;使放弃国籍vi.移居国外;放弃原国籍n.被流放者;移居国外者adj
       goombah ____
    perpetrate v.犯
  3. from Greek patēr, father.
       patri- 父亲
       patriot 同胞:n.爱国者
    allopatric ____
     eupatrid ____
    parapatric ____
       patriarch n.家长;族长;元老;创始人
    sympatric adj.(生态)分布区重叠的,同域的
[Pokorny pətḗ (r) 829.]

   fatherhood n.父亲的身份,父性,父权
   fathering 医父爱
   fatherless adj.无父的
   fatherly adj.父亲的,慈父般的
   paternalism 家长式制度,专制
   paternalistic adj.家长式的
   paternity n.父权;父系;父系后裔
   patrimonial adj.祖传的
   patroness n.女资助人,女赞助者,女主顾
   patronize vt.以高人一等的态度对待;经常光顾,惠顾;资助;保护
   patronizing adj.要人领情的;自视高人一等的;屈尊俯就的;以恩人态度自居的
perpetration n.做坏事,犯罪
perpetrator n.犯罪者,作恶者
   patriotic adj.爱国的,有爱国心的
   patriotically adv.爱国地;忧国地
   patriotism n.爱国主义;爱国心,爱国精神
   patriarchal adj.家长;族长;元老;创始人

 repatriate 遣返
 repatriation n.遣送回国;调回本国
   pattern n.模式,式样;图案,图样v.仿制,模仿
   patterned adj.有图案的,组成图案的 v.模仿,以图案装饰,复写,使形成
   patterning n.图案装饰,图案结构,图形,制定模式 v.模仿( pattern的现在分词 ),以图案装饰,复写,使形成

回目录↑; 080,plāk-1,平坦舒畅 To be flat.
Also plak-.
To be flat. Earliest form *pleh2k‑, colored to *plah2k‑, becoming *plāk‑. Extension of pelə-2.
Derivatives include fluke1, flaw1, plead, placenta, and archipelago.
  1. from Old Norse flō, layer, coating, from Germanic *flōhō.
       floe  浮冰
  2. Variant form *plāg‑.
    1. from Old English flōc, flatfish, from Germanic *flōk‑;
         fluke n.侥幸,偶然的机会
    2. from Middle English flake, flake, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Norwegian flak, flat piece, flake, from Germanic *flakaz;
         flake n.薄片.v.使成薄片,剥落
    3. from Old Norse flaki, fleki, hurdle, from Germanic *flak‑.
         flake-2 ____
  3. Extended form *plakā‑. from Old Norse flaga, layer of stone, from Germanic *flagō.
       flag-4 ____
       flaw  n.缺点,瑕疵
  4. Possibly suffixed (stative) form *plak-ē‑, to be calm (as of the flat sea) from Latin placēre, to please, be agreeable.
       placebo n.安慰剂;为死者所诵的晚祷词。源自葬礼所唱晚祷词中的第一句。
       placid 令人愉悦的:adj.平静的;安静的;温和的;沉着的
       plea  n.恳求,请求,辩解,藉口
       plead vt.借口;为...辩护;托称vi.恳求;辩护
       pleasant a.令人愉快的vt.使高兴vi.满意;喜欢
       please v.请;使愉快,使满意;喜欢,愿意
    complacent adj.自满的;得意的;满足的
  5. Root noun *plak‑. from Latin supplex, suppliant (whence denominative supplicāre, to beg humbly, first attested in Archaic Latin as sub vos placō, I entreat you; sub, under; see upo ).
    supplicate 祈求,哀求
    supple adj.柔软的,逢迎的,顺从的 vt.使柔软,使顺从 vi.变柔顺
  6. Lengthened suffixed form *plāk-ā‑. from Latin plācāre, to calm (causative of placēre).
       placable 可安抚的,易抚慰的
       placate vt.抚慰;怀柔;使和解
  7. Nasalized form *pla-n-k‑. from Latin plancus, flat, flat-footed.
       planchet ____
       plank n.厚木板(条)
  8. Variant form *plag‑.
    1. Perhaps Latin plaga, net (? < "something extended")
         plagiary ____
    2. from Greek plagos, side.
         plagal ____
         plagio-
         playa ____
  9. Root form *plak‑. from Greek plax, flat, flat land, surface, plate.
       placenta 胎盘
       placoid ____
       leukoplakia ____
       placoderm ____
  10. Possible variant form *pelag‑. from Greek pelagos, sea.
       pelagic 远海的,远洋的
    archipelago 海洋的首领:n.群岛,多岛的海。古希腊人将爱琴海视为“海之首领”,该海区多岛屿,故该词含义转为“多岛的海,群岛”[
[Pokorny 1. plā-k‑ 831.]

   flaky adj.薄片的,成片的,薄而易剥落的,[美俚]极古怪的,与常人不同的
   flawed adj.有缺点的,有缺陷的,错误的
   flawless adj.无瑕疵的,无缺点的,无裂缝的
   placidity n.平静
   placidly adv.平稳地,平静地
   pleaded 动词plead的过去式和过去分词. adj. 辩护的;恳求的
   pleading n.辩论,起诉,答辩 adj.恳求的
   pleadingly adv.祈求地,诉愿地
displease vt.使生气,触怒vi.变得令人生气,导致不快
displeased adj.不开心的,生气的,被得罪了的 v.冒犯,使生气,使不愉快( displease的过去式和过去分词 )
displeasure n.不愉快;不满意;悲伤
   pleased adj.高兴的,满足的
   pleaser 取悦;使高兴;愿意;使满意
   pleasing adj.令人高兴的,愉快的,合意的
   pleasingly adv.高兴地;喜欢地
   pleasurable adj.快乐的,愉快的,合意的
   pleasurably adv.愉快地,舒适地,快乐地,欢愉地
   pleasure n.愉快,快乐;乐事,乐趣
 unpleasant a.不愉快的,不合意的
complacency n.自满;满足;自鸣得意
complacently adv.满足地,自满地,扬扬
   suppliant 祈求者,哀求者
supplication 祈求,哀求
suppleness n.柔软,灵活,易弯曲,顺从
 implacable adj.不能安抚的;难和解的;不能缓和的
 implacably adv.无法平息地,难以和解地,无法和解地,执拗地难宽恕地
   placatory 安抚的,抚慰的
   placatory 安抚的,抚慰的
   planking 木板,板条
   placental 胎盘的

   flag  n.旗
   flagged 铺石板的
   flagging n.铺砌石板,铺石材料,石板路 adj.下垂的,衰弱的,委顿的,逐渐衰退(或减退、低落)的
 unflagging 不减弱的
   plagiarism n.剽窃,剽窃物
   plagiarist n.剽窃者,文抄公
   plagiarize 抄袭,剽窃
supplement n.补遗;增刊;附录v.增刊,补充
supplemental adj.补充的,追加的
supplementary a.增补的,补充的
supplementation n.增补,补充
irreplaceable adj.不能调换的,不能代替的
 replace vt.取代,替换,代替,把...放回原处
 replaceable adj.可代替的
 replacement n.取代,替换,替换物,代替物
supplicant 祈求者,哀求者

回目录↑; 081,plāk-2,撞击抱怨 To strike.
To strike. Oldest form *pleh2k‑, colored to *plah2k‑, becoming *plāk‑.
  1. Nasalized variant forms *pla-n-k‑, *pla-n-g‑.
    1. from Middle English flingen, to fling, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse flengja, to flog, whip, from Germanic *flang‑;
         fling v.(用力地)扔,抛,丢
    2. from Latin plangere, to strike (one's own breast), lament;
         plaint 起诉,诉状,凄凉的声音
         plangent 哀婉的,凄凉的
      complain v.(about,of)抱怨;申诉
    3. suffixed form *plang-yo‑. from Greek plazein, to drive away, turn aside.
         plankton 浮游生物
  2. Variant form *plāg‑. from Latin plāga, a blow, stroke.
       plague n.瘟疫,灾害,麻烦,苦恼vt.折磨,使苦恼
  3. Suffixed form *plāk-yo‑. from Greek plēssein, to beat, strike.
       plectrum 琴拨,拨子
      -plegia
       plexor ____
    apoplexy 中风
    cataplexy ____
    paraplegia 截瘫
[Pokorny 2. plāk‑ 832.]

   flung v.fling的过去式及过去分词
complainant n.发牢骚的人,原告
complainer n.爱发牢骚的人;牢骚满腹的人
uncomplainingly 顺从的;没有怨言的;忍受痛苦的
apoplectic 大怒的
paraplegic adj.(患)截瘫的 n.截瘫患者

   plaintive adj.悲哀的,哀伤的
complaint n.抱怨,诉苦,怨言,控告;疾病

回目录↑; 082,plat-,植被广场 To spread.
Also pletə-.
To spread. (Oldest form *pletə2). Extension of pelə-2.
Derivatives include flatter1, plant, plateau, platitude, and plaza.
  1. Variant form *plad‑.
    1. from Old Norse flatr, flat;
         flat  a.平坦的,扁平的,平淡的n.一套房间;平面
    2. from Old French flater, to flatter. Both a and b from Germanic *flataz, flat.
         flatter vt.过分夸赞,奉承,使满意
  2. Suffixed variant form *plad-yo‑. from Old English flet(t), floor, dwelling, from Germanic *flatjam.
       flat-2 ____
  3. Basic form *plat‑. from Late Latin fladō, flat cake, pancake, from Germanic *flathō(n), flat cake.
       flan  果馅饼
  4. from Anglo-Norman floundre, flounder, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Swedish flundra, flatfish, flounder, from Germanic suffixed nasalized form *flu-n-th-r-jō‑.
       flounder-2 ____
  5. Nasalized form *pla-n-t‑. from Latin planta, sole of the foot, and denominative plantāre, to drive in with the sole of the foot, plant, whence planta, a plant.
       clan  n.氏族,部落
       plan  n.计划,规划;平面图,设计图v.计划
       plant n.植物,作物;工厂;装置v.栽种,播种,栽培
       plantain n.[植] 车前草,香蕉之一种
       plantar 跖的,足底的
       plantigrade 脚掌着地行走的,跖行动物
    supplant 踩在脚下vt.代替;排挤掉
    transplant n./v.移植(植物;组织,器官等);迁移;
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *pl̥t(ə)-u‑. from Greek platus, flat, broad.
       piazza n.广场,走廊,露天市场
       place n.地方;名次;地位;寓所v.安排;放置;投(资)
       plaice
       plane-4 ____
       plane tree ____
       plate n.金属板,片;盘子,盆子;板,钢板v.镀,电镀
       plateau 平坦的地方:n.高原,平稳时期
       Plateresque ____
       platina ____
       platinum n.白金,铂
       platitude 陈词滥调,老生常谈
       platy-2 ____
       platy-
       plaza n.广场;市场,购物中心
       plateosaurus ____
[Pokorny plā̆t‑ 833.]

displace vt.取代;置换;转移;把…免职;排水
displaced v.移动( displace的过去式和过去分词 ),替换,移走,撤职
displacement n.取代,位移;[船]排水量
 implacable adj.不能安抚的;难和解的;不能缓和的
 implacably adv.无法平息地,难以和解地,无法和解地,执拗地难宽恕地
misplace vt.放错地方
misplacement n.误放,遗忘,错位
   placement n.放置,布置,[足][橄]定位球
   placing n.(未经许可)出售
 unplaced 未进入前三名的
   flatly adv.平平地,水平地,无力气地
   flatness n.平面,实音
   flatten v.变平,变单调
   flattening n.整平,扁率 v.变平,使(某物)变平( flatten的现在分词 ),彻底打败某人,使丢脸,停止增长(或上升),(把身体或
   flatterer n.奉承者
   flattering adj.谄媚的,讨人欢喜的,奉承的,(肖像等)比真容更美丽
   flattery n.谄媚,阿谀,巴结,奉承,捧场话,恭维话,谄媚的举动
 unflattering 不恭维的
   clannish adj.<常贬>(一伙人)自成一帮的,排外的
   planner n.计划者
   planning n.计划编制,规划
   plantation n.种植园
   planter n.种植者,耕作者,种植园主,殖民者
   planting n.种植,栽培,装备
   plantlet n.小植物,苗
 replant v.再植,改种,移植
transplantation n.移植,迁移,移民
   plated adj.镀金的,电镀的,装甲的,鸳鸯布的 v.给…装甲(plate的过去式),电镀
   plateful n.(一)满盘,一盘
   plating 镀层,金属板外层

   flounder vi.(在水中)挣扎,困难地往前走,踌躇,发慌 n.挣扎,辗转,比目鱼
   floundering v.(常指在水中)挣扎( flounder的现在分词 ),挣扎,漫无目标

回目录↑; 083,plek-,编织折叠 To plait.
To plait. Extension of pel-2 . Oldest form *plek̑‑, becoming *plek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include flax, pliant, and perplex.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *plok-so‑. from Old English fleax, flax, from Germanic *flahsam, flax.
       flax  黄麻
  2. Full-grade form *plek‑. from Latin -plex, -fold (in compounds such as duplex, twofold; see dwo- ).
    multiplex 多厅影院
  3. from Latin plicāre, to fold (also in compounds used as denominatives of words in -plex, genitive -plicis).
       plait 辫子
       pleat
       pliant 柔顺的,温顺的
       plica ____
       plicate ____
       plight n.困境,婚约.v.保证
       pliissé ____
       ply   v.不停使用,辛勤工作,忙于,定期来往,不断供给
     apply  vi.(以书面形式)申请;请求vt.应用;实施
    complicate v.使..复杂;使..难懂;使(疾病等)恶化;
    complice ____
     deploy unfold:n.部署v.部署,展开,使疏开
    display v./n.陈列,展览,显示(器)
     employ n./v.雇用;用,使用
     explicate 解释清楚的
     explicit a.详述的,明确的;坦率的;显然的
     exploit v.开拓;开发;剥削n.功绩[勋];业绩
     implicate vt.使卷入,连累,涉及,暗指
     implicit a.含蓄的;(in)固有的;无疑问的;绝对的
     replicate 再次折叠:v.复制,折叠adj.复制的,折叠的
     reply  v./n.(to)回答,答复,以…作答
      splay v.张开
  4. Suffixed forms *plek-to‑ and *plek-t-to‑. from Latin plectere (past participle plexus), to weave, plait, entwine.
       pleach ____
       plexus 血管,淋巴管,神经等的丛
     amplexicaul ____
     amplexus ____
    complect ____
    complex a.复杂的;合成的,综合的n.联合体
    perplexed adj.困惑的,不知所措的
  5. from Greek plekein, to plait, twine, and plektos, twisted.
       plecopteran ____
[Pokorny plek̑‑ 834.]

   pliable 易弯曲的
   pliers n.钳子,老虎钳
 applicability n.适用性,适应性
 applicable a.可应用(实施)的;适当的,合适的
 applicant n.申请者,请求者
 application n.申请,请求,申请书;应用,实施,实用性
 applied adj.应用的,实用的
inapplicable 不适用的
complicated a.错综复杂的,麻烦的,难解的
complication n.并发症;复杂;复杂化;混乱
uncomplicated adj.简单的,不复杂的,医无合并症的
 deployment n.部署,调度
redeploy 重新部署
redeployment n.调动,调配,重新布署
displayed v.显示( display的过去式和过去分词 ),陈列,张开,泄露
 employable adj.称职的,有资格任职的
 employee n.雇工,雇员
 employer n.雇主
 employment n.雇用;使用;工作,职业
self-employed adj.自己经营的
underemployed adj.未充分就业的,学非所用的 n.大材小用的人
unemployable adj.不能受雇的 n.不能受雇者
unemployed a.失业的,未被利用的
unemployment n.失业,失业人数
 explicable 可解释的
 explication n.说明
inexplicable adj.费解的;无法说明的;不能解释的
inexplicably adv.无法说明地,难以理解地,令人难以理解的是
 explicitness 须直接付款
 exploitation n.开发,开采;利用,剥削
 exploitative adj.开发资源的,剥削的
 exploiter n.开拓者,开发者
 exploitive adj.开发资源的,剥削的
unexploited adj.未被利用的,未经开发的
 replica n.复制品,复制物
 replication n.复制;回答;反响
complexion 体液的综合:n.肤色;面色;情况;局面(古代人认为体液决定人的性格和体质,而肤色是其表现之一)
complexity n.复杂,复杂性;复杂错综的事物
perplex vt.使困惑,使为难;使复杂化
perplexity n.困惑,混乱,复杂,困难

 applique 贴花
 implication n.含意,暗示,暗指;牵连
 implied adj.暗指的,含蓄的 v.暗示,暗指( imply的过去式和过去分词 ),必然包含,说明,表明

回目录↑; 084,pleu-,流动飞行 To flow.
To flow.
Derivatives include pulmonary, Pluto, flow, fowl, flutter, and fluster.
  1. Basic form *pleu‑.
    1. from Latin pluere, to rain.
         plover n.千鸟
         pluvial 雨的,洪水的
         pluvious ____
    2. from Greek plein (< *plewein), to swim.
         pleopod ____
    3. from Greek pleusis, sailing.
         pleuston ____
    4. Suffixed zero-grade form *plu-elos. from Greek dissimilated puelos, trough, basin.
         pyelitis ____
    5. Suffixed form *pl(e)u-mon‑, "floater," lung(s).
      1. from Latin pulmō (< *plumonēs), lung(s);
           pulmonary adj.肺部的
      2. from Greek pleumōn, pneumōn (influenced by pneuma, breath; see pneu- ), lung.
           pneumo-
           pneumonia n.[医] 肺炎
           pneumonic 肺的,与肺相关的
    6. Suffixed o-grade form *plou-to‑. from Greek ploutos, wealth, riches (< "overflowing").
         Pluto 冥王星
         plutocracy 财阀统治
    7. Lengthened o-grade form *plō(u)‑.
        1. from Old English flōwan, to flow;
             flow  v.流,流动n.流量,流速
        2. perhaps Middle Dutch vluwe, fishnet Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *flōwan, to flow.
             flue-2 ____
      1. suffixed form *plō-tu‑. from Old English flōd, flood, from Germanic *flōduz, flowing water, deluge.
           flood n.洪水,水灾v.淹没,发大水,泛滥
  2. Extended form *pleuk‑.
    1. from Old English flēogan, to fly, from Germanic *fleugan, to fly.
         fly   n.飞行;苍蝇v飞行;飘杨a.机敏的
    2. from Old English flēoge, a fly, from Germanic *fleugōn‑, flying insect, fly.
         fly-2 ____
    3. Probably Germanic *fleuhan, to run away. from Old English flēon, to flee.
         flee  v.逃走;逃避
    4. from Old English flȳgan, flēgan, to put to flight, from Germanic causative *flaugjan.
         fley  ____
    5. from Old French fleche, arrow, from Germanic suffixed form *fleug-ika.
         fllèche ____
         fletcher ____
    6. Zero-grade form *pluk‑.
      1. from Old English *flycge, with feathers (only in unfligge, featherless), from Germanic *flugja‑, feather;
           fledge vi.(鸟)长羽毛 vt.给(箭)装上羽毛,把(小鸟)养到能够飞翔,用羽毛绒羽装饰,给…装上羽毛绒毛
      2. from Old English flyht, act of flying, and *flyht, act of fleeing, escape, from Germanic suffixed form *flug-ti‑;
           flight n.飞翔,飞行;航班;航程;逃跑;楼梯的一段
           flight-2 ____
      3. from Old English fugol, bird, from Germanic *fuglaz, bird, dissimilated from possible (but unlikely) suffixed form *flug-laz;
           fowl  n.家禽,禽,禽肉 v.捕野禽
      4. from Middle High German vlügel, wing, from Germanic suffixed form *flug-ilaz.
           flugelhorn 活塞军号
           fugleman ____
  3. Extended form *pleud‑.
    1. from Old English flēotan, to float, swim (from Germanic *fleutan), and Old Norse fljōtr, fleet, swift (from Germanic *fleutaz).
         fleet n.舰队,船队
         fleet-2 ____
    2. Zero-grade form *plud‑.
        1. from Old English flotian, to float;
             float n.飘浮;漂流物v.浮动;漂浮;传播;动摇
        2. from Old French floter, to float. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic derivative *flotōn, to float.
             flotsam 漂浮物
      1. from Old Norse floti, raft, fleet;
           flotilla 小型舰队
      2. from Old English floterian, flotorian, to float back and forth (-erian, iterative and frequentative suffix);
           flutter vi.振翼,(脉搏|心脏)不规则跳动.vt.使..焦急
      3. from Old Norse flytja, to further, convey, from Germanic *flutjan, to float. a-d all from Germanic *flut‑, *flot‑.
           fli n. vi.掠过,迁徙,迅速飞过,(鸟,蝙蝠等)飞来飞去
    3. probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Icelandic flaustr hurry and flaustra to bustle from Germanic *flausta‑ contracted from suffixed form *flaut-stā‑ probably from *pleud‑ o-grade *ploud‑
         fluster 忙乱,紧张
[Pokorny pleu‑ 835, pl(e)u-mon‑ 837.]

   plutocrat 财阀
   flowing adj.流动的, (轮廓等)圆滑的,下垂的 v.流( flow的现在分词 ),垂,流出,(谈话、文体等)流畅
 inflow n.流入,流入物
overflow n.溢出,超值,泛滥,充满,洋溢 v.(使)泛滥,(使)溢出,(使)充溢
   flooding n.泛滥,化溢流,医血崩,产后出血 v.淹没(flood的现在分词),充满,溢出
   flew  vbl.fly的过去式
   flier n.飞行者,快车,宣传单
   flown vbl.fly的过去分词
   flyer n.飞鸟,飞行物,飞行员,飞跳,(广告)传单,[美俚]孤注一掷
   flying adj.飞扬的,飞速的 n.飞行,飞花
   fled  vbl.flee的过去式及过去分词
   fledged 羽翼已丰的
   flightless adj.(鸟或昆虫)不能飞的
overflight n.飞越领空
   fleeting adj.疾驰的,飞逝的,短暂的,稍纵即逝,翩
   fleetingly adv.飞快地,疾驰地
   floater n.漂浮者,漂浮物,浮子,游民
   floating adj.漂浮的,浮动的,移动的,流动的,不固定的
   floaty adj.能浮起的,吃水浅的
   flotation n.浮游选矿,(公开发行股票)开办新公司

   flu 烟道
   flitter vi.飞来飞去,匆忙来往 n.一掠而过的东西

回目录↑; 085,pneu-,呼吸鼻声 To breathe.
To breathe. Imitative root.
  1. from Old English fnēosan, to sneeze, from Germanic *fneu-s‑.
       sneeze n.喷嚏vi.打喷嚏
  2. from Old English fnora, sneezing, from Germanic *fnu-s‑.
       snore v.打鼾,打着鼾渡过(时间) n.打鼾,鼾声
       snort v.喷鼻息 n.喷鼻息
  3. from Greek pnein, to breathe, with o-grade nouns pnoiā, -pnoia, breathing, and pnoē, breath.
      apnea n.无呼吸,呼吸暂停,窒息
       dipnoan ____
    dyspnea n.呼吸困难
     eupnea ____
    hyperpnea ____
    hypopnea ____
    polypnea ____
    tachypnea ____
  4. Suffixed form *pneu-mn̥. from Greek pneuma, breath, wind, spirit.
       pneuma ____
       pneumatic adj.装满空气的,有气胎的,汽力的,风力的,灵魂的 n.气胎
       pneumato-
       pneumo-
       amphiuma ____
  5. Germanic variant root *fnes‑. from Old English fnǣran, to snort, gnash one's teeth.
       sneer v.冷笑,讥笑,嘲笑 n.冷笑,嘲笑
[Pokorny pneu‑ 838.]


回目录↑; 086,pō(i)-,泼水喝汤 To drink.
To drink. Oldest form *peh3(i)‑, colored to *poh3(i)‑.
  1. Basic form *pō(i)‑, reduced to *pō‑ (< *poh3).
    1. Suffixed form *pō-to‑. from Latin pōtus, drunk; a drink (whence pōtāre, to drink).
         potable 可饮用的
         potation 饮料;畅饮
         potatory ____
    2. Suffixed form *pō-ti‑. from Latin pōtiō, a drink.
         poison n.毒物,毒药v.放毒,毒害,污染
         potion n.一剂;一服;饮剂
    3. Suffixed form *pō-tlo‑, drinking vessel. from Sanskrit pātram, cup, bowl.
         hibachi n.(日本)木炭火盆
    4. Suffixed reduplicated zero-grade form *pi-pə-o‑ (oldest form *pi-ph3-o‑), whence *pi-bo‑, assimilated to *bi-bo‑. from Latin bibere, to drink.
         beer  n.啤酒
         beverage n.饮料
         bib   围嘴
         bibulous 爱喝酒的
       imbibe 喝,饮,吸收
         imbrue ____
    5. Suffixed zero-grade form *pə-ti‑ (oldest form *ph3-ti‑), *po-ti‑. from Greek posis, drink, drinking.
      symposium 一道饮酒:n.讨论会,座谈会;专题论文集;酒宴,宴会
  2. Zero-grade form *pī‑ (< *piə‑).
    1. Suffixed form *pī-ro‑. from Slavic *pirŭ, feast (Old Church Slavonic pirŭ).
         pierogi ____
         pirozhki ____
    2. Suffixed (nasal present) form *pī-no‑. from Greek pīnein, to drink.
         pinocytosis ____
[Pokorny 2. pō(i)‑ 839.]

   pot   n.罐,壶
   potted adj.盆栽的,瓶或罐装的,浓缩的
   potter n.陶工,制陶工人
   pottery n.陶器,陶器厂
   poisoner n.毒害者
   poisoning n.中毒
   poisonous a.有毒的,恶意的,恶毒的,道德败坏的
   beers n. 一杯(或一瓶、一罐)啤酒;啤酒
   beery adj.啤酒的,象啤酒的,啤酒喝醉的

回目录↑; 087,porko-,幼猪 Young pig.
Young pig. Oldest form *pork̑o‑, becoming *porko‑ in centum languages.
    1. from Old English fearh, little pig;
         farrow 一窝仔猪
    2. from Middle Dutch diminutive form varken, small pig. Both a and b from Germanic *farhaz.
         aardvark 土豚
  1. from Latin porcus, pig.
       porcelain 状如乳猪阴户般光洁的贝壳:n.瓷;瓷器adj.瓷制的;精美的
       porcine 像猪的
       pork  n.猪肉
       porcupine 豪猪,箭猪
       porpoise 海豚,鼠海豚
[Pokorny pork̑o-s 841.]


回目录↑; 088,poti-,有效能 Powerful ; lord.
Powerful; lord.
  1. from Latin potis (> *pots > pos‑), powerful, able.
       podesta ____
       possess v.占有,拥有
       power n.力,精力;功率,电力;(数学)幂;权力,势力
  2. from Latin compound posse, to be able (contracted from potis, able + esse, to be; see es- ).
       possible a.可能的,做得到的;合理的;可允许的
       potent adj.有效的,强有力的,有权势的,有说服力的
     impotent adj.无力的;无效的;虚弱的;阳萎的
       omnipotent 全能的
    prepotent ____
  3. Form *pot‑.
    1. Compound *ghos-pot‑ (see ghos-ti-);
    2. compound *dems-pot‑ (see dem-).
    1. from Sanskrit patiḥ, lord;
         vanaspati ____
    2. from Old Persian pati‑, master. Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *pati‑, lord.
         bashaw ____
         Padishah ____
         pasha n.帕夏(旧时奥斯曼帝国和北非高级文武官的称号,置于姓名后),高级文(武)官
[Pokorny poti-s 842.]

 impossibility n.不可能(性),不可能的事(情况)
 impossible a.不可能的;难以忍受的,很难对付的
 impossibly adv.不可能地,无法可想
   possibility n.可能,可能性;可能的事,希望
   possibly ad.可能地,也许;无论如何
 impotence n.无能为力,医阳痿,阴痿
 impotency n.无力,性无能
   potency n.效能;力量;潜力;权势
   potential a.潜在的,可能的n.潜能,潜力
   potentiality 潜力
   potentially ad.潜在地
   omnipotence n.全能,万能,无限威力

overpower vt.制服,压倒,供给...过强的力量
   powered adj.有动力装置的,用动力推动的
   powerful a.强大的,有力的,有权的
   powerfully ad.非常地,强有力地
   powerless adj.无能力的
   potentiate vt.使强有力,增强(尤指药物)效能,使可能

回目录↑; 089,prek-,恳求祈祷 To ask, entreat.
To ask, entreat. Oldest form *prek̑‑, becoming *prek‑ in centum languages.
  1. Basic form *prek‑. from *prex, prayer (attested only in the plural precēs), with Latin denominative precārī, to entreat, pray.
       pray  v.请求,恳求;祈祷,祈求
       prayer n.祈祷,祷告,祷文
       precarious 恳求得到的:adj.危险的,不牢靠的
     deprecate 强烈反对
     imprecate 诅咒
       prie-dieu ____
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *pr̥k-sk‑ becoming *pork-sk‑, contracted to *posk‑ in suffixed form *posk-to‑, contracted to *posto‑. from Latin postulāre, to ask, request.
       postulate vt.假定;要求;视…为理所当然n.基本条件;假定
     expostulate 抗议,争执
[Pokorny 4. perk̑‑ 821.]

   prayerful adj.常常祷告的,虔诚的
 imprecation 咒骂
   postulation n.假定,公设
 expostulation 规劝,告诫

回目录↑; 090,preus-,冻结燃烧 To freeze, burn.
To freeze, burn.
  1. from Old English frēosan, to freeze, from Germanic *freusan, to freeze.
       freeze v.使结冰,使凝固
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *prus-to‑. from Old English forst, frost, frost, from Germanic *frustaz, frost.
       frost n.霜,霜冻,严寒
  3. Suffixed form *preus-i‑. from Latin denominative prūrīre, to burn, itch, yearn for, from *preusis, *preuris, act of burning.
       prurient 好色的,下作的
       prurigo ____
       pruritus n.搔痒症,风痒
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *prus-wīnā‑. from Latin pruīna, hoarfrost.
       pruinose ____
[Pokorny preus‑ 846.]

antifreeze n.防冻剂
   freezer n.制冰淇淋者,冷藏工人
   freezing a.冰冻的,严寒的
   froze vbl.freeze 的过去式
   frozen adj.冻结的,冷冰的,冷酷的 vbl.freeze的过去分词
 unfreeze vt.融化,使解冻
 unfrozen v.融化,使解冻( unfreeze的过去分词 )
 defrost 解冻
 defroster n.除冰(或霜)装置,防结冰(或霜)装置
   frosted adj.被霜覆盖的,受霜害的
   frostily adv.寒冷地,冷漠地,冷峻地
   frosting n.霜状白糖,玻璃粉,无光泽面
   frosty adj.结霜的,严寒的,霜状的,冷淡的,(头发)灰白的,多霜
   prurience n.<正><贬>好色,迷恋,淫欲,(焦躁等的)渴望

回目录↑; 091,prī-,爱喜欢 To love.
To love. Oldest form *prihx (becoming *priy‑ before vowels).
Derivatives include filibuster, friend, and Friday.
  1. Suffixed form *priy-o‑.
    1. from Old English frēo, free, and frēon, freogan, to love, set free;
         free  a.自由的;免费的;免税的;空闲的vt.释放
    2. from Dutch vrij, free. Both a and b from Germanic *frijaz, beloved, belonging to the loved ones, not in bondage, free, and *frijōn, to love.
         filibuster n.掠夺兵,暴兵,海盗 vi.掠夺,阻饶议事 vt.阻碍议案通过
         freebooter 战争掠夺者
  2. Suffixed (participial) form *priy-ont‑, loving. from Old English frīond, frēond, friend, from Germanic *frijand‑, lover, friend.
       friend n.朋友
  3. Suffixed shortened form *pri-tu‑.
    1. from Old High German fridu, peace;
      Siegfried ____
    2. from Old French esfreer, to disturb, from Vulgar Latin *exfredāre, to break the peace, from ex‑, out, away (see eghs ) + *fridāre, to make peace, from Germanic *frithu‑, peace;
       affray 打架
        afraid adj.害怕的,恐惧的;犯愁的,不乐意的
    3. Germanic *frij‑, peace, safety, in compound *berg-frij‑ (see bhergh-2). a-c all from Germanic *frithuz, peace.
  4. Suffixed feminine form *priy-ā‑, beloved.
    1. from Old Norse Frigg, goddess of the heavens, wife of Odin;
         Frigg ____
    2. from Old English Frīgedæg, Friday, from Germanic compound *frije-dagaz, "day of Frigg" (translation of Latin Veneris diēs, "Venus's day"). Both a and b from Germanic *frijjō, beloved, wife.
         Friday n.星期五
[Pokorny prāi‑ 844.]

   freely ad.自由地,慷慨地
   freer n. 给予自由的人或事物; adj. 更自由的
   friendless adj.没有朋友的,无依无靠的,飘零无依
   friendliness n.友谊,友善
   friendly a.友好的,友谊的
   friendship n.友谊,友好
 unfriendly adv.不友善地,不利地

回目录↑; 092,pū̆-2(pū̆-),脓包腐烂 To rot, decay.
To rot, decay. Probably from earlier *puhx (becoming *puw‑ before vowels).
Derivatives include foul, fuzzy, potpourri, and pus.
  1. Suffixed form *pū-lo‑.
    1. from Old English fūl, unclean, rotten;
         foul  a.邪恶的,下流的.n.犯规.v.弄脏
    2. from Old Norse fūll, foul;
         fulmar 暴风鹱(海鸟)
    3. from Old English fȳlth, foulness, from Germanic abstract noun *fūlithō;
         filth n.污秽,污物,不洁,猥亵
    4. from Old English fȳlan, to sully, from Germanic denominative *fūljan, to soil, dirty. a-d all from Germanic *fūlaz, rotten, filthy.
         file-3 ____
         foil  n.箔,金属薄片
       defile ①玷污②山中狭径
  2. Extended form *pug‑. from Middle English fog, fogge, aftermath grass, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Icelandic fūki, rotten sea grass, and Norwegian fogg, rank grass, from Germanic *fuk‑.
       fog-2 ____
  3. Extended variant form *pous‑. from Low German fussig, spongy, from Germanic *fausa‑.
       fuzzy adj.有绒毛的,模糊的,失真的
  4. Suffixed form *pu-tri‑. from Latin puter (stem putri‑), rotten.
       putrescent 腐败的;将腐烂的
       putrid 腐败的,腐臭的
       puttanesca ____
       olla podrida ____
       potpourri 百花香,集锦,大杂烩
       putrefy 腐败,腐化
  5. Suffixed form *puw-os‑.
    1. from Latin pūs, pus;
         purulent 化脓的
         pus  
      suppurate 化脓
    2. from Greek puon, puos, pus.
         pyo- 
  6. from Greek compound empuein, to suppurate (en‑, in; see en ).
       empyema ____
[Pokorny 2. pū̆‑ 848.]

   fouling n.(水管、枪筒等中的)污垢 v.使污秽( foul的现在分词 ),弄脏,击球出界,(通常用废物)弄脏
   foulness n.纠缠,卑鄙
   filthy adj.不洁的,污秽的,丑恶的
   foiled adj.有叶形装饰的 v.挫败,使受挫折( foil的过去式和过去分词 )
 defilement n.弄脏,污辱,污秽
   fuzz  n.细毛,绒毛,警员 vi.变成绒毛状,作绒毛状飞散 vt.起毛,使模糊
   fuzzily 模糊不清地
   fuzziness 模糊,模糊性,不清晰,毛丝
   putrefaction 腐败,腐化
suppurative 化脓的

   puss  猫咪,小猫
   fog   n.雾气,雾v.以雾笼罩,被雾笼罩
   foggy adj.雾深的,模糊的,朦胧的,(玻璃窗等)不明净的

回目录↑; 093,dā-,打开分割 To divide.
To divide. Oldest form *deh2, colored to *dah2, becoming *dā‑.
Derivatives include democracy, epidemic, demon, and time.
  1. Suffixed form *dā-mo‑, perhaps "division of society." from Greek dēmos, people, land.
       dem ____
       demos 人民;民众;古希腊城邦平民;名词demo的复数形式.
       demotic 人民的,通俗的
       demagogue 蛊惑民心的政客
       demiurge 巨匠造物主
       democracy n.民主,民主制,民主国家
       demography 人口统计学
     endemic 在某群体内的(疫病)n.地方性的;风土的n.地方病
    epidemic a.流行性的;传染的n.流行病;传播
    pandemic 全民的(疫病):adj.(疾病等)全国流行的;普遍的n.流行性疾病
  2. Variant *dai‑, from extended form *daəi‑, with zero-grade *dī‑ (< *diə‑, metathesized from *dəi‑).
    1. Root form *dai‑. from Greek daiesthai, to divide.
         geodesy ____
    2. Suffixed form *dai-mon‑, divider, provider. from Greek daimōn, divinity.
         daimon ____
         demon n.魔鬼,极残忍的人
    3. Suffixed variant form *dī-ti‑.
      1. from Old English tīd, time, season;
           tid n.潮,潮汐;潮流,趋势
        eventide 黄昏
      2. from Old English denominative tīdan, to happen (< "to occur in time");
           tide-2 ____
      3. from Old Norse tīdhr, occurring;
           tidings 消息,音讯
      4. from Old High German zīt, time. a-d all from Germanic *tīdiz, division of time.
           Yahrzeit ____
           zeitgeber ____
           Zeitgeist ____
    4. Suffixed variant form *dī-mon‑. from Old English tīma, time, period, from Germanic *tīmōn‑.
         tim n.时间,时刻;次,回;时代,时期;倍,乘
[Pokorny dā : də‑ 175.]

   dem n.演示,民主党员,样本唱片
   democratic a.民主的
   democratically adv.民主地
   democratization n.民主化
   democratize vt.使民主化;使大众化vi.民主化;大众化
 undemocratic adj.不民主的,非民主的
   demographer n.人口学家,人口统计学家
 endemism n.地方特殊性,(动、植物种的)特有分布,地方性生长,(地方性)特有现象
   geodesic 测地线的(曲面上两点间距离最短的线)
   demonic adj.恶魔的,有魔力的
   demonization 描述成魔鬼;使成为魔鬼
   demonize vt.使成为魔鬼
intertidal adj.高潮线与低潮线之间的
   tidal a.潮汐的,定时涨落的
overtime n.超时.a.超时的,加班的ad.加班
   timed 同步的,定时的,时控的
   timeless adj.永恒的
   timely a.及时的,适时的
   timer n.计时员,定时器
   times n.时期,次
   timing n.适时,时间选择,定时,调速
 untimely a.|ad.不适时的,不合时宜的.

 betide 发生
   demagogic adj.煽动的,蛊惑人心的
   demagogy n.煽动家的方法与行为
epidemiologic adj.流行病学
epidemiological adj.流行病学
epidemiologist n.流行病学家
epidemiology n.流行病学
   tidily adv.整洁地,整齐地
   tidiness n.整齐,整洁
   tid a.整洁的,整齐的v.整理,收拾
 untidiness 不整齐
 untidy adj.不整洁的,凌乱的,不简练的,不整齐的
   demagoguery n.群众煽动,散布谣言,煽动行为

回目录↑; 094,dail-,打开分割 To divide.
To divide. Northern Indo-European root extended from *da(h2)i‑ (see dā-).
  1. from Old English dǣlan, to share, from Germanic *dailjan.
       deal  v.处理;做买卖,经营;分配;对待n.交易
  2. from Old English dāl, portion, lot, from Germanic *dailaz.
       dole  n.施舍品,悲哀,失业救济金 vt.发放救济
  3. from Old English ordāl, trial by ordeal, from Germanic prefixed form *uz-dailjam, "a portioning out," judgment (*uz‑, out; see ud- ).
     ordeal n.严酷的考验,痛苦的经验,折磨
  4. from Middle Dutch deel, part, from Germanic *dailiz.
       firkin 小桶
[In Pokorny dā : də‑ 175.]

   dealer n.经销商,商人
   dealership n.代理权,经销权
   dealing n.行为,交易,待人态度,商业往来
   dealt vbl.deal的过去式和过去分词

回目录↑; 095,daiwer-,夫之兄弟 Husband's brother.
Husband's brother.

   levirate ____ from Latin lēvir, husband's brother.
[Pokorny dāiu̯ēr 179.]


回目录↑; 096,dakru-,撕裂流泪 Tear.
Tear. Oldest form *dak̑ru‑, becoming *dakru‑ in centum languages.
    1. from Old English tēar, tehher, tear;
         tear-2 ____
    2. from Middle Dutch trane, tear, drop. Both a and b from Germanic *tahr‑, *tagr‑.
         train oil ____
  1. Suffixed form *dakru-mā‑. from Latin lacrima (Archaic Latin dacruma), tear.
       lachrymal ____
[Pokorny dak̑ru‑ 179.]


回目录↑; 097,de-,转向指代 Demonstrative stem, base of prepositions and adverbs.
Demonstrative stem, base of prepositions and adverbs.
  1. Form *dō (possibly instrumental).
      1. from Old English , to;
           to    prep.(表示方向)到;向;(表示间接关系)给.
           too   ad.也,还;太,过于;很,非常
      2. from Old High German zuo, ze, to;
           tsimmes ____
      3. from Middle Dutch toe, to, shut. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *tō.
           tattoo v.刺花样 n.纹身
    1. Italic *dō in compound *kwām-dō (see kwo-).
  2. Form *dē (possibly instrumental), perhaps source of forms meaning "from, out of."
    1. from Latin , dē‑, from;
         de-   去;除;离;解除
    2. from Latin dēterior, worse, from suffixed form *dē-tero‑;
         deteriorate v.(使)恶化,衰退
    3. compound *dē-bel-i‑ (see bel-);
    4. Celtic *dī, from, in compound *eks-dī-sedo‑ (see sed-).
[Pokorny de‑ 181.]

   deterioration n.变坏,退化,恶化

回目录↑; 098,deik-,指出讲明 To show, pronounce solemnly ;
To show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects. Oldest form *deik̑‑, becoming *deik‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include teach, toe, addict, preach, judge, revenge, and disk.
  1. Variant *deig‑.
    1. O-grade form *doig‑.
      1. from Old English tǣcan, to show, instruct, from Germanic *taikjan, to show;
           teach vt.教,讲授;教导(训)vi.讲课,当教师
        1. from Old English tācen, tācn, sign, mark;
             token n.表示;标志;记号;代用硬币a.象征性的
        2. from Old English tācnian, to signify;
           betoken vt.预示,表示
        3. from Gothic taikns, sign;
             tetchy 易怒的
        4. from Old French tache, teche, mark, stain. (i)-(iv) all from Germanic *taiknam.
             tachisme ____
    2. Zero-grade form *dig‑. from Latin digitus, finger (< "pointer," "indicator").
         digit n.阿拉伯数字,手指或足趾,一指宽(约四分之三英寸)
  2. Basic form *deik‑.
    1. Possibly o-grade form *doik‑. from Old English , tahe, toe, from Germanic *taihwō.
         toe   n.脚趾,足尖
    2. Basic form *deik‑. from Latin dīcere, to say, tell.
         dictate v.口授;(使)听写;指令,指示,命令;
         diction 发音,措辞,用语
         dictum 说出来的话:n.格言,声明
         ditto 同上,同前
         ditty 小调,小曲
       addict 发落,分配:n.有瘾的人vt.使上瘾,使沉溺。源自古罗马人对战俘的称呼,本意为“待分配的战利品”,后来延伸为“任人
      benediction 祝福
      condition n.条件,状况,环境vt.决定;支配;训练
      contradict v.反驳,否定,与…矛盾
        edict n.法令,布告
      fatidic ____
         herb bennet ____
       indict vt.控告,起诉,揭发
       indiction ____
       indite ____
      interdict 禁令,禁行圣事令
      juridical 司法的,审判的
      jurisdiction n.司法权,审判权,管辖权
      maledict ____
         malison ____
      predict v.预言,预测,预告
      valediction 告别演说
      verdict 真实的话:n.裁定,判决,结论
      veridical 不虚伪的;老实的;真实的
         voir dire ____
    3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dik-ā‑. from Latin dicāre, to proclaim.
       abdicate v.退位,放弃
       dedicate vt.致力于,献身于
         preach v.鼓吹,布道
      predicament 断言:n.状态,困境。源自对亚里士多德所提出的的“范畴”的拉丁语意译,后来词义转变为“状态”,尤其是不好的状态,即“
      predicate n.谓词 v.断言
    4. Agential suffix *-dik‑.
      1. from Latin index, indicator, forefinger (in‑, toward; see en );
         index  n.(pl.indexes,indices)索引v.附以索引
         indicate v.指出,指示;表明,暗示
      2. from Latin iūdex (< *yewes-dik‑), judge, "one who shows or pronounces the law" (iūs, law; see yewes- );
           judge n.法官;裁判员;鉴定人vt.审判;评论,裁判
         judicial 公正地说:adj.公正的,明断的,法庭的,审判的
        prejudice n.偏见,成见;损害,侵害v.使抱偏见,损害
      3. from Latin vindex (first element obscure), surety, claimant, avenger.
           vendetta n.族间仇杀,深仇
           vindicate vt.维护;证明…无辜;证明…正确
          avenge vt.替…报仇vi.报复,报仇
         revenge n.报复;复仇vt.报复;替…报仇;洗雪vi.报仇;雪耻
    5. from Greek deiknunai, to show, and noun deigma (*deik-mn̥), sample, pattern.
         deictic 指示性的
         deixis (定冠词等的)指示功能
      apodictic ____
      paradigm 并排显示:n.范例;词形变化表
         policy-2 ____
    6. Zero-grade form *dik‑. from suffixed form *dik-skos, from Greek dikein, to throw (< "to direct an object").
         disk  n.磁盘,圆盘
         dictyosome ____
    7. Form *dikā‑. from Greek dikē, justice, right, court case.
         dicast ____
      syndic ____
      theodicy n.(基督教)自然神学,神义论,神正论
[Pokorny deik̑‑ 188.]

   taught vbl.teach的过去式和过去分词
   teachable adj.可教的,驯良的
   teacher n.教师(员),老(导)师
   teachers 名词teacher的复数形式. n. 教师(总称)
   teaching n.教学,[宗]教义,教导
   digital a.数字的;数位的;手指的n.数字
   digitally adv.数字
   digitization 数字化
   digitize v.[计]将资料数字化
   digitizer n.数字转换器
   dictation n.听写,口述;命令
   dictator n.独裁者,命令者
   dictatorial adj.独裁的,专制的,专横傲慢的
   dictatorship n.专政
 addicted adj.沉溺于某种嗜好中的
 addiction n.上瘾,沉溺;癖嗜
 addictive adj.上瘾的
conditional adj.有条件的,假定的n.条件句
conditionality n.受限制性,制约性
conditionally adv.有条件地
conditioned adj.有条件的,习惯于…的
conditioner n.调节者,调节装置
conditioning n.[心]条件作用,训练
precondition n.前提 v.预处理
recondition 修复机器
unconditional adj.无条件的,无限制的
unconditioned adj.(反射)无条件的,先天的
contradiction n.反驳,否认;矛盾,不一致
contradictory adj.矛盾的;反对的;反驳的;抗辩的
self-contradictory adj.自相矛盾的
 indictable 可起诉的
 indictment n.起诉书,控告
interdiction 禁运,封锁
jurisdictional adj.司法的,司法权的,审判权的,管辖权的
predictability n.可预见性,可预言
predictable adj.可预言的
predictably ad.可预言地,不出所料地
prediction n.预报;预言
predictive adj.预言性的;成为前兆的
predictor n.预言者,预报器
 abdication n.退位,辞职,(权力、权利、要求、职责、责任等的)放弃
 dedicated adj.专用的,专注的,献身的
 dedication n.奉献;献身
   preacher n.传道者,牧师
   preaching n.讲道,讲道法 v.布道( preach的现在分词 ),劝诫,说教,宣传
predication n.论断
predicative 作表语的,谓语的
 indexation 指数化
 indexed adj.编入索引的,被变址的,与生活指数(或物价指数)挂钩的
 indexical adj.索引的,像索引排列的
 indexing n. 索引
 indices n.index 的复数
 indicated adj.表明的,指示的 v.标示( indicate的过去式和过去分词 ),指示,象征,表明或暗示…的可能性
 indication n.指出,指示;表明,暗示
 indicative adj.象征的;指示的;表示…的
 indicator n.指示器,压力计
   judgeship n.法官的地位
   judgment n.判断
   judgmental adj.审判的
misjudge v.判断错
nonjudgmental adj.不按个人道德标准进行评定的,不偏不倚的,客观的
prejudge 预先判断,成见
 judicially adv.依法判决地,公平地
 judiciary adj.司法的;法官的;法院的n.司法部;法官;司法制度
prejudiced adj.怀偏见的
prejudicial 有偏见的,有害的,不利的
   vindication n.辩护;证明无罪
  avenger n.复仇者
paradigmatic adj.范例的,<语>词形变化(表)的
   diskette n.磁盘,磁碟

adjudicate 公正地说:v.判决,裁定
adjudication n.裁定;判决;破产之宣告
adjudicative adj.有判决权的,(法院)宣告的
adjudicator n.裁判员,判决者,裁定者
   disco n.迪斯科舞厅
   vindictive adj.怀恨的,有报复心的,惩罚的
syndicate 一起说:v.在多家报刊上同时发表,联合成辛迪加组织n.辛迪加,企业联合,财团
   techy adj.易怒的,暴躁的,怪脾气
injudicious 不明智的
 judicious adj.明智的;头脑精明的;判断正确的
   dish  n.碟子,盘子,菜肴
   dishy 性感的,有魅力的
   discus 铁饼
   disc  n.圆盘,唱片,abbr.折扣(=discount)
syndicalism 工团主义,工联主义

回目录↑; 099,dek-1,文教尊贵 To take, accept.
To take, accept. Oldest form *dek̑‑, becoming *dek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decent, paradox, and disdain.
  1. Suffixed (stative) form *dek-ē‑. from Latin decēre, to be fitting (< "to be acceptable").
       decent a.体面的;正派的,合乎礼仪的;合适的
  2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *dok-eye‑.
    1. from Latin docēre, to teach (< "to cause to accept");
         docent 非正式教师,临时教师
         docile 容易教导的:adj.温顺的,驯服的,容易教的
         doctor n.医生;博士vt.授以博士学位;诊断;修改
         doctrine 教的内容:n.教义,教条,信条,主义,学说
         document n.公文,文献
    2. from Greek dokein, to appear, seem, think (< "to cause to accept or be accepted").
         dogma 相信是真的:n.教条,教理;武断的意见
         dogmatic adj.教条的;武断的
      chionodoxa ____
         Docetism ____
         doxology n.(歌颂上帝的)荣耀颂,赞美辞
         heterodox 异端的
         orthodox adj.正统的;传统的;惯常的;东正教的n.正统的人;正统的事物
      paradox 相互对抗的观点:n.悖论,反论;似非而是的论点;自相矛盾的人或事
  3. Suffixed form *dek-es‑.
    1. from Latin decus, grace, ornament;
         décor ____
         decorate v.装饰,装璜,布置
    2. from Latin decor, seemliness, elegance, beauty.
         decorous adj.端庄得体的,厚重
  4. Suffixed form *dek-no‑. from Latin dignus, worthy, deserving, fitting.
       dainty n.美味adj.美味的,讲究的,挑剔的,秀丽的
       deign 屈尊
       dignity n.(举止,态度等的)庄严,端庄;尊贵,高贵
    condign 应得的
       dignify 使尊贵
    disdain vt.鄙弃n.蔑视
     indign ____
     indignant adj.愤怒的,愤慨的,愤愤不平的,激愤
     indignation n.愤怒,愤慨,气愤
  5. Reduplicated form *di-dk-ske‑. from Latin discere, to learn.
    disciple 将知识拿走的人:n.门徒,弟子
    discipline n.纪律,学科
  6. from Greek dekhesthai, to accept.
       dowel 暗榫
    pandect ____
    synecdoche 举偶法,提喻法
  7. Suffixed o-grade form *dok-o‑. from Greek dokos, beam, support.
    diplodocus 梁龙
[Pokorny 1. dek̑‑ 189.]

   decency n.正派;体面;庄重;合乎礼仪;礼貌
 indecency 下流,猥亵
 indecent adj.粗鄙的,猥亵的,不适当的,不合适的,不礼貌的,不得体的
   docility n.容易教,易驾驶,驯服
   doctoral adj.博士的
   doctorate n.博士头衔
   doctoring n.电镀层修补(用局部沉积金属的方法),刮除
postdoctoral 博士后的
   doctrinal adj.学说的,教义的;教诲的
   doctrinally 教义的;学理上的;教理的
 indoctrinate 教导,强行灌输
 indoctrination n.教化;教导
   documentary adj.记录的,文件的,纪实的n.纪录片
   documentation n.文件,证明文件,史实,文件编制
 undocumented adj.无正式文件的,无事实证明的
   dogmatically 独断地.;教义上
   dogmatism 教条主义
   dogmatist n.独断家,独断论者
   heterodoxy n.非正统,异端
   orthodoxy n.正统;正教;正统说法
 unorthodox adj.非正统的,异教的,异端的
paradoxical adj.矛盾的;诡论的;似非而是的
paradoxically ad.相矛盾地,似非而是地,反常地
   decor n.舞台装饰
   decorated v.装饰( decorate的过去式和过去分词 ),点缀,粉刷,授予(某人)勋章
   decoration n.装饰(品)
   decorative adj.装饰性的,装潢用的
   decorator n.室内装潢师
 redecorate 重新装修
   decorum n.礼仪;礼貌;端正;恪守礼仪
 indecorous 不得体的
   daintily adv.优美地,可口地,难取悦地,讲究地
 indignity n.侮辱,轻蔑,有伤尊严,无礼举动
   dignified adj.庄严的;有尊严的;高贵的
disdainful adj.轻蔑的,蔑视的
disdainfully adv.轻蔑地,藐视地,倨傲地
discipleship n.做弟子的身份(期间)
disciplinarian n.实施纪律者,严格纪律信奉者
disciplinary adj.训练的,训诫的,规律的
disciplined adj.受过训练的,遵守纪律的 v.训练(discipline的过去式和过去分词),使有纪律
indiscipline 无原则
interdisciplinary 各学科间的
self-discipline n.自我训练,自我修养,自律
self-disciplined adj.有自我约束力的,能律己的,有纪律

   doctrinaire 教条主义的,脱离实际的

回目录↑; 100,dekm̥,双手十百 Ten.
Ten. Oldest form *dek̑m̥, becoming *dekm̥ in centum languages.
Derivatives include ten, December, decimate, dean, hundred, century, and hecatomb.
  1. Basic form *dekm̥.
      1. from Old English tīen, ten;
           ten   num.十pron./a.十(个,只...)
      2. Old Norse tjan, ten, in compound āttjān (see oktō(u)). Both a and b from Germanic *tehun.
    1. from Old English suffix -tēne, -tīne, -tȳne, ten, -teen, from Germanic *tehan.
         eighteen num.十八,十八个
         fifteen num.十五pron./a.十五(个,只...)
         fourteen num.十四,十四个
         nineteen num./a.十九pron.十九(个,只...)
         seventeen num.十七 n.十七个
         sixteen num.十六
         thirteen num./a.十三pron.十三(个,只...)
    2. from Latin decem, ten.
         deci-
         decimal adj.小数的;十进位的n.小数
         decimate vt.十中抽一,取十分之一;大批杀害
         decuple ____
         decurion ____
         dicker 讨价还价
         dime  n.一角硬币
         December n.十二月
         decemvir ____
         decennary ____
         decennium ____
         decussate ____
         dozen n.一打,十二个
      duodecimal 十二进制;十二进制的;十二进位的
      octodecimo ____
      sextodecimo ____
    3. from irregular Latin distributive dēnī, by tens, ten each (formed by analogy with nōnī, nine each).
         denarius ____
         denary ____
         denier-2 ____
         dinar 第纳尔(中东和北非等国货币单位)
    4. from Greek deka, ten.
         dean  n.(大学)院长;主持牧师;(基督教)教长
         deca-
         decade n.十年
         doyen 元老
         decagon 十边形;十角形
         Decalogue ____
       dodecagon ____
  2. Germanic *tigu‑, ten, decad (of uncertain formation, as though < *deku‑), in compound *twēgentig (see dwo-).
  3. Ordinal number *dekm̥to‑. from Old English teogotha, tēotha, tenth, from Germanic *teguntha‑.
       tenth num.第十,十分之一
       tithe 什一税
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *-dkm̥-tā̆, reduced to *-km̥tā̆, and lengthened o-grade form *-dkōm-tā̆, reduced to *-kontā̆.
    1. from Latin -gintā, ten times.
         nonagenarian 九十多岁的人
         octogenarian 八旬老人
         Septuagint ____
         sexagenary ____
    2. from Greek *-konta, ten times.
         Pentecost 五旬节,圣灵降临节
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dkm̥-tom, hundred, reduced to *km̥tom.
    1. from Old English hundred, from dialectal North and West Germanic *hund(a)-rada‑ (-rada‑, from Germanic *radam, number; see ar- ), from Germanic *hundam, hundred.
         hundred num.百,一百;[pl.]许多a.一百的;许多
    2. Germanic compound *thūs-hundi, "swollen hundred," thousand (see teuə-).
    3. from Latin centum, hundred.
         cent  n.分(币);百percent百分之
         cental ____
         centavo ____
         centenarian n.&adj.百岁或逾百岁以上的(人),百岁老人(的)
         centenary n.一百年 adj.一百年的
         centesimal ____
         centi-
         centime ____
         centner ____
         centum ____
         century n.世纪,(一)百年
         centennial adj.一百年的,百年纪念
      cinquecento ____
      percent n.(percent)百分之...的
      quattrocento n.十五世纪(欧洲文艺复兴的初期)
      seicento ____
         sen-2 ____
         seniti ____
      sexcentenary ____
      trecento n.十四世纪,意大利文艺中的十四世纪
    4. from Greek hekaton, a hundred (? dissimilated from *hem-katon, one hundred; *hem‑, one; see sem- 1).
         hecatomb n.(古希腊或罗马)(源于祭献百牛的)百牲祭,大牺牲,大屠杀
         hecto-
    5. from Avestan satəm, hundred.
         satem ____
[Pokorny dek̑m̥ 191.]
See also compound root wīkm̥tī-.

   tenths n.第十(个)( tenth的名词复数 ),十分之一,第十的,第十个的,十分之一的
   decimation n.多数人的杀害,大量毁灭
   deanery 主任牧师办公室
   tithing n.什一的课税,十家区
   hundredth num.第100个,百分之一,第一百号,第一百个 adj.第一百的,第一百个的
 bicentenary 200周年
 bicentennial n.二百年,二百周年纪念

duodenum 十二指肠

回目录↑; 101,deks-,右手南方 Right (opposite left) ; hence, south
Right (opposite left); hence, south (from the viewpoint of one facing east). Oldest form *dek̑s‑, becoming *deks‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *deks(i)-tero‑.

   destrier ____
   dexter 右边的;幸运的;右侧的
   dexterity n.灵巧;敏捷;机敏
   dextro-
ambidextrous 左右手都灵活的 from Latin dexter, right, on the right side.
[In Pokorny 1. dek̑‑ 189.]
Compare ner-1.


回目录↑; 102,del-1,耷拉长 Long.
Long.
Derivatives include linger, Lent, longitude, and lunge.
  1. Probably extended and suffixed zero-grade form *dlon-gho‑.
      1. from Old English lang, long, long;
           long  a.长的,长时间的,长期的ad.长久,长期地
          along ad.向前;和...一起,一同prep.沿着,顺着
           longshore adj.沿岸的,在海岸工作的
      2. from Old High German lang, long;
           langlauf ____
      3. from Old English gelang, along;
         belong v.(to)属于,附属,隶属;应归入(类别,范畴等)
      4. from Old English denominative langian, to grow longer, yearn for, from Germanic *langōn;
           long-2 ____
      5. from Old English lengan, to prolong (possibly influenced by Old Norse lengja, to lengthen), from Germanic *langjan, to make long;
           linger v.逗留,闲荡
      6. from Latin compound Longobardus, Langobardus (with Germanic ethnic name *Bardi). a-f all from Germanic *langaz, long.
           Lombard ____
      1. from Old English lengthu, length;
           length n.长,长度;一段,一节,程度,范围
      2. from Old English lengten, lencten, spring, Lent, from West Germanic *langitinaz, lengthening of day;
           Lent  大斋节;lend的过去式.
      3. from Middle English lenge, ling, ling, from a Low German source akin to Dutch lenghe, linghe, "long one." a-c all from Germanic abstract noun *langithō.
           ling  鳕鱼,欧石楠
    1. from Latin longus, long.
         longeron ____
         longitude n.经度;经线
         lounge n.闲逛,休闲室,长沙发 vi.闲荡,懒洋洋地躺卧 vt.虚度光阴
         eloign ____
        elongate 伸长
         longevity n.长寿
         lunge n.刺,刺进,跃进,套马索 v.突进,刺
       oblong 长方形的,椭圆形的
      prolong 向前延长vt.拖延,延长
      purloin 偷窃,擅自使用
  2. Possibly suffixed variant form *dl̥ə-gho‑. from Greek dolikhos, long.
    dolichocephalic ____
       dolichocranial ____
[Pokorny 5. del‑ 196.]

   lengthen v.(使)延长,变长,加长
   lengthening v.(时间或空间)延长,伸长( lengthen的现在分词 ),加长
   lengths n. 长度,指距离或时间
   lengthy a.冗长的
   longer ad.|a.比较久(的)
   longest adj. 最长的
   longing n.渴望,热望,憧憬adj.渴望的
   longingly adj.渴望地,切望地
   longish adj.稍长的,略长的
 belonging 动词belong的现在分词.;[常用复数]所有物;行李;亲密关系;附属品 n. [常用复数]所有物;行李;亲密关系;附属品
   lingering adj.延迟的,逗留不去的
   lend  vt.借给,贷(款)
   lending n.出借,出租,贷款,出借物,出租物
   lent  vbl.lend的过去式和过去分词 n. [宗]四旬斋
   longitudinal adj.经度的,纵向的
   lounger n.游手好闲的人,憩息用的家具,休闲服 vi.闲荡,闲逛,虚度
   lounging vi.闲逛(lounge的现在分词形式)
  elongation n.延长,延长线,<机>延伸率,<天>距(角)
prolongation n.延伸,延长部分,拓展

   long-lived adj.长命的,长寿命

回目录↑; 103,del-2,数落说 To recount, count.
To recount, count. O-grade form *dol‑.
  1. from Old English tellan, to count, recount, from Germanic *taljan.
       tell  vt.告诉,讲述;告诫;吩咐,命令;辨/区别
  2. from Old English getæl, quick, ready, from West Germanic *(ge‑)tala‑.
       tall  a.(身材)高的,高大的;夸大的,离谱的
    1. from Old English talu, story;
         tal n.故事,传说
    2. from Middle Dutch tāle, speech, language. Both a and b from Germanic *talō.
         Taal-2 ____
  3. from Middle English talken, to talk, from a source probably akin to Old English denominative talian, to tell, relate.
       talk  n.谈话;聊天;讲话;演讲v.说话;交谈
  4. Perhaps Greek dolos, ruse, snare
       dolerite ____
       sedulous 勤勉的,勤奋的
[Pokorny 1. del‑ 193.]

foretell vt.预言,预示
 retell vt.重讲
   teller n.讲话的人,告诉的人
   telling adj.有效的,明显的,生动的
   tellingly adv. 有效地;显著地
   told  vbl.tell的过去式和过去分词
 untold a.未说过的,未透露的
   tallish adj.稍高的,身材较高的
   tallness n.高,高度
   talkative adj.多话的,爱说话的,多嘴的
   talker n.健谈者,空谈者,讲话的人
   talking n.讲话,(表示对所说的事情感兴趣) 你这话说着了,提起,说到 adj.会说话的,讲话的,饶舌的,富于表情的 v.说( ta
   talky adj.说话过多的,多对话的

回目录↑; 104,dem-,宅管家 House, household.
House, household.
Derivatives include dome, domestic, and timber.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *dom-o‑, *dom-u‑, house.
    1. from Latin domus, house;
         dom n.圆屋顶
         domestic a.家里的;本国的;驯养的
         domicile 住所
      major-domo 总管
    2. suffixed form *dom-o-no‑. from Latin dominus, master of a household (feminine domina).
         dam n.夫人,(英国)女爵士(的头衔)
         Dan-2 ____
         danger n.危险;威胁;危险事物
         Dom   ____
         domain 所有权:n.领域,产业,地产
         domaine ____
         dominate v.支配,统治,控制;占优势
         dominical ____
         dominie ____
         dominion n.主权,统治权,支配,领土
         domino n.骨牌,多米诺骨牌,面具,带面罩及头巾的外衣
         domino-2 ____
         don   n.先生,阁下,指导教师
         Donna ____
         dungeon n.地牢
      belladonna 颠茄
         duende ____
       Madam  ____
       Madame ____
         Mademoiselle ____
       Madonna 圣母玛利亚;圣母像
      predominate v.主宰,支配,占优势
  2. Possibly suffixed lengthened-grade form *dōm-n̥. from Greek dōma, house.
       dom n.圆屋顶
  3. Compound *dems-pot‑, "house-master" (*-pot‑, powerful; see poti-). from Greek despotēs.
       despot 暴君
  4. Root form *dem(ə2)‑, to build (possibly a separate root).
    1. from Old English timber, building material, lumber, from Germanic *timram;
         timber n.木材,木料
    2. from Old Norse topt, homestead, from Germanic *tumftō.
         toft  ____
[Pokorny dem‑ 198.]

   domestically ad.家庭式地,国内地
   domesticity n.家庭生活
   dangerous a.危险的,不安全的
   dangerousness n.危险
 endanger vt.危及
 endangered adj.快要绝种的 v.危及,使遭受危险( endanger的过去式和过去分词 )
 endangerment n.危害,受到危害
   domination n.控制,支配
   donnish 学究式的
 madam  n.女士,夫人
predominance n.优势;卓越
   despotic adj.专制暴君的,似暴君的,专横的,暴虐,豪,豪强
   despotism n.专制,专制统治

   dominance n.优势;统治;支配
   dominant a.支配的,统治的,占优势的
   dominantly 有统治权地,占优势地
 madame n. 夫人,女士
   domineering adj.刚愎自用、喜欢支配别人的,专横跋扈的,盛气凌人的

回目录↑; 105,demə-,强管束 To constrain, force, especially to break in (horses).
To constrain, force, especially to break in (horses). Oldest form *demh2.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *dom(ə)-o‑. from Old English tam, domesticated, from Germanic *tamaz.
       tam a.驯服的,温顺的;沉闷的,乏味的vt.驯服
  2. O-grade form *domə‑. from Latin domāre, to tame, subdue.
       daunt 畏惧
     indomitable 不屈不挠的
  3. Zero-grade form *dm̥ə‑. from Greek damān, to tame (> adamās, unconquerable, from *n̥-dm̥ə-nt‑).
      adamant adj.坚硬的
       diamond n.金钢石,钻石;菱形
[Pokorny (demə‑) 199.]

   tamer 驯兽师
   daunting adj.令人畏惧的,使人气馁的,令人怯步的 v.威吓(daunt的现在分词),使气馁,使害怕,使失去信心
 undaunted adj.大无畏的,勇敢的
  adamantly adv.坚决地,坚定不移地,坚强不屈地

回目录↑; 106,dent-,咬牙齿 Tooth. *ed-ent-, biting
Tooth. Originally *h1d-ent‑, "biting," present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning "to bite."
  1. O-grade form *dont‑. from Old English tōth, tooth, from Germanic *tanthuz.
       tooth n.(pl.teeth)牙齿;齿状物;
  2. Zero-grade form *dn̥t‑. from Old English tūsc, tūx, canine tooth, from Germanic *tunth-sk‑.
       tusk  n.长牙.vt.以牙刺戳
  3. Full-grade form *dent‑. from Latin dēns (stem dent‑), tooth.
       dental a.牙齿的;牙科(用)的
       dentate 锯齿状的;齿状的;有齿的
       denti-
       denticle ____
       dentist n.牙医
       dandelion 狮子的牙齿n.蒲公英
      edentate 无齿的;贫齿类;贫齿类的
      edentulous ____
     indent 缩格,下订单
     indenture 师徒契约
    trident 三叉戟
  4. O-grade variant form *ədont‑, ultimately becoming odont‑ in Greek from Greek odōn, odous, tooth.
      -odon
      -odont
       odonto-
    dimetrodon ____
    diprotodon ____
    mastodon n.乳齿象,庞然大物
[In Pokorny ed‑ 287.]

   toothless adj.无齿的
   toothy 露齿的
 indentation n.缩排,呈锯齿状,缺口,印凹痕

   denture n.(一副)假牙,托牙
   dent  n.凹,凹痕,(齿轮的)齿,弱点 v.使凹下,凹进,削弱
   teethe 出牙,长牙
   teething n.出牙,出牙期 v.出牙,生乳牙( teethe的现在分词 )

回目录↑; 107,der-2(der-),皮裂流泪 To split, peel, flay ;; skin and leather.
To split, peel, flay; with derivatives referring to skin and leather.
  1. from Old English teran, to tear, from Germanic *teran.
       tear  n.(pl.)眼泪vt.撕裂;使…分裂vi.破裂
  2. from Old English teart, sharp, severe, from Germanic *ter-t‑.
       tart  adj.酸的,辛辣的,尖酸的,刻薄的 vt.打扮 n.果馅饼,小烘饼,妓女
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dr̥-tom, "something separated or discarded." from Old English tord, turd, from Germanic *turdam, turd.
       tur 粪,狗屎
  4. Reduplicated form *de-dr-u‑. from Old English tet(e)r, eruption, skin disease.
       tetter ____
  5. Suffixed form *der-mn̥. from Greek derma, skin.
      -derm
       derma ____
      -derma
       dermato-
    epidermis 表皮
  6. from Sanskrit darati, he splits.
       dahl  ____
       Dalit 达利特人,印度贱民
       dhurrie ____
[Pokorny 4. der‑ 206.]

   tearful adj.含泪的
   tearfully adv.泪汪汪地,流泪地
   tearing adj.撕开的,痛苦的 v.撕( tear的现在分词 ),(使)分裂,撕碎,扯破
   tore  vbl.tear的过去式
   torn  v.撕( tear的过去分词),扯裂,破损
   tartlet n.小形的果子馅饼

回目录↑; 108,derk-,看毒眼龙 To see.
To see. Oldest form *derk̑‑, becoming *derk‑ in centum languages.
Suffixed zero-grade form *dr̥k-on(t)‑.
   dragon n.龙
   dragoon 骑兵
   drake-2 ____
   tarragon n.[植]龙嵩,龙嵩叶
   rankle 化脓,发炎,使痛苦,使怨恨 from Greek drakō, serpent, dragon (< "monster with the evil eye").
[Pokorny derk̑‑ 213.]


回目录↑; 109,deru-,牢固树木 To be firm, solid, steadfast ; hence specialized senses wood,tree
Also dreu-.
To be firm, solid, steadfast; hence specialized senses "wood," "tree," and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.
Derivatives include tree, trust, betroth, endure, and druid.
  1. Suffixed variant form *drew-o‑.
    1. from Old English trēow, tree, from Germanic *trewam;
         tree  n.树,树状物vi.爬上树
    2. from Old English trēow, pledge, from Germanic *treuwō.
         truce 契约:n.停战,休战,休战协定v.停战,停止争执
  2. Variant form dreu‑.
    1. from Old English trēowe, firm, true;
         tru ____
    2. from Old English trēowian, trūwian, to trust;
         tro ____
    3. from Old Norse tryggr, firm, true;
         trig  adj.潇洒的,制轮具
    4. from Old English trēowth, faith, loyalty, truth, from Germanic abstract noun *treuwithō;
         troth 誓言,订婚
         truth n.真实,真相;真实性;真理
       betroth vt.将某人许配给,订婚
    5. from Old Norse traust, confidence, firmness, from Germanic abstract noun *traustam;
         trust vt.信任;盼望;委托n.(in)信任,依赖;委托
    6. from Old French triste, waiting place (< "place where one waits trustingly"), probably from a source akin to Old Norse denominative treysta, to trust, make firm. a-f all from Germanic *treuwaz.
         tryst 约会,幽会
  3. Variant form *drou‑. from Old English trēg, trīg, wooden board, from Germanic *traujam.
       tra n.盘,碟,托盘
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dru-ko‑.
    1. from Old English trog, wooden vessel, tray;
         trough n.槽,水槽,饲料槽,木钵
    2. from Old Norse trog, trough. Both a and b from Germanic *trugaz.
         tru 浅筐
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dru-mo‑.
    1. from Old English trum, firm, strong;
         trim  a.整齐的,整洁的v./n.整理,修整,装饰
    2. from Old English truma, troop. Both a and b from Germanic *trum‑.
         shelter n.掩蔽处;掩蔽,保护v.掩蔽,躲避,庇护
  6. Variant form *derw‑. from Old English te(o)ru, resin, pitch (obtained from the pine tree), from Germanic *terw‑.
       tar   n.焦油,柏油
  7. Suffixed variant form *drū-ro‑. from Latin dūrus, hard (many of whose English derivatives represent a semantic cross with Latin dūrāre, to last long; see deuə- ).
       dour  adj.严厉的;顽强的;阴沉的;不爱讲话的
       duramen ____
       duress 胁迫
       durum 硬质小麦
       durain ____
       dura mater ____
     endure v.忍受,持久,持续
     indurate 巩固起来;使坚固;使硬化;硬化;硬的
     obdurate 固执的
  8. Lengthened zero-grade form *drū‑. from Greek drūs, oak.
       drupe ____
       dryad 树精
       Dryopithecus ____
       germander ____
    hamadryad ____
  9. Reduplicated form *der-drew‑, dissimilated with suffix in *der-drew-on. from Greek dendron, tree.
       dendro-
       dendron ____
    philodendron n.爱树木的人
    rhododendron n.[植]北美杜鹃,杜鹃花
  10. from Latin druides, druids, probably from Celtic compound *dru-wid‑, "strong seer" (*wid‑, seeing; see weid- ), the Celtic priestly caste.
       druid 德鲁伊祭司;德鲁伊教士
  11. O-grade form *doru‑. from Sanskrit dāru, wood, timber.
       deodar ____
[Pokorny deru‑ 214.]

   treeless adj.无树木的
   truism 自明之理,老生常谈的道理
   truly ad.真正地,忠实地
   truthful adj.真实的,诚实的
   truthfully adv.诚实地
   truths n. 真实性;真理;真相;事实
 untrue adj.不真实的;不合标准的;不忠实的;不正当的
 untruth n.谎言,不真实,虚假
 untruthful adj.不真实的,爱说谎的,不说实话的
 betrothal 订婚
 betrothed adj.(古时用语)同某人订婚 n.(古时用语)未婚夫,未婚妻 v.将某人许配给,订婚( betroth的过去式和过去分词
distrust n.|vt.不信任,怀疑
distrustful adj.不信任的,怀疑的,可疑的
 entrust v.委托
mistrust n.|v.不信任,猜疑
mistrustful adj.不信任的,不相信的
   trustee n.托管人,保管人,理事
   trusteeship 受托人职责
   trustful adj.(太)相信别人的,充满信任的,无疑心的 adv.充满信任地
   trusting adj.信任的,信赖的
   trustingly adv.相信地,信赖地
   trusty adj.可信赖
   trimmer 修剪机
   trimming n.整理,修剪,装饰品,配料 v.整理(trim的现在分词),削减,装饰
   sheltered adj.受庇护的,免税的,(尤指为病弱者)提供食宿的,提供抚养方便的 v.庇护( shelter的过去式和过去分词)
   sheltering vt.掩蔽(shelter的现在分词形式)

   tar 莠草,杂草
   dismantle v.拆除
   dismantlement 拆卸,拆除的行动或状态
   dismantling n.(枪支)分解 v.拆开( dismantle的现在分词 ),拆卸,废除,取消
   mantel n.壁炉架
   overmantel n.壁炉上的饰架
   mantle n.斗蓬.v.披风,覆盖

回目录↑; 110,deu-1,丢掉软胎 To lack, be wanting.
To lack, be wanting.
  1. Possibly suffixed form *deu-s‑.
    1. from Old English tēorian, tyrian, to fail, tire (< "to fall behind"), from Germanic *teuzōn;
         tir v.(使)疲倦,(使)厌倦n.(=tyre)轮胎,车胎
    2. from Greek dein, to lack, want.
         deontology 义务论;道义论
  2. Suffixed form *deu-tero‑. from Greek deuteros, "missing," next, second.
       deutero-
       deuteragonist ____
       deuterium 氘,重氢
       Deuteronomy ____
[Pokorny 3. deu‑ 219.] (For suffixed zero-grade form *du-s‑, combining form of *dew-es‑, a lack, see dus-.) [In Pokorny 3.deu‑ 219.]

   tired a.疲劳的;厌倦的
   tireless adj.不疲劳的
   tiresome adj.无聊的,烦人的
 untiring adj.不知疲倦的,不懈的,不倦,始终不懈

 retire v.退休,引退;退却,撤退;就寝
 retired adj.退役的 v.退休
 retiree n.退休人员,退休者,歇业者
 retirement n.退休,退役
 retiring adj.退休的

回目录↑; 111,deu-2,做出动力 To do, perform, show favor, revere.
To do, perform, show favor, revere.
Derivatives include embellish, and dynamite.
  1. Suffixed form *dw-eno‑. from Latin bonus, good (< "useful, efficient, working").
       bonbon 糖果
       bonito n.鲣(等金枪鱼科鱼类)
       bonny 漂亮的
       bonus n.奖金,红利
       boon-2 ____
       bounty n.慷慨,宽大,施舍,奖励金
       bonanza n.走运,发财
       bonhomie 欢快友好的感觉
     debonair 温文尔雅的
  2. Adverbial form *dw-enē. from Latin bene, well.
       benediction 祝福
       benefaction 善举
       benefactor 做好事者:n.施主,捐赠者,恩人
       benefic ____
       beneficence n.善行,仁慈,行善,慈善
       benefit n.利益,好处,恩惠v.有益于;(from,by)受益
       benevolent adj.仁慈的,慈善的,亲切的
       benign 长得好adj.良性的,和蔼的,亲切的
       ben trovato ____
    herb bennet ____
  3. Diminutive *dw-en-elo‑. from Latin bellus, handsome, pretty, fine.
       beau  n.花花公子
       beauty n.美,美丽;美人,美丽的事物
       belle n.美女
       beldam ____
       belladonna 颠茄
       belvedere ____
     embellish v.修饰,装饰,润色
  4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *dw-eye‑. from Latin beāre, to make blessed.
       beatitude n.至福,天福,八福词,(东正教)法座
       beatific 幸福的
       beatify vt.宣布…已升入“真福品位”,赐福
  5. Possible (but unlikely for formal and semantic reasons) suffixed zero-grade form *du-nə‑. from Greek dunasthai, to be able.
       dynamic a.动力的,电动的;有生气的
       dynamite n.炸药,危险的人或物vt.炸毁adj.极好的
       dynast n.王朝的君主,统治者(尤指世袭的)
       dynasty n.王朝,朝代
    aerodyne ____
[Pokorny 2. (deu‑) 218.]

   bounteous adj.<书>大方的,慷慨的,<诗>丰富的,充足的
   bountiful adj.慷慨的,宽大的
   bountifully adv.慷慨地
   beneficent adj.行善的,仁慈的,慈爱的
   beneficial a.(to)有利的,有益的
   beneficially adv.获利地,受益地
   benefited vt. 有益于,有助于
   benevolence n.仁慈,慈善
   benignly adv.仁慈地,亲切地
   beauteous adj.美丽的,媠
   beautician n.美容师
   beautification n.美化
   beautiful a.美的,美丽的;出色的,完美的
   beautifully adv.美好地,漂亮地
   beautify vt.美化,装饰 vi.变美
 embellishment n.装饰,修饰,润色
   beatification n.受福,授福,列福式
   dynamical adj.动力(学)的,有力量的
   dynamically 计 动态的
   dynamics n.力学,动力学
   dynamism n.活力;动态;物力论;推动力;精神动力作用
   dynastic adj.朝代的,王朝的

回目录↑; 112,deuə-,持久 Long (in duration).
Also dwaə-.
Long (in duration). Oldest form *deuh2 with variant (metathesized) *dweh2, the latter colored to *dwah2, becoming *dwā‑. Suffixed zero-grade form *dū-ro‑ (< *duə-ro‑, oldest form *duh2-ro‑).

   durable a.持久的,耐久的
   durance ____
   duration n.持久;期间;持续时间
   during prep.在…期间
perdurable ____
thermoduric ____ from Latin dūrāre, to last.
[In Pokorny 3. deu‑ 219.]

 endurable adj.能持久的,耐用的,忍得住,恒久
 endurance n.忍耐(力),持久(力),耐久(性)
 enduring adj.持久的;能忍受的
 obduracy n.冷酷无情,顽固,执拗
   durability n.经久,耐久力

回目录↑; 113,deuk-,牵引铅导 To lead.
To lead.
Derivatives include wanton, team, duke, subdue, and educate.
    1. from Old English tēon, to pull, draw, lead;
         tug   n.|v.用力拉,拖船
         wanton adj.荒唐的,嬉戏的,繁茂的,肆意的,不道德的,不贞洁的 n.荡妇,水性杨花的女人 vi.嬉戏,闲荡,放肆 vt.挥霍
    2. from Old High German ziohan, to pull. Both a and b from Germanic *teuhan.
         Zugunruhe ____
         zugzwang ____
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *duk-ā‑. from Old English togian, to draw, drag, from Germanic *tugōn.
       tow   v.拖,曳
       taut  a.(绳子)拉紧的,紧张的.vt.使纠缠
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *douk-eyo‑. from Old English *tīegan, tīgan, to bind.
       tie   n.领带;联系,关系,纽带;束缚v.扎,系,捆
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *douk-mo‑. from Old English tēam, descendant, family, race, brood, team, from Germanic *tau(h)maz.
       team  n.小队,小组v.协同工作
  4. from Old English tēman, tīeman, to beget, from Germanic denominative *tau(h)mjan.
       teem  ①充满,大量②倾泻,流注
  5. Basic form *deuk‑. from Latin dūcere, to lead.
       doge  ____
       douche 妇女阴道冲洗法
       ducal 公爵的
       ducat 达克特(旧时在多个欧洲国家通用的金币)
       duc 领袖
       duchess n.女公爵,公爵夫人
       duchy 公爵领地
       duc n.管道,导管.vt.用导管输送
       ductile 可延展的
       duk n.公爵,源自古罗马对本土以外各行省的最高统治者的称呼
     abducens ____
     abduct vt.诱拐,诱导,绑架
     adduce 举证
    aqueduct 高架渠
    circumduction ____
       con-3 ____
    condottiere ____
    conduce 引导
    conduct n.行为,品行v.引导;管理;指挥(乐队);传导
     deduce 引导往下:vt.推导出,推断出,演绎出
     deduct vt.扣除;演绎(推理)
      educe 引出;演绎;推论
       endue 赋与;授与
     induce v.引诱,劝使;引起,导致;感应
    introduce vt.介绍;引进,传入;提出(议案等)
    produce v.生产,制造,显示,演出,导致n.产品
       redoubt 掩体,堡垒
     reduce v.减少,缩小;简化,还原
     seduction n.诱惑;魅力;(复数)诱惑物
    subduction ____
       subdue v.征服
    traduce 诽谤,中伤
    transducer n.传感器,变频器 变换器
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *duk-ā‑. from Latin ēducāre, to lead out, bring up (ē‑, < ex‑, out; see eghs ).
      educate v.教育,培养,训练
[Pokorny deuk‑ 220.]

   wantonness n.淫乱,放荡,无节制,繁茂
   tower n.塔v.高耸
   towering adj.高耸的,杰出的,激烈的
   tier  n.层,排;行,列;等级vt.使层叠vi.成递升徘列
   tying v.(用线、绳等)系( tie的现在分词 ),(在线、绳上)打结,连接,将…系在…上
 unti v.解开,松开
   teamster 卡车司机
   teeming adj.丰富的
archduke 大公
   dukedom n.公爵领地,公爵爵位
 abduction n.诱拐,绑架;诱导
 abductor n.绑架者,拐骗者,劫持者
conducive adj.有益的;有助于…的
conduction n.(热、电等的)传导,导热,导电,传导率,传导性,电导
conductive 使容易发生的
conductivity n.传导性,传导率,电导率
conductor n.管理者;(汽车)售票员;领队,指挥;导体
misconduct vt.处理不当,干坏事 n.不正当的行为,明知故犯
semiconductor n.半导体
 deductive adj.推论的,演绎的
 deductible adj.可扣除的,可减免的
 deduction n.扣除,减除;推论;减除额
 inducement n.诱因,刺激物
 inducer n.引诱者
introduction n.(to)介绍;传入,引进;导言,导论,绪论
introductory adj.引导的,介绍的;开端的
counterproductive adj.反生产的,使达不到预期目标的
produced adj.(叶子等)畸形伸长的,引长的 v.生产( produce的过去式和过去分词 ),产生,制作,创作
producer n.制片人,制作人,生产者,发生器
production n.生产,产品,作品,(研究)成果,总产量
productive a.生产(性)的,能产的,多产的
productivity n.生产率
irreducible 无法简化的
irreducibly adv.不能减少地,不能简化地
 reduced adj.减少的,简化的 v.换算( reduce的过去式和过去分词 ),约束,使变为,使变弱
 reducer n.缩减者,减压器,还原剂,减速器
 reducible 可简化的
 reduction n.减小,减少,缩小
 reductionism 简化论的
 reductive 简化的
 seduce 引导其离开:vt.引诱,诱惑,诱奸
transduction n.换能,转换,变频,转导
coeducation n.男女同校,男女同校制
coeducational adj.男女合校的
  educated adj.受过教育的,有教养的
  education n.教育,培养,训练
  educational adj.教育的,有教育意义的
  educationally adv.用教育方法,教育地有关教育地,教育上地
  educationist n.教育家,教育理论家
  educative adj.教育的,教育性的,教育上的
  educator n.教育家;教育工作者;教师
undereducated adj.受教育不足的,未受良好教育的

reproduce v.生殖;翻版;繁殖;复制,仿造
reproduction n.再现,复制品
reproductive a.生殖的,再生的,复制的
   tauten 使拉紧
 adductor 内收肌
 induct vt.引导,感应,使就职,征召入伍
 inductee 新就职者,新入伍者
 induction n.感应;归纳法;感应现象;入门培训,入职仪式
 inductive 归纳的

回目录↑; 114,dʰē-,做作放置 To set, put.
To set, put. Oldest form *dheh1, becoming *dhē‑.
Derivatives include deed, doom, fashion, defeat, feckless, sacrifice, satisfy, face, and synthesis.
  1. Basic form *dhē‑.
    1. Suffixed form *dhē-ti‑, "thing laid down or done, law, deed." from Old English dǣd, doing, deed, from Germanic *dēdiz.
         deed  n.行为,行动;功绩,事迹;证书;契据
         indeed ad.确实,实在;真正地,多么
    2. Suffixed form *dhē-k‑. from Greek thēkē, receptacle.
         theca ____
         tick-3 ____
      amphithecium ____
      apothecary 药商
      apothecium ____
      bibliotheca ____
         bodega n.酒窖,酒店
         boutique n.专卖流行衣服的小商店
      cleistothecium ____
      endothecium ____
      perithecium ____
    3. Basic form *dhē‑. from Old Persian dā‑, to place.
         bard-2 ____
         purdah (某些穆斯林妇女不见外男的)内房制度
    4. Suffixed form *dhē-to‑, set down, created, in Old Iranian compound *khvatō-dāta‑ (see s(w)e-).
  2. O-grade form *dhō‑.
    1. from Old English dōn, to do, from Germanic *dōn.
         do    aux.v.vt.做,干,办,从事;引起vi.行动
      fordo  ____
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-men‑. from Latin abdōmen, belly, abdomen, perhaps "part placed away, concealed part" (ab‑, away; see apo- ).
       abdomen n.腹,腹部
    3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-mo‑.
      1. from Old English dōm, judgment (< "thing set or put down");
           doom  vt.注定,命定.n.厄运
      2. from Old English -dōm, abstract suffix indicating state, condition, or power;
          -do
      3. Old Norse -dōmr, condition, in compound hōrdōmr (see kā-);
      4. from Russian Duma, Duma, from a Germanic source akin to Gothic dōms, judgment;
           duma  ____
           dumka ____
      5. from Old English dēman, to judge, from Germanic denominative dōmjan. a-e all from Germanic dōmaz.
           deem  v.认为,相信
    4. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-t‑ in compound *sakro-dhōt‑ (see sak-).
  3. Zero-grade form *dhə‑.
      1. Prefixed form *kom-dhə‑. from Latin condere, to put together, establish, preserve (*kom, together; see kom );
        abscond 逃走
         incondite ____
         recondite 深奥的
           sconce-2 ____
      2. prefixed and suffixed form *kom-dh(ə)-yo‑. from Latin condīre, to season, flavor;
           condiment 一起放的东西:n.佐料,调味品
           salmagundi ____
      3. compound *kred-dhə‑ (see kerd-);
      4. compound suffixed form *gwr̥ə-dh(ə)-o‑ (see gwerə-2).
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form dhə-k‑.
      1. from Latin facere (< *fak-yo‑), to do, make, and Latin combining form -fex (< *-fak-s), "maker";
          -facient
           fact  n.事实,实际
           faction 活动:n.派别,小集团。原指古罗马战车比赛中驾驶一辆战车的一组人
          -faction
           factitious 人为的,虚假的
           factitive ____
           factor n.因素,要素
           factory n.工厂
           faena ____
           fashion n.流行式样(或货品),风尚,风气;样子,方式
           feasible a.可行的;切实可行的;行得通的;可用的
           feat  n.功绩,壮举
           feature n.特征;容貌;特色;特写v.以...为特色
           fetish n.物神,迷信,偶像
          -fic 
          -fy  
           hacienda n.庄园
           affair n.[pl.]事务;事情(件);(个人的)事
         affect vt.影响;(疾病)侵袭;感动n.情感,感情
         affect-2 ____
         affection n.爱,喜爱;爱慕之情;感情;疾病,不适
        amplify vt.放大,扩大,增强,详述
        artifact n.人工制品
        artifice n.手艺,工艺,诡计,巧妙的办法
        beatific 幸福的
        benefaction 善举
        benefic ____
        benefice n.圣职,圣俸,采地,采邑
        beneficence n.善行,仁慈,行善,慈善
        benefit n.利益,好处,恩惠v.有益于;(from,by)受益
           chafe 产生热v.n.摩擦,擦热,擦伤,激怒
        comfit 蜜饯
        confect 糖果;调制;把 ... 制成甜食或罐头;甜食
        confetti 五彩纸屑
        counterfeit 比对着做:vt.伪造,仿造;假装,伪装vi.仿造;假装n.赝品;冒牌货;伪造品adj.假冒的,伪造的;虚伪的[T
         defeasance ____
         defeat n.击败,战胜,失败v.击败,战胜;使失败
         defect n.过失;缺点;不足
         deficient adj.不足的,有缺陷的,不充分的
        discomfit 使窘迫
        edifice 神庙建筑:n.大厦;大建筑物
        edify  教化
         effect n.结果;效果;影响;印象vt.招致;实现;达到
         efficacious adj.(药、措施等)有效的
         efficient a.有效的,效率高的;有能力的,能胜任的
           facsimile 使相同:vt.传真,临摹adj.复制的n.传真,复写
           factotum 事务总管
           feckless 品格差的
        forfeit 做过界限:n.罚金;没收物;丧失的东西adj.因受罚而丧失的;被没收的,vt.(因犯罪、失职、违约等)丧失(权利、名
         infect vt.传染,感染;影响(思想等)
        justify v.证明...正当(或有理、正确),为...辩护
        malefactor 作恶者
        malfeasance n.不正当,不法行为,渎职
        manufacture v.制造,加工n.制造,制造业;产品
        misfeasance n.不法行为,不当行为
        modify  v.更改,修改,修饰
        mollify 使平静,抚慰
        nidify  ____
        notify  v.通知,告知,报告
        nullify vt.使无效,作废;取消
         officinal ____
        orifice 孔,穴,腔
        perfect a.完善的;完全的;(语法)完成的v.使完美
        petrify 使石化,惊呆
        pluperfect 过去完成时,极好的
           pontifex ____
        prefect 地方行政长官,教务长,学长,班长
        proficient 取得进步的:adj.熟练的,精通的n.专家,能手
        profit n.利润,收益v.(by,from)得利,获益;有利于
        putrefy 腐败,腐化
        qualify v.(使)具有资格,证明合格;限制,限定;修饰
        rarefy  变稀薄,使高雅
        rectify 使其正确:vt.改正,整流
         refect ____
         refectory 食堂,餐厅
        rubefacient ____
        sacrifice n.牺牲,牺牲品;祭品v.(for,to)牺牲,献出
        satisfy v.满意,使满意,使相信,说服
           spinifex ____
        suffice 打好基础vt.满足,足够……用vi.足够,有能力
        sufficient a.(for)足够的,充分的(比enough拘谨、正式)
        surfeit 过量
           tubifex ____
        tumefacient ____
        vivify  vt.使具有生气,使生动
      2. from Latin derivative faciēs, shape, face (< "form imposed on something");
           façade ____
           face  n.脸,面貌;表情;正面v.面对着;朝,面向
           facet n.小平面,方面,切面vt.在上琢面
           facial a.脸部的,面部的
           facies ____
         deface 损伤外观,丑化
         efface 抹去
        surface n.表面;外表a.表面的,肤浅的
      3. from Latin compound officium (< *opi-fici-om), service, duty, business, performance of work (*opi‑, work; see op- );
         office n.办公室,办事处;职务,公职;部,局,处
      4. further suffixed form *dhə-k-li‑. from Latin facilis (< Archaic Latin facul), feasible, easy.
           facile 简单的,轻率的
           facilitate v.使变得(更)容易;使便利;推动;帮助;处进
           faculty n.才能;学院,系;(学院或系的)全体教学人员
        difficulty n.困难,困境,难题
    2. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhə-s‑ (probably identical with zero-grade of dhēs-). from Latin fās, divine law, right.
       nefarious adj.邪恶的;穷凶极恶的;不法的
    3. from Latin -fāriam, adverbial suffix, as in bifāriam, in two places, parts, double, from *dwi-dh(ə)‑, "making two" (*dwi‑, two; see dwo- ).
      multifarious 多样的
      omnifarious 多方面的
    4. Reduplicated form *dhi-dhə‑. from Greek tithenai, to put, with zero-grade noun thesis (*dhə-ti‑), a placing, and verbal adjective thetos (*dhə-to‑), placed.
         thesis 放下的东西:n.论文,论点
         thetic ____
      anathema 上交给上帝n.诅咒,革出教门,被诅咒者
      antithesis 放到对面:n.对立面,对照,对仗
      diathesis 特异质
      epenthesis ____
      epithet 放到上面,额外放:n.绰号
      hypothecate ____
      hypothesis 放到下面(作为基础):n.假设,前提
      metathesis ____
      parenthesis n.插入语,附带,插曲,圆括号
      prosthesis n.弥补,添字首音
      prothesis ____
      synthesis 放到一起:n.合成,综合,综合体
    5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhə-mn̥. from Greek thema, "thing placed," proposition.
         thematic adj.主题的,题目的,主旋律的
         theme n.题目,主题;主旋律,基调
      speleothem ____
    6. Reduplicated form *dhe-dhē‑. from Sanskrit dadhāti, he places (past participle -hita‑, from suffixed zero-grade *dhə-to‑).
         samhita ____
         sandhi ____
    7. Reduced form *dh‑ in compound *au-dh‑ (see au-).
[Pokorny 2. dhē‑ 235.]

   misdeed n.罪行,犯罪
   did   vbl.do的过去式
   doable adj.可做的,可行的
   doer  身体力行者
   does  v.做,有用,工作 conj.是,做,要
   doing n.做,干,行为,[复]活动,所作所为
   done  adj.妥当的,合乎礼仪的,完成了,做好了的,注定要完蛋的 vbl.做(do的过去分词)
overdo  vt.做得过分,过度,夸张,做作,使过火 vi.过火
overdone v.做得过分( overdo的过去分词 ),太夸张,把…煮得太久,(工作等)过度
 undone adj.未完成的,破灭的 vbl.undo的过去分词
 abdominal adj.腹部的,鱼有腹鳍的 n.腹肌(常用作复数)
   factoid 仿真描述
   factious adj.派系的,与派系相关的,好争论的,不合作的
 cofactor n.余因子,代数合取,余因数,辅因子
   factoring n.因子分解,因式分解
   factorization n.因数分解
   fashionable a.流行的,时髦的
   fashionably adv.随着流行,赶时髦地
   fashioned adj.…式的,…风的
   fashioning n.精加工
 refashion vt.再做,重制
 unfashionable adj.不流行的
   feasibility n.可行性,可能性
   feasibly adv.切实
 infeasible adj.不可实行的
   featured adj.有…的面貌特征的,作为号召物的,作为特色的
   featureless adj.无特色的,平凡的
   featuring 特征;特色;特写;故事片;起重要作用;容貌;以 ... 为特色
   fetishism 恋物癖,盲目崇拜
   fetishist n.盲目崇拜者
   fetishize v.盲目迷恋,以…为偶像
 affectation n.假装,装模作样,装模作样的言行,矫情
 affected adj.受到影响的,受(疾病)侵袭的,假装的,做作的
 affecting adj.感人的,动人的
 affective adj.情感的;表达感情的
disaffected adj.抱不平的,有叛意的,不服的
disaffection n.不忠,(政治上)不满
unaffected adj.不受影响的;自然的;真挚的;不矫揉造作的
amplification n.放大(率);扩大;详述
amplifier n.放大器,扩大器,扩音器
beneficiary n.受惠者,受益人
confection 做出来的东西:n.糖果,蜜饯;调制;糖膏(剂);精制工艺品
confectioner n.糖果制造人,糖果店
confectionery n.甜食
counterfeiter n.伪造者
 defeatism n.失败主义
 defeatist n.失败主义者
 defection n.背叛;缺点;变节;脱党
 defective 有缺陷的;不完美的n.有缺陷的人;不完全变化词
 defector 背叛者;逃兵;叛离者
 deficiency n.缺乏,不足;缺点,缺陷
discomfiture n.崩溃,大败,挫败,困惑
edification n.教导,启发,熏陶
 effective a.有效的,生效的;被实施的;给人深刻印象
 effectively ad.有效地,生效地
 effector n.受动器,感受器
 effects n. 效果;感受;个人财产;结果;动产,财物,家财
 effectuate vt.实行,完成
ineffective a.无效的,(指人)工作效率低的
 efficacy n.功效,效力
inefficacy n.无效力,无效
 efficiency n.效率;功效
 efficiently ad.有效地,能胜任地,效率高地
inefficiency n.无效率,无能,无效率事例
inefficient adj.无效率的,效率低的;无能的
   fecklessness n.没有价值,没有长远目标,不负责任
forfeiture 没收
disinfect 消毒
disinfectant n.消毒剂adj.消毒的
disinfection n.消毒,灭菌
 infected adj.(伤口)被感染的
 infection n.传染病,影响,
 infectious adj.传染的;传染性的;易传染的
 infective adj.会传染的,有传染性的,影响别人的,感染别人的
   justifiable adj.可辩解的,有道理的;可证明为正当的
   justifiably adv.无可非议地
justification n.认为有理,认为正当,理由,辩护,释罪
justificatory adj.起辩护作用的,用以辩解的
self-justification n.自我辩白,自我辩解
manufacturer n.制造业者,厂商
manufacturing n.制造业 adj.制造业的
imperfect a.有缺点的,未完成的.n.未完成体
imperfection n.不完整性,非理想性
imperfectly adv.有缺点地,有瑕疵地,没完地
perfectibility n.完全性
perfection n.尽善尽美,完美
perfectionism n.十全十美主义,至善论
perfectionist n.十全十美主义者,[哲]至善论者
perfective adj.完成的,完成式的 n.完成式
perfectly ad.理想地,完美地
nonprofit adj.非营利的
profitability n.收益性,利益率
profitable adj.有利可图的;赚钱的;有益的
profitably adv.有利地,有益地
profiteer vi.投机,牟求暴利 n.贸易 奸商,牟取暴利的人
profitless adj.无益的,无用的,无利的,无利可图的
unprofitable a.没有利润的,无益的
disqualification n.剥夺资格,失格,不合格,无资格
disqualify vt.取消…的资格
qualification n.资格,合格;限定,条件;合格证
qualified adj.合格的;有资格的
qualifier n.限定词,限定语;取得资格的人;修饰语
unqualified adj.不合格的;无资格的;不胜任的;不受限制的;无条件的;绝对的
rarefied 精妙高深的,阳春白雪的
sacrificial adj.牺牲的;献祭的
self-sacrifice n.自我牺牲,献身
self-sacrificing adj.自我牺牲的,克己待人
insufficiency n.不充足,不足
insufficient adj.不足的
self-sufficiency n.自给自足
self-sufficient a.自给自足的
sufficiency n.足量,充足;自满
 defacement 毁损,磨灭,涂销
   faced adj.具有…脸型的,有…表面的,有…贴边的,饰面的 v.面对( face的过去式和过去分词 ),面向…,正视,承认
   faceless adj.姓名不祥的,不露面
   facially adv.与面部相关地
   facing n.衣服等的贴边,饰面
 effacement n.抹消,抹杀
resurface vt.重铺路面 vi.重新露面
surfacing n.使成平面,铺以面
 officer n.官员,办事员;工作人员;军官
 official n.官员,行政官员a.官方的,官方的,正式的
 officialdom 当官的人,官僚
 officially ad.职务上,正式
 officiate v.行使
   facility n.灵巧,熟练;(pl.)设备,设施,便利条件
   facilitation n.简易化,助长
   facilitative 医促进的,助长的
   facilitator n.促进者,帮助者,服务商
antithetical adj.正相反的,对立的,骈
   theses 名词thesis的复数形式. n. 论文;论题;论点;命题;提纲
hypotheses 名词hypothesis的复数形式. n. 臆断;假设
hypothesize v.假设,假定
hypothetical adj.假设的;爱猜想的
hypothetically adv.假设地,假想地
parenthetical 插入语的
parenthetically adv.顺便说一句
prosthetist n.修复学专家
synthesize v.合成,综合
synthesizer n.综合者,[电子]合成器
   thematically adv. 主题地
   themed adj.有特定主题的

   tick  n.滴答声;勾号v.滴答响;打勾号于
   ticker n.滴答响的东西,[无]断续器
   ticking n.被套料
   ensconce 安置
   sconce n.壁突式烛台,<古>头,头盖 vt.筑保垒防卫
proficiency n.(in)熟练,精通
 effectual adj.奏效的,收效的,行之有效
 effectually adj.有效地,有法律效力地,全然
ineffectual adj.无效的,不起作用的;徒劳无益的n.无用的人;无一技之长者
ineffectually adv.无效地,无益地
electrification n.充电,电气化,起电,电化,带电
electrified v.使电气化( electrify的过去式和过去分词 ),使兴奋
electrify vt.使充电,使通电
 undo   v.松开,解开
 undoing n.毁灭,取消,解开,毁灭或失败的原因 v.松开( undo的现在分词 ),解开,毁灭,败坏
multifaceted 多方面的
difficult a.困难的,艰难的
synthetic a.合成的,人造的;综合的
synthetically adv.综合地,以合成方法
synthetics n. 化学合成物
 officious 爱指手划脚的
   doff  脱帽致意
 redo   重做
superficial a.表面的;肤浅的,浅薄的
superficially adv.浅薄地,干
   fax   n./v.传真(机)
prosthetic adj.<医>义肢的,假体的
prosthetics 假体制作,义肢安装

回目录↑; 115,dʰegʷʰ-,烧热 To burn, warm.
To burn, warm.
  1. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *dhogwh-eyo‑. from Latin fovē, to warm, cherish, foment.
       foment 煽动
       fomite ____
  2. Suffixed basic form dhegwh-rā‑. from Greek tephrā, ash.
       tephra ____
[Pokorny dhegh‑ 240.]


回目录↑; 116,dʰē(i)-,啵咂吮吸 To suck.
To suck. Oldest form *dheh1(i)‑, becoming *dhē(i)‑.
Derivatives include female, fawn2, fetus, fennel, and affiliate.
  1. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-mnā‑. from Latin fēmina, woman (< "she who suckles").
       female n.女性;女人;雌兽a.女性的;雌的;柔弱的
       feminine adj.女性的;妇女(似)的;阴性的;娇柔的
       femme ____
     effeminate 女人气的
  2. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-to‑. from Latin fētus, pregnancy, childbearing, offspring, with adjective fētus, fēta, pregnant.
       fawn-2 ____
       fetal adj.胎的,胎儿的
       fetus n.胎儿,胎
     effete 软弱的,女人气的
       feticide ____
    superfetate ____
  3. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-kwondo‑. from Latin fēcundus, fruitful.
       fecund 多产的
  4. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-no‑. from Latin fēnum, faenum, hay (< "produce").
       fennel n.[植]茴香
       finochio ____
       fenugreek 葫芦巴(种子用于南亚食物调味)
       sainfoin ____
  5. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *dhī-lyo‑ (< *dhiə-lyo‑) from Latin fīlius, son, and fīlia, daughter (but these are conceivably from the root bheuə- ).
       filial 孝顺的
       filiation n.父子关系,起源,分支,亲嗣关系,源流
       fils  ____
     affiliate 使其成为子女:vt.接纳,使附属vi.参加,加入,发生联系n.联号,隶属机构
       hidalgo ____
  6. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-lo‑. from Latin fēlāre, fellāre, to suck.
       fellatio n.口交,吮吸阴茎
  7. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-l-īk‑. from Latin fēlīx, fruitful, fertile, lucky, happy.
       felicitate 祝贺;庆贺
       felicity 幸福,喜悦,恰当,贴切
       felicific ____
     infelicity 不幸;不适当;不吉
  8. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-lā‑. from Greek thēlē, nipple.
    endothelium n.内皮,内种皮
    epithelium n.上皮,上皮细胞
    mesothelium ____
  9. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-l-u‑. from Greek thēlus, female.
       theelin ____
[Pokorny dhē(i)‑ 241.]

   femaleness 女性特征,女性特征女子本性
   femininity n.温柔;柔弱性;女子本性
   feminization 女性化,雌性化,阴性化
   feminize vt.& vi.使女性化,女性化
 effeminacy n.柔弱,女人气,娇气
   fecundity n.多产,富饶,肥沃,<动>产卵力
 affiliated adj.附属的,有关连的
 affiliation n.友好关系,从属关系,联盟,加入
   felicitous 恰当的,贴切的

   fellate 口交

回目录↑; 117,dʰeigʰ-,制作构建 To form, build.
To form, build. Oldest form *dheig̑h‑, becoming *dheigh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include dairy, lady, dough, and paradise.
  1. from Old English dǣge, bread kneader, from Germanic *daigjōn‑.
       dairy n.牛奶场,奶店
  2. from Old English compound hlǣfdige, mistress of a household (< "bread kneader"; hlāf, bread, loaf), from Germanic *dīg‑.
       lad n.女士,夫人
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhoigh-o‑.
    1. from Old English dāg, dough;
         dough n.生面团
    2. from Old High German teic, dough. Both a and b from Germanic *daigaz.
         teiglach ____
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhigh-ūrā‑. from Latin figūra, form, shape (< "result of kneading").
       figure n.体形;轮廓;数字;图形v.描绘;计算;推测
       figurine n.小雕像
    configure vt.安装,使成形
    disfigure vt.使……变丑,损污……的外观,毁容
    prefigure 预兆
    transfigure 使变形,改观
  5. Nasalized zero-grade form *dhi-n-gh‑. from Latin fingere, to shape.
       fainéant ____
       faint a.微弱的;不明显的;暗淡的n./v.昏倒;昏晕
       feign vt.假装,装作,捏造,[古]想象 vi.作假
       feint 假动作
       fictile ____
       fiction n.虚构,编造;小说
       figment 虚构
     effigy 雕像,肖像
  6. Probable nasalized zero-grade form *dhi-n-g(h)‑. from Greek thinganein, to touch.
       thigmotaxis ____
       thixotropy ____
  7. Suffixed o-grade form *dhoigh-o‑. from Avestan daēza‑, wall (originally made of clay or mud bricks).
       paradise n.天堂
[Pokorny dheig̑h‑ 244.]

   paradisiacal adj.天堂的,天堂似的,乐园的
   dairying n.制酪业,乳品制造业
   ladylike adj.<过时,褒>贵妇人似的
   doughy adj.面团的,苍白的,半熟的,软弱无力
disfigurement n.毁容,缺陷,畸形
   figuration n.定形,成形,外形,比喻表达法
   figurative adj.比喻的,具象的,造型的
   figured adj.以图形和数字表示的,华丽的
   figuring n.姓劻(光学玻璃冷加工)
nonfigurative adj.(艺术)非形象的,抽象的,没有比喻用法的
configuration n.配置,结构,组态,外形
transfiguration n.变形,变貌,(耶稣在三个门徒前的)变容
   feigned adj.虚假的,想象的,假装的 v.假装,伪装( feign的过去式和过去分词 ),捏造(借口、理由等)
   fictional adj.虚构的,小说的
   fictionalization 使小说化
   fictionalize v.把(历史事件等)编成小说,使小说化
   fictitious adj.虚构的;假想的;编造的;假装的

回目录↑; 118,dʰer-2(dʰer-),牢固 To hold firmly, support.
To hold firmly, support.
Derivatives include infirmary, and throne.
  1. Suffixed form *dher-mo‑. from Latin firmus, firm, strong.
       farm  n.农场,饲养场v.种田,经营农牧业
       fermata 暂停
       firm  a.坚固的;坚决的,坚定的n.公司,商号
       firm-2 ____
       firmament 苍穹
     affirm v.肯定,确认,断言
    confirm v.使更坚固,使更坚定;(进一步)证实;确认
       furl  卷起,收拢
     infirm 体弱的,生病的
     infirmary 病人去的地方:n.医务室
  2. Perhaps extended form *dhergh‑, seen by some as the source of Latin fortis, strong, but this is more likely from bhergh-2.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhr-ono‑. from Greek thronos, seat, throne (< "support").
       throne n.王座,君主
  4. Suffixed form *dher-mn̥. from Sanskrit dharma, statute, law (< "that which is established firmly").
       dharma 法,达摩(影响整个宇宙的真理或规则)
  5. Suffixed form *dher-eno‑. from Prakrit dharaṇa, a holding firm.
       dharna ____
  6. Suffixed o-grade form *dhor-o‑. from Iranian dāra‑, holding, whence Persian -dār.
       churidar ____
       sirdar ____
       tahsildar ____
       zamindar ____
[Pokorny 2. dher‑ 252.]

   farmer n.农民,农场主
   farming n.耕作,农业,农事,畜牧
   firmer 形容词firm的比较级. adj. 稳定的;坚固的
   firmness n.坚固,坚实,坚定,坚决
 infirmity 体弱,生病
 affirmation n.主张,肯定;断言
 affirmative adj.肯定的,(对正式辩论中的问题)表示赞成的,(态度,方法等)积极的,乐观的,怀有希望的 n.肯定语
 affirmatively adv.肯定地
confirmation n.证实,确认,批准
confirmatory adj.确定的,证实的
confirmed adj.证实的,惯常的,慢性的
reconfirm 重申,再确认
 unfurl vt.展开,展示,公开,使旗招展 vi.打开,展开,显露
 dethrone 废黜
 enthronement n.即位,就任主教的仪式,登基典礼

回目录↑; 119,dʰers-,牢固大胆 To venture, be bold.
To venture, be bold. O-grade form *dhors‑ and zero-grade form *dhr̥s‑.

   dar v.敢,胆敢
   durst ____ from Old English dearr and durst, first and third person singular present and past indicative of durran, to venture, respectively from Germanic *dors‑ and *durs‑.
[Pokorny dhers‑ 259.]

   daring adj.大胆的
   daringly adv.大胆地,毅然地

回目录↑; 120,dʰēs-,庆祝节日 Root of words in religious concepts.
Root of words in religious concepts. Oldest form *dheh1s‑, becoming *dhēs‑. Possibly an extension of dhē-.
Derivatives include feast, fanatic, atheism, and enthusiasm.
  1. Suffixed form *dhēs-yā‑. from Latin fēriae (< Archaic Latin fēsiae), holidays.
       fair-2 ____
       feria ____
  2. Suffixed form *dhēs-to‑. from Latin fēstus, festive.
       feast n.节日,盛宴,筵席,宴会,酒席 vt.盛宴,款待,享乐,请客 vi.参加宴会,享受
       fest  ____
       festal 节日的;欢乐的
       festival n.节日;音乐节;戏剧节a.节日的;快乐的
       festive adj.节日的,喜庆的,欢乐的
       festoon n.花彩 vt.结彩于,使成为花彩形
       fet 游乐会
       fiesta n.[西]节日(特指在西班牙和拉丁美洲以游行和舞蹈来庆祝的节日),祭典,圣日,假日
    Oktoberfest ____
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhəs-no‑. from Latin fānum, temple.
       fanatic 寺庙的,神灵附体的:n.狂热入迷者;盲信者;盲信adj.狂热的;盲信的
    profane 在寺庙门前的,不能入寺的:adj.亵渎的;世俗的;异教的vt.亵渎;玷污
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhəs-o‑. from Greek theos (< *thes-os), god.
       theo-
    apotheosis 封神
      atheism 无神论
     enthusiasm n.热情,热心;狂热;积极性(for)
    henotheism 单一神论
    pantheon n.万神殿,名流群,先贤祠
       polytheism 多神论
    tiffany 丝纱罗;一种薄绸
[Pokorny dhēs‑ 259.]

   festivity n.欢庆,欢宴;庆典;欢乐
   fanatical adj.狂热的
   fanatically adv.狂热地,盲信地
   fanaticism n.狂热,盲信
profanity n.亵渎;不敬的言语
  atheist n.无神论者
  atheistic adj.无神论的,无神论者的
 enthusiast 神灵附体的人n.狂热者,热心家
 enthusiastic adj.热情的,热心的,狂热的
 enthusiastically adv.热情地,热心地,狂热地
   polytheistic adj.多神崇拜的

   enthuse vt.[口]使热心 vi.热心

回目录↑; 121,dʰeu-2(dʰeu-1),露水提溜 To flow.
To flow.
  1. from Old English dēaw, dew;
       dew   n.露水
  2. from Middle Dutch dau, dew;
    sundew n.茅膏菜
  3. Germanic compound *melith-dauwaz (see melit-). a-c all from Germanic *dauwaz, dew.
[Pokorny 1. dheu‑ 259.]

   dew adj.带露水的,露湿的,如露的

回目录↑; 122,dʰeu-3(dʰeu-2),死掉变小 To die.
To die. Also dheuə- (oldest form *dheuh2).
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *dhou-to‑. from Old English dēad, dead, from Germanic *daudaz.
       dead  a.死的;无生命的;死气沉沉的ad.完全地
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhou-tu‑. from Old English dēath, death, from Germanic *dauthuz.
       death n.死,死亡;灭亡,毁灭,死因
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhow-yo‑. from Old Norse deyja, to die.
       die   vi.死,死亡;(草木)枯萎,凋谢;渴望
  4. Extended zero-grade form *dhuəi‑, metathesized to *dhwiə‑, contracted to *dhwī‑, whence suffixed form *dhwī-no‑. from Old English dwīnan, to diminish, languish, from Germanic *dwīnan.
       dwindle v.缩小
[Pokorny 2. dheu‑ 260. ]
Compare dheuə-.

   deaden vt.抑制 (感情),缓和 (疼痛),减弱 (声音)
   deadening n.隔音材料 v.抑制 (感情),缓和 (疼痛)( deaden的现在分词 ),减弱 (声音)
   deadliness n.致命
   deadly a.致命的;势不两立的;极度的;必定的
   deadness n.死,无生气,死一样的状态
   deathless adj.不死的,不灭的
   deathly adv.& adj.死一般的/地,让人想到死亡
   die 名词die的复数,动词die的第三人称单数
   dying adj.垂死的
 undying adj.不死的,不朽的,永恒的
   dwindling adj.逐渐减少的 v.逐渐变少或变小( dwindle的现在分词 )

回目录↑; 123,dʰeub-,跳水深潜 Deep, hollow.
Also dheubh-.
Deep, hollow.
  1. from Old English dēop, deep, from Germanic *deupaz.
       deep  a.深的,深长的;深奥的;强烈的ad.深入的,迟
       depth n.深,深度,深奥,深刻
  2. from Old English dyppan, to immerse, dip, from Germanic expressive denominative *duppjan.
       dip   v./n.浸,蘸
  3. Parallel root form *dheubh‑. from Old English dȳfan, to dip, and dūfan, to sink, dive, from Germanic verb *dūbjan, from *deub‑, *dub‑.
       div v./n.潜水,跳水,俯冲
  4. Suffixed parallel root form *dhū̆bh-(o)n‑, with expressive variants. from Greek Pūthōn and Tuphōn, mythical monsters, from *dhub(h)-n‑ and *b(h)ud(h)-n‑, which already in Indo-European were doublets by inversion, referring to "bottom," "foundation," "depths," and the mythological monsters that inhabited them.
       python n.[动]大蟒,巨蟒
       Python ____
       Typhon 怪物提丰
[Pokorny dheu-b‑ 267.]

   deepen v.加深,深化
   deepening n.加深,气旋加深 v.变深,加深( deepen的现在分词 ),加浓
   deeply adv.深深地
   depths pl. 深处
   dipped v.浸( dip的过去式和过去分词 ),(把烛芯浸在融蜡里)制造(蜡烛),把(汽车前灯)的远光调为近光,洗药水浴
   dipper 河乌
   dived 动词dive的过去式和过去分词形式. adj. 跳水的;钻研的
   diver n.潜水者
   divers 种种的
   diving n.潜水,跳水

回目录↑; 124,dʰeuə-,乡下小镇 To close, finish, come full circle.
To close, finish, come full circle. Oldest form *dheuh2. Probably related to dheu-2 , "to die."
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhū-no‑ (< *dhuə-no‑), enclosed, fortified place; hill-fort.
      1. from Old English dūn, hill;
           down  ad.下;由大到小prep.沿着…而下a.向下的
           down-3 ____
      2. from Middle Dutch dūne, sandy hill. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *dūnaz, possibly from *dhū-no‑.
           dune  n.沙丘
    1. from Old English tūn, enclosed place, homestead, village, from Germanic *tūnaz, fortified place, borrowed from Celtic *dū-no‑, hill, stronghold.
         town  n.市镇;市民;城市商业区,闹市区
  2. Suffixed form *dhū-nes‑ (< *dhuə-nes‑) from Latin fūnus, funeral.
       funeral n.丧葬,葬礼
[In Pokorny 4. dheu‑ 261.]

   downer 镇静药
   downy 绒毛覆盖的
   township n.镇区
   funerary adj.葬礼的,埋葬的
   funereal adj.送葬的,悲哀的,适合葬礼的

回目录↑; 125,dʰeugʰ-,制作用具 To produce something of utility.
To produce something of utility.
  1. from Old English dyhtig, dohtig, strong (< "productive"), from Germanic extended form *duht‑.
       doughty 勇敢强悍的
  2. Suffixed form *dheugh-os‑. from Greek teukhos (< *theukhos), gear, anything produced, tool, container, scroll.
       Heptateuch ____
       Hexateuch ____
       Pentateuch ____
[Pokorny dheugh‑ 271.]


回目录↑; 126,dʰgʰem-,尘世土地 Earth.
Earth. Oldest form *dhg̑hem‑, becoming *dhghem‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include bridegroom, chameleon, and homicide.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *(dh)ghm̥-on‑, "earthling." from Old English guma, man, from Germanic *gumōn‑.
       bridegroom 新郎
  2. O-grade form *dh(e)ghom‑. from Greek khthōn, earth.
       chthonic adj.地府鬼神的,地府的
    allochthon ____
    autochthon ____
  3. Zero-grade form *dhghm̥‑. from Greek khamai, on the ground.
       chamaephyte ____
       chameleon n.变色龙
       chamomile 甘菊
       germander ____
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *(dh)ghom-o‑. from Latin humus, earth.
       humble a.谦卑的,恭顺的;地位低下的v.降低,贬低
       humiliate 使伏在泥地上:vt.羞辱;使…丢脸;耻辱
       humility n.谦卑,谦逊
       humus n.腐殖质;腐植土
     exhume 为检查死因掘出尸首
     inhume 埋葬
    transhumance 迁移性放牧
  5. Suffixed o-grade form *(dh)ghom-on‑, "earthling."
    1. from Latin homō, human being, man;
         homage 成为你的人(臣服敬拜之礼):n.敬意,尊敬,效忠
         hombre 男人
         hominid adj.人类及其祖先的n.原始人类,人科动物
         hominin ____
         Homo  人属
         homunculus 矮人,侏儒
         ombre 三人玩的奥伯尔牌戏;omber.
         omerta n.拒绝作证(黑手党徒的一种行为准则)
      bonhomie 欢快友好的感觉
         homicide n.杀人,杀人犯
    2. from Latin hūmānus, human, kind, humane (in part from dhghem- ).
         human a.人的,人类的n.人
         humane adj.仁慈的,人道的;高尚的
  6. Suffixed form *(dh)ghem-yā‑. from Old Russian zemĭ, land, earth.
       chernozem ____
       sierozem ____
       zemstvo ____
  7. Full-grade form *(dh)ghem‑. from Persian zamīn, earth, land.
       zamindar ____
[Pokorny g̑hđem‑ 414.]

   humbling adj.令人羞辱的 v.使谦恭( humble的现在分词 ),轻松打败(尤指强大的对手),低声下气
   humbly adv.谦逊地,恭顺地,卑微地,卑贱地
   humiliating adj.丢脸的;羞辱性的
   humiliation n.丢脸,耻辱;蒙羞;谦卑
 exhumation n.掘尸,发掘,剥璐
 inhumation 埋葬,土葬
   homicidal adj.嗜杀成性的
 dehumanization n.灭绝人性,非人化
 dehumanize 丧失人性的
   humanism n.人道主义adj.人道主义的
   humanist n.人道主义者,人文主义者adj.人道主义的
   humanistic adj.人文主义的
   humanitarian n.人道主义者,慈善家,博爱主义者adj.人道主义的,博爱的
   humanitarianism n.博爱主义,人道主义,<宗>基督凡人论
   humanity n.人类,人性,人情;(pl.)人文科学
   humanize vt.赋予人性,使通人情,教化 vi.变为有人性,变为有情,有教化
   humanly adv.像人地,用人力
   humanness n.为人,人性,为人的资格
 inhuman adj.野蛮的
 inhumanity 非人性,不人道
subhuman 非正常人的,不适合人类的
   humaneness n.深情,慈悲
 inhumane 不人道的

   groom vt.刷洗.n.新郎,马夫

回目录↑; 127,dʰgʰ(y)es-,昨天之前 Yesterday.
Yesterday. Oldest form *dhg̑h(y)es‑, becoming *dhgh(y)es‑ in centum languages. Suffixed (comparative) form *(dh)ghes-ter‑.

   yester-
   yesterday n.&ad.昨天;前不久 from Old English geostran, giestran, "yester‑," from Germanic *ges-ter‑.
[Pokorny g̑hđi̯és 416.]


回目录↑; 128,dʰīgʷ-,打桩固定 To stick, fix.
To stick, fix.
    1. from Old English dīc, trench, moat;
         dike  n.堤防.vt.筑堤提防
         ditch n.沟,沟渠,水沟
    2. from Middle English diggen, to dig, from a source perhaps akin to Old French digue, trench. Both a and b from Germanic *dīk‑.
         dig   v.挖,掘
  1. from Latin fīgere, to fasten, fix, and from fībula, clasp (shortened from *fīvibula, from fīvere, archaic variant of fīgere).
       fibula 腓骨
       fichu ____
       finca n.<西>种植园,庄园,地产
       fishgig ____
       fix   v.(使)固定;修理;安装;决定;注视n.困境
       fixate v.注视,(使)固定下来
       fixity n.固定性,固定物,不变性
       fixture n.夹具,固定装置,固定物
     affix  vt.粘上,附上n.附加物,词缀
    antefix ____
       crucify 钉十字架:vt.十字架上钉死,折磨,克制
     infibulate ____
     infix  中缀
       microfiche 缩微胶片
    prefix 前缀
    suffix 后缀,词尾
    transfix vt.刺穿,钉住
[Pokorny dhēig 243.]

   digger n.挖掘者,掘地兽
   fixative 定影剂
   fixed adj.固定的,确定的,准备好的,固执的,不易发挥的,[美口](在经济上)处境...的
   fixedly adv.固定地,不屈地,坚定不移地
   fixer n.固定器,定色剂,定影剂,把事情暗中完结的人
   fixing n.固定,稳固,设备,安装 v.固定( fix的现在分词 ),准备,修理,使牢固
   fixation n.固定;定位;定影
   crucifixion n.苦痛的考验,受难,刑罚,被钉死在十字架

   dug   vbl.dig的过去式和过去分词
   dyke  堰,堤,女同性恋

回目录↑; 129,dʰreg-,拖拉滑 To draw, glide.
To draw, glide. Oldest form *dhreg̑‑, becoming *dhreg‑ in centum languages.
  1. from Old English drincan, to drink, from nasalized Germanic form *drenkan, to draw into the mouth, drink.
       drink v.(drank,drunk)喝,饮n.饮料;喝酒
  2. from Old English drencan, to soak, from nasalized o-grade Germanic causative form *drankjan, "to cause to drink.".
       drench v.湿透
  3. from a Scandinavian or late Old English source similar to Old Norse drukkna, to drown, from Germanic zero-grade suffixed form *drunk-nōn.
       drown v.溺死,淹没
[Pokorny dhreg̑‑ 273.]

   drank vbl.drink的过去式
   drinkable adj.可饮用的
   drinker n.喝的人,酒徒
   drinking n.喝,喝酒
 undrinkable adj.不能喝的,不能饮用的
   drowned v.(使)淹没, (使)溺死( drown的过去式和过去分词 ),浸透,浸泡,压过
   drowning n.溺水,溺死 v.(使)淹没, (使)溺死( drown的现在分词 ),浸透,浸泡,压过

   drunk a.醉酒的;(喻)陶醉的n.酗酒者,醉汉
   drunken adj.酒醉的
   drunkenness n.酒醉

回目录↑; 130,dʰreibʰ-,推驱 To drive, push ; snow.
To drive, push; snow.
  1. from Old English drīfan, to drive, rush, from Germanic *drīban.
       drive v.开(车);驱;驱动,把(钉,桩)打入n.驾驶
       drove-2 ____
  2. from Middle English drift, drove, herd, akin to Old Norse drift, snowdrift, and Middle Dutch drift, herd, from Germanic zero-grade suffixed form *driftiz.
       drift v./n.漂,漂流(物)
[Pokorny dhreibh‑ 274.]

   driven adj.受到驱策的 vbl.drive的过去分词
   driver n.驾驶员
   driving n.操纵,驾驶 adj.推进的,强劲的,精力旺盛的
   drove vbl.drive的过去式 n.畜群
overdrive vt.驱使过度,虐待 [机]超速传动
   drifter n.漂流物,流浪者,漂网渔船

回目录↑; 131,dʰreu-,提溜下坠 To fall, flow, drip, droop.
To fall, flow, drip, droop.
Derivatives include dreary, and drowse.
  1. Extended form *dhreus‑. from Old English -drysnian (in gedrysnian, to pass away, vanish), from zero-grade Germanic derived verb *drus-inōn.
       drizzle n.细雨 v.下毛毛雨
  2. Extended o-grade form *dhrous‑.
    1. from Old English drēor, flowing blood, from Germanic *drauzaz;
         dreary adj.沉闷的
    2. from Old English drūsian, to be sluggish, from Germanic *drūsjan.
         drowse vi.打瞌睡
  3. Extended zero-grade form *dhrub‑.
    1. from Old English dropa, drop, from Germanic *drupan;
         drop  n.滴;落下;微量v.落下;下降;失落
    2. from Old Norse drūpa, to hang down, from Germanic *drūpōn, to let fall;
         droop v.低垂,凋萎,萎靡
    3. from Middle English drippen, to drip, drop, from an unattested Old English *dryppan or another source akin to Old English droppa, drop, from Germanic geminated *drupp‑;
         drip  v.滴下,漏水n.滴,水滴,点滴
    4. Germanic *drup‑, to drip, in compound *obisdrup‑ (see upo-).
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhrubh-yo‑. from Greek thruptein, to crumble.
       lithotripter ____
       lithotrity ____
[Pokorny dhreu‑ 274.]

   drizzling v.下蒙蒙细雨,下毛毛雨( drizzle的现在分词 )
   drizzly adj.下毛毛雨的,蒙蒙,濛濛
   drearily adv.沉寂地,厌倦地,可怕地
   dreariness n.沉寂,可怕,凄凉
   drowsily adv.睡地,懒洋洋地,昏昏欲睡地
   drowsiness n.睡意,嗜睡
   drowsy adj.昏昏欲睡的,催眠的,(街、市等)沉寂的
   droplet n.小滴
   dropper n.使滴下的东西,点滴器
   dropping n.滴下,滴下物,空投,兽粪 v.(使)落下( drop的现在分词 ),投下,(使)降低,减少
   droopy adj.下垂的,无精打采的
   dripping n.滴,滴下,滴下物,油滴
   drippy adj.滴落的,多雨的,潮湿的

   dribble v.滴下
   dribbling n.(燃料或油从系统内)漏泄 v.流口水( dribble的现在分词 ),(使液体)滴下或作细流,运球,带球

回目录↑; 132,dʰugəter-,女儿 Daughter.
Daughter. Oldest form *dhugh2ter‑.

   daughter n.女儿 from Old English dohtor, daughter, from Germanic *dohtēr.
[Pokorny dhug(h)əter 277.]


回目录↑; 133,dʰwer-,门外论坛 Door, doorway (usually in plural).
Door, doorway (usually in plural). Originally an ablauting noun *dhwor, *dhur‑, in the plural, designating the entrance to the enclosure (*dhwor-o‑) surrounding the house proper.
Derivatives include forest, and foreign.
  1. Zero-grade form *dhur‑ in suffixed forms *dhur-n̥s (accusative plural) and *dhur-o‑ (neuter) from Old English duru, door (feminine, originally plural), and dor, door (neuter), respectively from Germanic *durunz and *duram.
       door  n.门;门口,出入口;门状物;家;通道
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-āns (accusative plural) from Latin forās, (toward) out of doors, outside.
       farouche ____
       foreign a.外国的,(to)无关的;外来的;异质的
    vicar forane ____
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-ois (locative plural) from Latin forīs, (being) out of doors.
       forest n.森林
     afforest 绿化;造林于空地
       faubourg ____
    foreclose 关在外面v.阻止;排除;取消抵押品赎回权
       forfeit 做过界限:n.罚金;没收物;丧失的东西adj.因受罚而丧失的;被没收的,vt.(因犯罪、失职、违约等)丧失(权利、名
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-o‑. from Latin forum, marketplace (originally the enclosed space around a home).
       forensic 关于论坛的:adj.法院的;辩论的;适于法庭的
       forum n.论坛,讨论会
  5. from Old Persian duvara‑, door, gate.
       Dari  ____
       durbar n.接见室,正式接见
  6. Zero-grade form *dhur‑. from Greek thurā, door.
       thyroid n.甲状腺,甲状软骨
       thyreophoran ____
[Pokorny dhu̯ē̆r‑ 278.]

   doors 名词door的复数形式. n. 门
   foreigner n.外国人
   foreignness 外国(人)的特性
 deforest 毁林
 deforestation n.采伐森林,森林开伐
   forested adj.草木丛生的,被森林所覆盖的
   forester n.林务官,森林人
   forestry n.林产,森林地,林学
 reforestation 再造林
 afforestation 植树造林
foreclosure n.丧失抵押品赎回权

回目录↑; 134,dlegʰ-,忙碌 To engage oneself.
To engage oneself. European root found in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and possibly Latin.
    1. from Old English plegian, to exercise oneself, play;
         play  v.玩,做游戏;参加比赛n.游戏;玩耍;剧本
    2. from Late Latin plevium (> Old French plevir, to pledge), pledge, guarantee;
         pledge n.誓约;保证v.发誓;保证
      frankpledge ____
         replevin ____
    3. from Old English pliht, danger, peril, from Germanic derivative noun *plehti‑. a-c from Germanic *plegan, probably altered (by dissimilation) from *tlegan.
         plight-2 ____
  1. Zero-grade form *dl̥gh‑. from Latin indulgēre, to indulge, explained by some as from prefixed and suffixed stative form *en-dl̥gh-ē‑ (*en‑, in; see en ).
     indulge v.纵容,沉溺
[Pokorny dhl̥gh‑ 271.]

foreplay 前戏
interplay n.相互影响,相互作用
overplay 过于重视
   playable adj.可玩的,宜玩的,可演的,可演奏的
   player n.做游戏的人,比赛者,演员,演奏者,表演者
   players 运动员
   playful a.爱玩耍的,幽默的
   playfully adv.爱玩地,戏谑地
 replay vt.重新比赛,重新表演,重放 n.重赛
underplay vt.淡化…的重要性,使显得不如其实际重要,表演(角色)不充分,为了不充分显示力量而小心行事 vi.表演角色不充分(或有节制)
 indulgence n.放任
self-indulgence n.放纵,任性

 indulgent adj.纵容的
self-indulgent 自我放纵的

回目录↑; 135,dn̥gʰū-,搭嘴舌话 Tongue.
Tongue. Oldest form *dn̥g̑huh2, becoming *dn̥g̑hū‑ in satem languages and *dn̥ghū‑ in centum languages.
    1. from Old English tunge, tongue;
         tongue n.舌;语言
    2. from Middle Dutch tonghe, tongue. Both a and b from Germanic *tungōn‑.
         biltong ____
  1. from Latin lingua (< Archaic Latin dingua), tongue, language.
       language n.语言,术语,(运用语言的)方式、风格
       languet ____
       ligula ____
       ligule ____
       lingo n.(尤指)方言,行话,隐语
       lingua n.舌
       linguine n.(意大利)扁面条
       linguist n.语言学家
     bilingual adj.双语的
[Pokorny dn̥g̑hū 223.]

   tongued adj.说话…的
 bilingualism 双语
   lingual 舌的,语言的
sublingual adj.舌下的,舌下腺的
   linguistic adj.语言的,语言学的
   linguistically adv.语言学方面
   linguistics n.语言学

回目录↑; 136,dō-,做出给予 To give.
To give. Oldest form *deh3, colored to *doh3, becoming *dō‑.
Derivatives include betray, surrender, vend, dose, and antidote.
    1. Zero-grade form *də‑. from Latin dare, to give;
         dado  护壁板
         dat n.日期,年代v.注明…的日期n./v.约会
         dative 与格的
         datum n.数据,资料
         die-2 ____
         add   vt.加;增加(进);进一步说/写vi.(to)增添
       betray v.背叛,出卖;暴露,流露,泄露
        edition n.版,版本,版次
      perdition 堕入地狱
       render v.使得,致使;提出,提供,呈报
       rent   v.租,租赁n.租金
      surrender vi.投降,屈服vt.放弃,交出n.投降,认输
         tradition n.传统;惯例;传说
         traitor n.叛徒;卖国贼;背信弃义的人
         treason 交付出去:n.叛国罪;不忠
         vend  vt.出售(尤指土地等财产),(尤指在公共场所)贩卖,发表(意见,言论),声明
    2. Greek dosis, something given (see 4 below).
  1. Suffixed form *dō-no‑. from Latin dōnum, gift.
       donation n.捐赠品,捐款,贡献
       donative ____
       donor n.捐赠人 n.[化] 原料物质
    condone vt.宽恕,赦免。原为法律术语,出自19世纪英国的《婚约诉讼法》,表示“夫妻一方对另一方的通奸行为以不再重犯为条件的宽
    pardon n.原谅,宽恕;请再说一遍v.原谅,饶恕,赦免
  2. Suffixed form *dō-t(i)‑.
    1. from Latin dōs (genitive dōtis), dowry;
         dot-2 ____
         dowager 孀居贵妇
         dower 嫁妆;给以嫁妆;天赋;亡夫遗产
         dowry n.嫁妆,亡夫遗产,天资
       endow  vt.赋予,捐赠,天生具有
    2. from Russian dacha, gift, dacha, from Slavic *datja;
         dacha 乡间别墅
    3. from Russian samizdat, samizdat, from dat', to give.
      samizdat n.<俄>地下出版物,私出版物
  3. Suffixed form *dō-ro‑. from Greek dōron, gift.
       lobster thermidor ____
       Pandora 潘多拉
  4. Reduplicated form *di-dō‑. from Greek didonai, to give, with zero-grade noun dosis (< *də-ti‑), something given.
       dos n.剂量,一服,一剂v.(给…)服药
    anecdote 不向外发布:n.轶闻,秘史,奇闻。源自拜占庭帝国历史学家普罗科匹阿斯(Procopius)的未出版著作《秘史》[T8
    antidote 给出相对之物:n.解药,解毒剂,矫正方法
    apodosis ____
    epidote ____
[Pokorny dō‑ 223.]

antedate vt.(在历史上)比…为早,先于,早于,(在信、支票等上)填写比实际日期早的日期
   datable adj.可确定时代的 n.按日计工资
   dated adj.有日期的,陈旧的
   dateless adj.无日期的,无期限的,不可能过时的, 永恒的
   dating n.约会.v.约会
postdate vt.填迟…的日期 n.事后日期
predate v.提早日期,居先
   dat n.(datum的复数)资料,数据
   adding n.加,增加 v.加( add的现在分词 ),加入,增加,添加
 addition n.加,加法;附加部分,增加(物)
 additional a.额外的,附加的,另外的
 additionally ad.另外,同时
 additive adj.附加的,加法的n.附加剂,附加物
 betrayal n.背叛;辜负;暴露
 betrayer n.叛徒,背叛者
 rendering n.翻译,表演,(墙壁的)初涂,打底,(建筑物等)透视图 vt.致使,表演,打底(render的ing形式) vi.给予补偿
rendition n.表演,演唱,翻译
 rental n.租金额
 rentals n. 租费,租金额
 rented adj.租用的,租金的
 renter n.租贷人
   traditional adj.传统的,惯例的,口传的,传说的
   traditionalism 传统主义
   traditionalist n.传统主义者,因循守旧者
   traditionally ad.传统上,照惯例
   traitorous 背叛的
   treasonable adj.背叛的,叛国的,不忠的
   treasonous adj.叛逆的,不忠的
   donate n.v.捐赠,捐献
pardonable 可原谅的,可赦免的
 endowment n.捐赠;捐助;捐款;天资
   dosage n.剂量,用量
   dosed 剂量;一剂;一服;给 ... 服药
overdose n.配药量过多 vt.配药过量,使服药过量
anecdotal adj.轶事的;轶事一样的;多轶事的

   dot   n.点,圆点v.在…上打点
   dotted adj.有点的,星罗棋布的
   dicey 前途未卜的
   addendum n.附加物,补遗,附录,<机>(齿轮的)齿顶(高)
   dice  n.骰子 vt.切成方块 vi.掷骰子
 extradite 引渡
 extradition n.引渡
   dot 糊涂,溺爱
   doting adj.老糊涂的,溺爱的,偏爱的 v.溺爱,宠爱,过分地喜爱( dote的现在分词 )

回目录↑; 137,dus-,错恶坏 Bad, evil ; mis- (used as a prefix).
Bad, evil; mis- (used as a prefix). Derivative of deu-1.
  1. from Greek dus‑, bad.
       dys- 
  2. from Sanskrit Durgā, Durga (short for durgā devī, goddess who is difficult to approach), from durgā, feminine of durga‑, difficult to approach, from dus‑ (becoming dur‑ before voiced consonants), bad, difficult (*-ga‑, going, coming; see gwā- ).
       Durga ____
[Pokorny dus‑ 227.]


   dystopia n.异位,非理想化的地方,糟透的社会,地狱般的处境
   dystopian adj.反面乌托邦的,反面假想国的 n.反面乌托邦的鼓吹者(或描写者)

回目录↑; 138,dwo-,两个分开 Two.
Two.
Derivatives include twilight, biscuit, between, combine, diploma, and doubt.
  1. Variant form *duwo.
      1. from Old English twā̆, two (nominative feminine and neuter);
           two   num.二,两个n.两个(人或物)
      2. from Old English twēgen, two (nominative and accusative masculine). Both a and b from Germanic *twa, two.
           twain n.两,双,二,一对
           twayblade ____
    1. from Old English twelf, twelve, and twelfta, twelfth, from Germanic compound *twa-lif‑, "two left (over from ten)," twelve (*-lif‑, left; see leikw- ).
         twelfth n.第十二,十二分之一 adj.第十二的,第十二个的,十二分之一的
         twelve num.十二pron./a.十二(个,只...)
  2. Adverbial form *dwis and combining form *dwi‑.
      1. from Old English twi‑, two;
           twilight n.黎明,微光,略知 adj.微明的,黄昏的,黎明的,模糊的
      2. from Old High German zwi‑, twice. Both a and b from Germanic *twi‑.
           zwieback 烤干面包片
           zwitterion ____
    1. from Latin bis (combining form bi‑), twice.
         bi-  
         bis   重复
         bis- 
         balance v.称,(使)平衡n.天平;平衡,均衡;差额,余款
         barouche ____
         bezel 宝石的斜面
         biscuit n.饼干,点心
         bistort ____
    2. from Greek dis (combining form di‑), twice.
         di-  
    3. from Old English -twist, divided object, fork, rope, from Germanic *twis.
         twist v.捻;拧;扭曲;蜿蜒曲折而行n.拧;歪曲;曲折
    4. from Old English twige, twiga, twice, from Germanic *twiyes.
         twice ad.两次,两倍
    5. from Old English twēntig, twenty, from Germanic compound *twēgentig, "twice ten" (*-tig, ten; see dekm̥ ).
         twenty num.二十pron./a.二十(个,只...)
    6. from Old English twīn, double thread, from Germanic *twīhna, double thread, twisted thread.
         twine v.(使)缠绕;(使)交织;编饰n.麻线;细绳;搓;合股线
    7. from Old English betwēonum and betweox, betwix, between, from Germanic compounds *bi-twīhna and *bi-twisk, "at the middle point of two" (bi, at, by; see ambhi ).
       between prep.在…之间,在(两者)之间ad.在中间
       betwixt 在中间
         twixt 在中间
    8. from Old English twilic, woven of double thread, from Germanic compound *twilic‑, "two-threaded fabric.".
         twill 斜纹布
    9. Suffixed form *dwis-no‑.
      1. from Old English twinn, getwinn, two by two, twin, from Germanic *twisnaz, double;
           twi a.双的,成对的,孪生的n.孪生子,双生子
      2. from Latin bīnī, two by two, two each.
           bi-  
           binal ____
           binary adj.二进位的,二元的
        combine v.联合;结合;化合n.集团;联合企业
           pinochle n.一种纸牌游戏
    10. Suffixed form *dwi-ko‑. from Old English twigge, a branch, from Germanic *twig(g)a, a fork.
         twi 分叉:n.小枝;嫩枝;末梢
    11. Compound *dwi-plo‑, twofold (*-plo‑,-fold; see pel-2). from Greek diploos, diplous, twofold.
         diplo-
         diploe ____
         diploid 二倍体的
         diploma 对折的:毕业证书,学位证书;公文,文书;奖状vt.发给毕业文凭
      anadiplosis ____
         diplodocus 梁龙
    12. Suffixed reduplicated form *dwi-du-mo‑. from Greek didumos, double, the testicles.
       didymium ____
       didymous ____
      epididymis ____
    13. Suffixed form *dwi-gha. from Greek dikha, in two.
         dichasium ____
         dicho-
    14. from Sanskrit dvīpaḥ, island, from earlier *dvi-əp-o‑ "having water on two sides" (*ap‑, əp‑, water).
         Dhivehi ____
  3. Inflected form *duwō.
    1. from Latin duo, two.
         deuce 局末平分
         dozen n.一打,十二个
         dual  adj.双的,双重的
         duet  两种声音构成的小乐曲:n.二重奏,二重唱
         duo   n.[意] 二重唱,艺人的一对
         duo
         duodecimal 十二进制;十二进制的;十二进位的
         duumvir ____
    2. from Greek duo, duō, two.
         duad  ____
         dyad  n.对,双,二价元素,二分体
         dodecagon ____
      hendiadys 二词一义,重言法
  4. Variant form *du‑.
    1. Compound *du-plo‑, twofold (*-plo‑,-fold; see pel-2). from Latin duplus, double.
         double n.|a.两倍(的).vt.使加倍
         doublet 紧身短上衣,对联
         doubloon 达布隆(西班牙旧时的金币)
         duple 双重的;二倍的
    2. Compound *du-plek‑, twofold (*-plek‑,-fold; see plek-). from Latin duplex, double.
         duplex adj.双工,双重的,复式的n.双工,复式公寓
         duplicate v.复制adj.复制的n.副本,复制品
         duplicity 欺骗
      conduplicate ____
    3. Suffixed form *du-bhw-io‑. from Latin dubius, doubtful (< "hesitating between two alternatives"), and dubitāre, to be in doubt.
         doubt n./v.怀疑,疑虑
         dubious adj.可疑的;暧昧的;无把握的;半信半疑的
       redoubtable 令人敬畏的
  5. Also ultimately from this root, although the exact preform is unclear, is the Middle Indic prefix *du‑, two.
       dupatta ____
[Pokorny du̯ō(u) 228.]

   doubtful a.可疑的,不确的,疑心的
   doubtfully adv.怀疑地,含糊地
   doubtless adv.无疑地;确定地;大概,多半adj.无疑的;确定的
   twosome n.两人一起,一队,两人玩的游戏
   balanced adj.平稳的,安定的,和谐的
   balancer n.权衡者
counterbalance vt.使平均,弥补.n.平衡量,平衡力
 imbalance n.不平衡,不均衡
 imbalanced adj.失衡的;失调的
overbalance vt.& vi.(使)失去平衡而歪倒
 unbalance v.使能避免的,使心情紊乱 n.失去平衡,紊乱
 unbalanced adj.不均衡的,错乱的,不稳定的,收支不平衡的
   twisted adj.(感情、欲望等)反常的,变态的 v.扭,搓,缠绕( twist的过去式和过去分词 ),歪曲,转动,扭转
   twister 旋风,龙卷风
   twisting n.翘曲,扭曲 v.扭,搓,缠绕( twist的现在分词 ) adj.缠绕的,曲折的,转动的
 entwine v.缠住,盘绕,使缠绕
intertwine v.缠绕,纠缠,交织
   twinned adj.成双成对的,一胎双生的,孪晶生成
combination n.结合,联合;化合;团体;组合数码
combinatorial adj.组合的
combined adj.结合的,<化>化合的,数组合的 v.(使)联合(combine的过去式和过去分词)
recombination n.再结合,再化合,复合
recombine vt.再结合,重组
   twiggy adj.多细枝的,小枝繁茂的
   dualism n.二元论,二重性,二神教
   dualist n.二元论者
   dualistic adj.二元的
   duality n.二元性
   doubling n.加倍,成双 v.把…对折,折叠( double的现在分词 ),是…的两倍,(使)加倍,兼任
   doubly adv.加倍地,双倍地,两方面地,有双重原因造成,倍增
   duplication n.复制;副本;成倍
 reduplicate 复制,加倍
   duplicitous adj.搞两面派的

   diplomacy 政府公文:n.外交;外交手腕;交际手段
   diplomat n.外交官,有外交手腕的人,有权谋的人
   diplomatic a.外交的,从事外交的;策略的,有手腕的
   diplomatically adv.外交上,外交地
 undiplomatic adj.无外交策略的
 redouble 加倍,加强
 indubitable 不容置疑的
 indubitably adv.无疑地,确实地
   twiddle 无聊的摆弄,捻弄,无所事事
   diphthong 二合元音
   twentieth num.第二十,二十分之一

回目录↑; 139,dyeu-,晒光天神 To shine (and in many derivatives, sky, heaven, god ).
To shine (and in many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). Zero-grades *dyu‑ and *diw‑.
Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, and psychedelic.
  1. Basic form *dyeu‑, Jove, the name of the god of the bright sky, head of the Indo-European pantheon.
    1. from Latin Iovis, Jupiter, or Iov‑, stem of Iuppiter, Jupiter.
         Jove  朱庇特
         jovial 欢乐的
         apojove ____
         perijove ____
         Sangiovese ____
    2. from Latin Iūlius, "descended from Jupiter" (name of a Roman gens), from derivative *iou-il‑.
         July  n.七月
    3. Vocative compound *dyeu-pəter, "O father Jove" (*pəter‑, father; see pəter-). from Latin Iuppiter, Iūpiter, head of the Roman pantheon.
         Jupiter 朱庇特,木星
    4. from Greek Zeus (genitive Dios), Zeus.
         Dione ____
         Zeus  宙斯
         dianthus n.石竹类属植物(如康乃馨、美国石竹等)
         Dioscuri ____
  2. Noun *deiwos, god, formed by e-insertion to the zero-grade *diw‑ and suffixation of (accented) -o‑.
      1. from Old English Tīw (genitive Tīwes), god of war and sky;
           Tiu   ____
           Tuesday n.星期二
      2. from Old Norse Tȳr, sky god. Both a and b from Germanic *Tīwaz.
           Tyr   ____
    1. from Latin deus, god.
         deism 自然神论
         deity n.神,神性
         joss  偶像;神像
        adieu 再见
        adios int.再见,一路平安
         deific ____
         deus ex machina ____
    2. from Latin dīvus, divine, god.
         div 女神:n.歌剧中的首席女主角
         divine adj.神圣的,非凡的,天赐的,极好的v.占卜,预言
    3. from Latin dīves, rich (< "fortunate, blessed, divine").
         Dis   ____
         Dives ____
    4. Suffixed zero-grade form *diw-yo‑, heavenly. from Latin Diāna, moon goddess.
         Diana ____
    5. from Sanskrit devaḥ, god, and deva‑, divine.
         deva  ____
         Devi  ____
         deodar ____
         Devanagari ____
    6. from Avestan daēuua‑, spirit, demon.
         Asmodeus ____
  3. Variant *dyē‑ (< *dyeə‑) from Latin diēs, day.
       dial  n.钟(表)面,刻度盘,拨号盘v.拨号,打电话
       diary n.日记,日记簿
       diet-2 ____
    dismal 坏日子:adj.忧郁,阴沉的,凄凉的n.低落的情绪
       diurnal adj.每日的,一日的n.日报,日记账
       journal n.定期刊物,杂志,日报;日志,日记
       journey n.旅行,旅程v.旅行
     adjourn 指定一天:v.推迟,延期,休会,换地方开会
       ajouré ____
    circadian 生理节奏的
    meridian 子午线,经线
    postmeridian 午后的;午后发生的
    quotidian 普通的,日常的
     sojourn 停留一日n.v.旅居,逗留
  4. Variant *deiə‑. from Greek dēlos (< *deyalos), clear.
       psychedelic adj.起幻觉的,迷幻的 n.迷幻剂
       adelgid 球蚜
[Pokorny 1. dei‑ 183.]

   joviality n.快活
   jovially adv.愉快地,高兴地
   divination n.预言
   divinatory adj.占卦的
   diviner n.占卜者,占卦的人
   divining n.占卜 adj.占卜的,推测的 v.猜测,预测( divine的现在分词 ),(用丫形杖)探测(地下水)
   divinity n.神;神性;神学
   dialing n.<主英>(电话)拨号音 v.打电话,拨电话号码( dial的现在分词 )
   diarist n.记日记者,负日记专责的人,日记作者
dismally adv.阴暗地,沉闷地
 adjournment n.休会,延期,休会期,休庭期
   psychedelia 迷幻音乐,迷幻艺术

   deification n.祀为神,奉若神明,被奉为神者
   deify 奉为神明的

回目录↑; 140,tag-,触碰搭拿 To touch, handle.
To touch, handle.
  1. Nasalized form *ta-n-g‑. from Latin tangere, to touch, with derivatives taxāre, to touch, assess (possibly a frequentative of tangere, but probably influenced by Greek tassein, taxai, to arrange, assess), and tāctus, touch.
       tact  n.机智,圆滑,老练,鉴赏力
       tangent 正切,切线
       tangible 可触摸到的:adj.有形的n.有形资产
       task  n.任务,作业,工作
       taste v.品尝;(of)有…味道;体验n.滋味;味觉
       tax   n.税(款),负担v.对…征税,使负重担
     attain vt.达到;完成;获得vi.达到
    contact v./n.(使)接触,联系,交往
     intact a.完整无缺的,未经触动的,未受损伤的
  2. Compound form *n̥-tag-ro‑, "untouched, intact" (*n̥‑, negative prefix; see ne). from Latin integer, intact, whole, complete, perfect, honest.
     entire a.完全的,全部的,完整的
     integer 整数
     integrate v.(into,with)(使)成为一体,(使)结合在一起
     integrity n.正直,诚实;完整,完全
  3. Suffixed form *tag-smen‑. from Latin contāmināre, to corrupt by mixing or contact (< *con-tāmen‑, "bringing into contact with"; con‑, com‑, with; see kom ).
    contaminate v.弄污,弄脏,毒害,传染,染污
[Pokorny tag‑ 1054.]

   tactful 老练的,得体的
   tactfully adv.言行得体地,不得罪人地,能赢得好感地
   tactless 没策略的,得罪人的
   tangential 正切的,稍微沾边的
   tangentially adv.无关地
 intangible adj.无形的,触摸不到的;难以理解的
   tangibly adv.可触摸的,可触知地,明白地
distaste n.讨厌,嫌恶
distasteful a.味道差的,反感的
distastefully 不愉快地.;味差
foretaste n.预示,先试,试吃 vt.先试,快乐地期待,预尝
   tasteful adj.有鉴赏力的
   tastefully adv.有良好判断力或鉴赏力地,举止得体地,风流地,高雅地
   tasteless adj.没味道的,无鉴赏力的
   taster n.审阅人,品酒师
   tasting n.尝味,品尝 v.尝,品尝,尝到( taste的现在分词 ),吃,喝,浅尝
   tasty adj.好吃的,可口的 n.好吃的东西,吸引人的东西
   taxable adj.应征税的
   taxation n.课税,征税,抽税,税款,估定的税额
   taxes n.赋税,税收
   taxing adj.繁重的,费力的
 attainable adj.可到达的,可得到的
 attainment n.达到;成就;学识
 intactness n.完整无缺,未受损伤
 entirely adv.完全地,全然地,一概地
 entirety n.全部,完全
disintegrate vt.使分解;使碎裂;使崩溃;使衰变vi.瓦解;碎裂;衰变
disintegration n.瓦解,崩溃;分解
 integral adj.积分的;完整的,整体的;必须的n.积分;部分;完整
 integrally adv.完整地,固有地
 integrated adj.综合的,完整的
 integration n.集成;综合
 integrative adj.综合的,一体化的
 integrator n.综合者
reintegrate vt.使重新完整,复兴,再团结
contamination n.污染,玷污;污染物
decontaminate 排除污染
decontamination n.净化,排除污染,去污,洗除

   contiguity n.接近,一连串的事物,一系列,一大片
   contiguous adj.连续的;邻近的;接触的
   contingency n.偶然性;意外事故;可能性;意外开支
   contingent 触碰的:adj.因情况而异的;不一定的;偶然发生的;可能的;依情况而定的;偶然的;有条件的n.分遣队;偶然事件;分得
   contagion n.传染病,蔓延,接触传染
   contagious adj.接触传染的
   taxonomic adj.分类学的
   taxonomically 分类学的
   taxonomist 分类学家
   taxonomy n.分类学;分类法
   cantankerous 坏脾气的
   tactile adj.触觉的,有触觉的
   tactility n.触知性,触感

回目录↑; 141,tauro-,公牛 Bull.
Bull. Derivative of stā- , but an independent word in Indo-European.
  1. from Latin taurus, bull.
       taurine 牛磺酸
       Taurus 金牛座
       toreador 斗牛士
       torero n.(尤指徒步的)斗牛士
       bittern 麻鸦
  2. from Greek tauros, bull.
       taurine-2 ____
       taurocholic acid ____
[In Pokorny tēu‑ 1080.]


回目录↑; 142,tegu-,厚重难拿 Thick.
Thick.

   thick a.厚的,粗的,稠的,浓的ad.厚,浓,密 from Old English thicce, thick, from Germanic *thiku‑.
[Pokorny tegu‑ 1057.]

   thicken vt.(使)变厚,(使)变粗
   thickener 增稠剂
   thickening n.使变厚,增厚过程 v.(使)变厚(或粗、浓、密),使更厚(或更密、更浓、更粗)( thicken的现在分词 ),使(话等)
   thickly adv.厚地 浓地
   thickness n.厚度,浓度,稠密

回目录↑; 143,tek-,生娃拿到 To beget, give birth to.
To beget, give birth to.
  1. Suffixed form *tek-no‑, child. from Old English thegn, freeman, nobleman, military vassal, warrior, from Germanic *thegnaz, boy, man, servant, warrior.
       thane n.大乡绅,领主
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *tok-o‑. from Greek tokos, birth.
       oxytocic ____
       polytocous ____
       tocology ____
[Pokorny 1. tek‑ 1057.]


回目录↑; 144,teks-,编织技术 To weave ; also to fabricate, especially with an ax ;
To weave; also to fabricate, especially with an ax; also to make wicker or wattle fabric for (mud-covered) house walls. Oldest form *tek̑s‑, becoming *teks‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include text, tissue, subtle, architect, and technology.
  1. from Latin texere, to weave, fabricate.
       text  n.正文,文本;原文;教科书
       tissue n.织物,薄绢,纸巾;(动,植物的)组织
    context n.(文章等)前后关系;(事件等发生的)背景
    pretext 预先编好的:n.借口,托辞vt.以……为借口
  2. Suffixed form *teks-lā‑.
    1. from Latin tēla, web, net, warp of a fabric, also weaver's beam (to which the warp threads are tied);
         tiller-2 ____
         toil-2 ____
    2. from Latin subtīlis, thin, fine, precise, subtle (< *sub-tēla, "thread passing under the warp," the finest thread; sub, under; see upo ).
         subtle a.精巧的,巧妙的;细微的,微妙的
  3. Suffixed form *teks-ōn‑, weaver, maker of wattle for house walls, builder (possibly contaminated with *teks-tōr, builder) from Greek tektōn, carpenter, builder.
       tectonic 地壳构造的
    architect n.建筑师;设计师;缔造者;创造者
  4. Suffixed form *teks-nā‑, craft (of weaving or fabricating) from Greek tekhnē, art, craft, skill.
       technical a.技术(性)的,工艺的;专门性的,专业性的
    polytechnic adj.工艺的 n.工艺学校
       technology n.科学技术;工业技术;应用科学
    1. from Old High German dahs, badger;
         dachshund 猎獾狗
    2. from Middle Dutch das, badger. Both a and b from Germanic *thahsuz, badger, possibly from this root ("the animal that builds," referring to its burrowing skill) but more likely borrowed from the same pre-Indo-European source as the Celtic totemic name *Tazgo‑ (as in Gaulish Tazgo‑, Gaelic Tadhg), originally "badger.".
         dassie ____
[Pokorny tek̑Þ‑ 1058.]

   textual adj.本文的;按原文的
contextual adj.上下文的;前后关系的
contextually adv.根据上下文
   subtlety n.微妙,精明
   subtly adv.隐隐约约地
   technicality n.专门性,学术性
   technically adv.技术上,学术上,工艺上
   technological a.科技的,工艺的
   technologically ad.科技地
   technologist n.技术专家,工艺学家,工艺人员

distill vt.提取;蒸馏;使滴下vi.蒸馏;滴下;作为精华产生(等于distil)
distillate n.馏出物,馏出液,蒸馏液,馏分油
distillation n.(各种释义的)蒸馏(过程),蒸馏物,蒸流,升华
distilled adj.由蒸馏得来的 v.蒸馏( distil的过去式和过去分词 ),从…提取精华
distiller n.蒸馏酒者,蒸馏器
distillery 酿酒厂
   technician n.技术员,技师,技工
   technique n.技巧,手艺,技能;技术,工艺
architectonic adj.建筑上的
   technocracy 专家治国,专家治校
   technocrat 技术型官员
pyrotechnic 烟花
pyrotechnics 烟花表演,烟花技巧

回目录↑; 145,telə-,托举支撑 To lift, support, weigh ;
To lift, support, weigh; with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence to money and payment. Oldest form *telh2.
Derivatives include tolerate, retaliate, tantalize, Atlas, translate, and extol.
  1. Suffixed form *telə-mon‑. from Greek telamōn, supporter, bearer.
       telamon ____
  2. Suffixed form *tel(ə)-es‑.
    1. from Greek telos, tax, charge;
         toll  n.(道路、桥等的)通行费;牺牲;死伤人数
         philately 集邮
    2. from Latin tolerāre, to bear, endure.
         tolerate vt.容忍,默许;对(药物、毒品等)有耐力
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *tl̥ə-i‑. from Latin tāliō, reciprocal punishment in kind, possibly "something paid out," from *tali‑ (influenced by tālis, such).
       talion ____
     retaliate v.报复
  4. Suffixed variant zero-grade form *tala-nt‑. from Greek talanton, balance, weight, any of several specific weights of gold or silver, hence the sum of money represented by such a weight.
       talent n.才能,天资;人才
  5. Perhaps (but unlikely) intensive reduplicated form *tantal‑. from Greek Tantalos, name of a legendary king, "the sufferer.".
    tantalize vt.逗弄,使干着急
    Tantalus 坦塔罗斯
  6. Perhaps (but unlikely) zero-grade form *tl̥ə‑. from Greek Atlās (stem Atlant‑), name of the Titan supporting the world.
       Atlantic n.大西洋.a.大西洋的
       Atlas ____
  7. Suffixed zero-grade form *tl̥ə-to‑. from Latin lātus, "carried, borne," used as the suppletive past participle of ferre, to bear (see bher- 1), with its compounds.
     ablation 冰雪消融
     ablative 夺格
     allative ____
       collate 核对
     dilatory 拖延的
      elate vt.使高兴,使得意
      elative ____
     illation ____
     illative ____
    legislator n.立法者,立法委员
     oblate n.献身于修道院生活的人 adj.奉为神圣的,扁平的,扁圆的
    prelate 高级神职人员
    prolate ____
     relate v.叙述,讲述;使互相关联
    sublate 否定(否认;消除)
    superlative 最高级的
    translate v.翻译,解释;转化,
  8. Suffixed zero-grade form *tl̥ə-ā‑. from Sanskrit tulā, scales, balance, weight.
       tol ____
  9. Nasalized zero-grade form *tl̥-n-ə‑. from Latin tollere, to lift.
     extol  举起来:vt.颂扬;赞美;赞颂
[Pokorny 1. tel‑ 1060.]

 intolerable adj.无法忍受的;难耐的
 intolerably adv.不能忍受地,无法容忍地,到难耐的程度,无法忍受的程度
   tolerable adj.可容忍的
   tolerably adv.可容忍地,颇
   tolerance n.宽容;容忍,忍受;耐药力;公差
   toleration n.容忍,默认,信仰自由,(对药物等效应的)耐受性
 retaliation n.报复,报仇
 retaliatory 报复的,反击的
   talentless adj.无能的
tantalizing adj.逗人的,惹弄人的,撩人的,煽情的 v.逗弄,引诱,折磨( tantalize的现在分词 )
   atlas n.地图,地图集
 ablate v.融化
  elated adj.兴高采烈的;得意洋洋的
  elation n.兴高采烈;得意洋洋
interrelate 相互的
interrelated adj.相互关联的 v.<书>相互关联影响( interrelate的过去式和过去分词 )
interrelation n.相互关系
interrelationship n.相互关系
 related adj.叙述的,讲述的,有关系的
 relation n.关系,联系;亲属,亲戚
 relational a.有关系的,亲属的
 relationship n.关系,联系
 relative a.相对的,比较的,有关系的n.亲戚,关系词
 relatively adv.相对地,比较地
 relativism n.相对论,相对主义
 relativistic adj.相对论的
 relativity n.相关(性);相对论
 relativize vt.使相对化,把…视为相对物,相对论应用于
translatable adj.可译的,可转移的
translation n.翻译;译文,译本
translational 平动,平移,直线
translator n.译者;翻译器

correlate vi.关联vt.使有相互关系;互相有关系n.相关物;相关联的人adj.关联的
correlation n.相关,关联;相互关系
correlational 相关的
correlative adj.相关的,关联的 n.关联词,相关物
 intolerance n.不宽容;偏狭
 intolerant adj.无法忍受的;偏狭的
   tolerant adj.宽容的;容忍的;有耐药力的
   talented a.有才能的,有天赋的

回目录↑; 146,temə-1,切寺原子 To cut.
Also temə-.
To cut. (oldest form *temh2).
  1. Form *temə‑. Nasalized form *t(e)m-n-ə‑. from Greek temnein, to cut, with o-grade forms tomos, cutting, a cut, section, volume, and tomē, a cutting.
       tmesis 分割插入法
       tom 切出来的部分:n.册
      -tome
      -tomy
    acrotomophilia ____
    anatomy 切开:n.解剖,解剖学,剖析
    apotemnophilia ____
      atom  n.原子;微粒,微量
    diatom n.硅藻属
       dichotomy 切成二n.二分法;两分;分裂;双歧分枝
     entomo-
    epitome 在上面切:n.摘要,缩影
  2. Form *tem‑.
    1. Suffixed form *tem-lo‑. from Latin templum, temple, shrine, open place for observation (augury term < "place reserved or cut out"), small piece of timber.
         temple n.庙宇,神殿,寺;太阳穴
         temple-3 ____
      contemplate v.凝视,沉思,预期,企图
    2. Extended root *tem-d‑ becoming *tend‑ in o-grade suffixed (iterative) form *tond-eyo‑. from Latin tondēre, to shear, shave.
         tonsorial 理发师的;理发的
         tonsure 僧侣或教士等的剃度
[Pokorny 1. tem‑ 1062.]

anatomic adj.解剖的,解剖学上的
anatomical adj.解剖的;解剖学的;结构上的
anatomically adv.在解剖学上
anatomist n.解剖学家,剖析者
  atomic a.原子的,原子能的,微粒子的
  atomism n.原子论,原子说,心理原素论
  atomistic adj.原子论的
  atomization n.分离成原子,以原子弹摧毁,雾化,弥雾
  atomizer n.喷雾器,香水喷瓶
   dichotomous adj.分成两个的,叉状分枝的
epitomize vt.摘要;概括;成为…的缩影
contemplation n.注视,沉思,预期,企图,打算
contemplative adj.沉思的,冥想的,[宗]祈祷的

   autumn n.秋,秋季;成熟期,渐衰期
   autumnal adj.秋的,秋天的,已过中年的
   estimable adj.值得尊敬的,可估计的,难能可贵
   estimate v./n.估计,估价;评估
   estimation n.估计,尊重
   estimator n.评价者,评估特有者,估测者
 inestimable 难以估量的
underestimate vt.|.n.估计不足,低估,看清
underestimation n.过低之估价,过低估计
phlebotomy 静脉切开术
   contempt n.轻视,轻蔑,耻辱,不尊敬,[律]藐视法庭(或国会)
   contemptuous adj.轻蔑的,侮辱的

回目录↑; 147,ten-,藤爬伸展 To stretch.
To stretch.
Derivatives include tendon, pretend, hypotenuse, tenement, tenor, entertain, lieutenant, and tone.
  1. Derivatives with the basic meaning.
    1. Suffixed form *ten-do‑.
      1. from Latin tendere, to stretch, extend;
           tend  v.趋向,往往是;照料,看护
           tender-2 ____
           tendu-2 ____
           tense n.时态v.拉紧,(使)紧张a.绷紧的,紧张的
           tent  n.帐篷
         attend vt.出席,参加;照顾,护理vi.注意;侍奉
        contend 一起伸手去够:v.竞争,奋斗,斗争,主张,为……斗争
         detent n.(机械中的)棘爪掣,止动器,(钟表等机件中的)擒纵装置
        distend 膨胀
         extend v.延长,延伸;扩充;给予;提供;估价
         intend vt.想要,打算,企图
         ostensible 表面的,宣称的
        pretend v.假装,假托,借口,(在演戏中)装扮
        subtend 对向弧,对向角
      2. from Latin portendere, "to stretch out before" (por‑, variant of pro‑, before; see per 1), a technical term in augury, "to indicate, presage, foretell.".
        portend 伸展到前面vt.预示;预兆;意味着
    2. Suffixed form *ten-yo‑. from Greek teinein, to stretch, with o-grade form ton‑ and zero-grade noun tasis (< *tn̥-ti‑), a stretching, tension, intensity.
         tenesmus ____
         anatase 锐钛矿
         bronchiectasis 支气管扩张;支气管扩张症
      catatonia 紧张症
         entasis ____
         epitasis ____
      hypotenuse 直角三角形的斜边,弦
      neoteny ____
      paratenic host ____
      peritoneum 腹膜
         protasis ____
      syntonic ____
         telangiectasia ____
    3. Reduplicated zero-grade form *te-tn̥-o‑. from Greek tetanos, stiff, rigid.
         tetanus 破伤风
    4. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-tro‑.
      1. from Sanskrit tantram, loom;
           tantra 坦陀罗,密教经书,印度教经书
      2. from Persian tār, string.
           sitar 西塔尔
    5. Basic form (with stative suffix) *ten-ē‑. from Latin tenēre, to hold, keep, maintain (< "to cause to endure or continue, hold on to").
         tenable 说得过去的,站得住脚的
         tenacious adj.顽强的;坚韧的;固执的;黏着力强的
         tenaculum ____
         tenant 持有者:n.租户,承租人,佃户,房客vt.租借
         tenement n.出租公寓,租户,住户
         tenet n.信条,教义,原则
         tenon 接榫,榫头
         tenor 持续过程:n.男高音;要旨,大意;票据的限期;稳定的进程adj.男高音的(在歌剧中,歌曲的定曲调部分通常有男高音完成
         tenure holding:n.任期,占有vt.授予……终身职位
         tenuto ____
       abstain keepawayfromvi.戒绝,放弃,避免,抑制
      contain v.包含,容纳;容忍,抑制;可被...除尽
      continue v.继续,连续,延伸
       detain vt.拘留;留住;耽搁
         entertain v.招待,款待;使娱乐;使欢乐;容纳,接受
      lieutenant 代理他人职位之人:n.中尉;副官;助理人员
      maintain v.维修,保养,维持,供养,坚持,主张,支持
       obtain v.获得,得到
      pertain 持续持有vi.属于,关于,适合
      pertinacious 坚决的
       rein   n.缰绳,统治,支配 vt.以缰绳控制,统治,驾驭 vi.勒住马,止住
       retain v.保持,保留
       retinaculum ____
       retinue 随行人员
       sustain vt.支撑,撑住;维持,持续,经受,忍耐
    6. Extended form *ten-s‑. Suffixed zero-grade form *tn̥s-elo‑. from Sanskrit tasaram, shuttle.
         tussah ____
  2. Derivatives meaning "stretched," hence "thin."
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *tn̥-u‑. from Old English thynne, thin, from Germanic *thunniz, from *thunw‑.
         thin  a.薄的,细的;稀薄的,淡的;瘦的v.变薄;变稀
    2. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-u‑. from Latin tenuis, thin, rare, fine.
         tenuous adj.纤细的;稀薄的;贫乏的
       attenuate 减弱,变细
       extenuate 使人原谅;使变瘦
    3. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-ero‑. from Latin tener, tender, delicate.
         tender a.嫩的;敏感的;温柔的v.提出,提供;投标
         tendril n.[植]卷须,蔓,卷须状之物
       intenerate ____
  3. Derivatives meaning "something stretched or capable of being stretched, a string."
    1. Suffixed form *ten-ōn‑. from Greek tenōn, tendon.
         tendon n.[解]腱
         teno-
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *ton-o‑. from Greek tonos, string, hence sound, pitch.
         ton n.音调,音色;风气,气氛;腔调,语气;色调
      baritone n.男中音;男中音歌手adj.男中音的
         tonoplast ____
    3. Suffixed zero-grade form *tn̥-yā‑. from Greek tainiā, band, ribbon.
         taenia ____
      polytene ____
[Pokorny 1. ten‑ 1065.]

   tendency n.趋势,趋向;倾向
   tendentious 有倾向的,偏向的
   tendering v. 提出;[法律]清偿,偿债;使变温柔;使变脆弱
   tenderize 使肉变嫩
   tenderizer 嫩肉粉
   tension n.(紧张)状态;拉(绷)紧;张力,拉力
   tensor 张肌
   tented adj.帐篷形的
 attendance n.出席;出席人数;护理,照料
 attendant adj.伺候的,伴随的n.侍者,服务员,随员
 attending adj.(医生)主治的 v.参加( attend的现在分词 ),注意,听,照顾,常用被动语态(作为结果、情况)伴随
 attention n.注意,注意力;立正;特别照顾;照料
 attentional adj. 注意的;保养的
 attentive adj.注意的,留意的
 attentiveness 医注意
inattention n.疏忽
inattentive adj.不注意的,疏忽的,漫不经心的,松散,粗疏
contender n.竞争者,争夺者
contention n.争论,争辩;争夺;论点
contentious adj.诉讼的;有异议的,引起争论的;爱争论的
contentiousness n. 争论
distended v.(使)膨胀,肿胀( distend的过去式和过去分词 )
distention n.膨胀,延伸
coextensive adj.扩及同空间的,伸及同时间的,同延的
 extended adj.伸出的,延长的,广大的,扩大范围的,长期的
 extensible adj.可展开的,可扩张的,可延长的
 extension n.延长;扩大;范围;大小;尺寸;电话分机
 extensional adj.外延的
 extensive a.广大的,广阔的
 extensor n.伸肌
hyperextension n.伸展过度,过伸
overextend vt.过分张开,过分扩展,使(自己或别人)承担过多的工作
 intended adj.有意的,故意的,已经订婚的 n 已经订婚者
 intending 动词intend的现在分词形式. adj. 预计的;意欲的
 intention n.意图,意向,目的
 intentional adj.故意的;蓄意的;策划的
 intentionality 意向性
 intentionally ad.有意地,故意地
 ostensibly adv.表面上地
pretended adj.假装的,徒有外表的,传说的,号称的 v.假装( pretend的过去式和过去分词 ),伪装,(尤指儿童)(在游戏中)装
pretender n.觊觎高位者,冒牌学者
pretending v.假装( pretend的现在分词 ),伪装,(尤指儿童)(在游戏中)装扮,自诩
catatonic adj.(患)紧张症的, (患)强直性昏厥的
 untenable adj.站不住脚的,防守不住的
   tenacity n.固执,韧性,不屈不挠
   tenancy n.租期;租用
   tenured adj. 享有终身职位的
 abstainer n.节制者,戒酒者,弃权者
abstention 戒除,弃权
abstinence n.节制,节欲,戒酒,禁食
abstinent adj.饮食有度的,有节制的,禁欲的 n.禁欲者
contained v.控制( contain的过去式和过去分词 ),克制,牵制,包含
container n.容器;集装箱
containment n.包含;牵制;容量;密闭度;抑制,牵制
self-contained adj.设备齐全的,独立的,沉默寡言的
continuance n.继续,连续,持续的时间,续篇
continuation n.持续不断的;频繁的
continued adj.继续的,延续的
discontinuance n.停指,废止,中止
discontinuation n.停止,废止,中止
discontinue v.停止,中断
 detainee n.被拘留者,未判决囚犯
 detainment n.挽留,延误
 detention n.拘留;延迟;挽留
   entertainer n.演艺人员,表演者
   entertaining adj.愉快的,有趣的 n.招待,款待
   entertainingly adv. 有趣地
   entertainment n.招待,款待;表演文娱节目
 obtainable adj.能得到的
impertinence n.不适宜,鲁莽,无礼,鲁莽,无礼,不合理( impertinency的名词复数 )
impertinent 不相关的,不切题的,粗鲁的,无礼的
pertinence n.有关性,相关性,针对性
pertinent adj.相关的,相干的;中肯的;切题的
 rein n. 控制手段;(成人带着幼儿走路以防其走失时用的)保护带;感情,激情;缰;掌管; v. 加强管理;严格控制;勒缰绳使(马)停步;驾驭
 retainer n.保持器;家臣;保持者;护圈;预付费用
 retention n.保留;扣留,滞留;记忆力;闭尿
 retentive 记忆力好的
self-sustaining adj.自立的,自谋生活的
 sustainable adj.可以忍受的,足可支撑的,养得起的,
 sustainer n.支持者,维持者,主动动机,主级发动机
 sustaining adj. 支持的;持续的;有帮助的
sustenance n.食物;生计;支持
   thinner n.稀释剂
   thinness n.薄,细,疏,稀薄
 attenuation n.变薄,弄细,稀薄化,减少
 attenuator n.衰减器
  atonal 无调的
  atonality n.无调性
overtone n.寓意,弦外音,暗示
   tonal adj.色调的;音调的
   tonality 调性
   toned adj.某种语气的,某种语调的
   toneless 单调的
   toner 护肤霜,爽肤水
   tonic adj.激励的,滋补的 n.滋补剂,滋补品
undertone n.低音,小声,浅色

appertain 相关的
continuity n.连续性,连贯性
continuous a.连续的,持续的
continuum n.连续统;连续统一体;闭联集
discontinuity n.不连续,中断
discontinuous adj.不连续的,间断的,中断的,非连续
 ostentation 炫耀,卖弄
 ostentatious 炫耀的,卖弄的
 intense a.强烈的,剧烈的;热烈的,热情的
 intensity n.强烈,剧烈;强度
content n.容量,内容,(pl.)目录a.(with)满足的
contented adj.满足的,心安的
contentment n.满意,知己
discontent adj.不满的n.不满vt.使不满
discontented adj.不满的,不满足的
pretense n.借口;虚假;炫耀;自吹(等于pretence)
pretension n.自负;要求;主张;借口;骄傲
pretentious adj.自命不凡的;炫耀的;做作的
unpretentious adj.谦逊的;含蓄的;不炫耀的;不铺张的
monotone 单一声调,单调
monotonic adj.单调的,无变化的
   tune  n.调子,曲调;和谐,协调vt.调音,调节,调整
   tuned adj.经调谐的;谱好曲的;调好台的
   tuneful 曲调优美的
   tuneless 不成调的
   tuner 调音师
tuning n.调谐,调整,调音 v.调音( tune的现在分词 ),调整,(给收音机、电视等)调谐,使协调
 intonation n.声调,语调;语音的抑扬
 intone v.吟诵;吟咏
   tenia n.(古希腊的)头带,束发带,软组织带
 intent n.意图;目的;含义adj.专心的;急切的;坚决的
continence 节制,自制
continent n.大陆,洲
continental adj.大陆的,大陆性的n.欧洲人
incontinence n.不能自制,无节制,[医]失禁
incontinent adj.(大小便)失禁的,不能自制的
intercontinental 洲际间的
transcontinental 横贯大陆的
countenance n.面容,表情;支持vt.支持,赞同
superintend 主管,监管
superintendent n.监督人;负责人;主管;指挥者
 intensional adj. 紧张的;专心致志的;内涵的
portent 预示,预兆,(尤指)恶兆,凶兆
portentous 坏的预兆的

回目录↑; 148,terə-1,旋转钻研 To rub, turn ;
To rub, turn; with some derivatives referring to twisting, boring, drilling, and piercing; and others referring to the rubbing of cereal grain to remove the husks, and thence to the process of threshing either by the trampling of oxen or by flailing with flails. Oldest form *terh1, with variant *treh1, becoming *trē‑.
Derivatives include trite, detriment, thrash, trauma, and truant.
  1. Full-grade form *ter(ə)‑.
      1. from Latin terere (past participle trītus), to rub away, thresh, tread, wear out;
           trite 陈腐的,老套的
           triturate 研磨,磨碎
         attrition n.摩擦;磨损;消耗
        contrite 懊悔的
         detriment 摩擦掉:n.损害;伤害;损害物
      2. from Greek terēdōn, a kind of biting worm.
           teredo ____
    1. Suffixed form *ter-et‑. from Latin teres (stem teret‑), rounded, smooth.
         terete ____
    2. Suffixed form *ter-sko‑.
      1. from Old English therscan, to thresh;
           thrash vt.打(谷),(用棍、鞭等)痛打,打败,使逆行,胜过,使颠簸,推敲 vi.打谷,击,颠簸,逆行 n.打谷,逆风浪行进
           thresh 使翻滚,使脱粒
      2. from Old English therscold, threscold, sill of a door (over which one treads; second element obscure). Both a and b from Germanic *therskan, *threskan, to thresh, tread.
           threshold n.入口;门槛;开始;极限;临界值
  2. O-grade form *tor(ə)‑.
    1. from Greek toreus, a boring tool.
         toreutics ____
    2. Suffixed form *tor(ə)-mo‑, hole. from Old High German darm, gut, from Germanic *tharma‑.
         derma-2 ____
    3. Suffixed form *tor(ə)-no‑. from Greek tornos, tool for drawing a circle, circle, lathe.
         turn  v./n.(使)转动;(使)旋转;(使)转变n.机会
       attorn ____
       attorney n.(业务或法律事务上的)代理人;辩护律师
      contour vt.画轮廓,画等高线n.轮廓,等高线,周线,电路
       detour v.(使)绕道,迂回n.绕道
       return v./n.返回,回来;归还,送还;回答
  3. Zero-grade form *tr‑. from Middle Dutch drillen, to drill, from Germanic *thr‑.
       drill v.练习;操练;钻孔n.操练;练习;钻孔(机)
  4. Variant form *trē‑ (< *treə‑).
    1. from Old English thrāwan, to turn, twist, from Germanic *thrēw‑.
         throw vt.扔;使突然陷入;使困惑n.投掷(距离)
    2. Suffixed form *trē-tu‑. from Old English thrǣd, thread, from Germanic *thrēdu‑, twisted yarn.
         thread n.线,细丝;线索,思路;螺纹v.穿线,穿过
    3. Suffixed form *trē-mn̥ (< *treə‑ or *tr̥ə‑) from Greek trēma, perforation.
      diatreme ____
      monotreme 单孔目动物(卵生哺乳动物)
         trematode ____
    4. Suffixed form *trē-ti‑ (< *treə‑ or *tr̥ə‑) from Greek trēsis, perforation.
         atresia n.闭锁
  5. Extended form *trī‑ (< *triə‑).
    1. Probably suffixed form *trī-ōn‑. from Latin triō, plow ox.
         septentrion ____
    2. Suffixed form *trī-dhlo‑. from Latin trībulum, a threshing sledge.
         tribulation n.苦难;磨难;忧患
  6. Various extended forms
    1. Forms *trō‑, *trau‑. from Greek trauma, hurt, wound.
         trauma n.[医] 外伤,损伤
    2. Form *trīb‑. from Greek trībein, to rub, thresh, pound, wear out.
      diatribe n.恶骂,诽谤
         triboelectricity ____
         tribology n.摩擦学
         triboluminescence ____
         trypsin n.胰岛素,胰蛋白酶
    3. Form *trōg‑, *trag‑.
      1. from Greek trōgein, to gnaw;
           trogon ____
           trout n.鲑鱼
      2. from Greek tragēma, sweetmeat.
           dredge-2 ____
    4. Form *trup‑. from Greek trupē, hole.
         trepan ____
         trypanosome ____
    5. Possible form *trūg‑. from Old French truant, beggar.
         truant 逃学的小学生
[Pokorny 3. ter‑ 1071.]

 detrimental adj.不利的;有害的n.有害的人(或物);不受欢迎的求婚者
   thrashing n.打,痛打 v.鞭打(thrash的现在分词),彻底击败,打谷,打麦
   thresher n.打谷者,打谷机,长尾鲨
overturn n.倾覆,破灭.v.推翻,颠倒
   turned v.(使)转动( turn的过去式和过去分词 ),旋转,(使)改变方向,(使)不适
   turning n.旋转,转向,转弯处
 returnable 可回收的
 returned adj.被送回的,归来的 v.返回,回来( return的过去式和过去分词 ),恢复,还,归还
   drilling n.演练 v.钻(孔)( drill的现在分词 ),打(眼),操练,训练
overthrow n.推翻,打倒,扔得过远得球 vt.打倒,推翻,颠覆
   threw vbl.throw的过去式
   thrower n.投掷器,投掷者(器),<纺>捻丝工,制陶坯的工人
   traumatic adj.外伤的,创伤的
   traumatize vt.[医] 使受损伤,使受精神上创伤
   truancy 旷课,逃学

   dredge n.挖泥机.v.挖掘,努力回忆
   dredger n.挖泥船,撒粉器
   tour  n.旅游,旅行;巡回演出/比赛v.旅游
   tourer n.观光客,巡回演出者
   touring n.转动,旋转
   tourism n.旅游业,观光
   tourist n.旅游者,观光客;巡回比赛的运动员
   touristy adj.适宜游览的,适合观光的,旅游者常去的
   tourney 锦标赛

回目录↑; 149,terə-2,穿透传送 To cross over, pass through, overcome.
To cross over, pass through, overcome. Oldest form *terh2, with variant *treh2, colored to *trah2, becoming *trā‑.
Derivatives include thrill, nostril, and trench.
  1. Zero-grade form *tr̥(ə)‑.
    1. from Old English thyr(e)l, thȳrel, a hole (< "a boring through"), from Germanic suffixed form *thur-ila‑.
         thrill n.一阵激动(恐惧)v.激动;(使)毛骨悚然
         nostril n.鼻孔
    2. Suffixed form *tr̥ə-kwe. from Old English thurh, thuruh, through, from Germanic *thurh.
         thorough a.彻底的,完全的;精心的
         through prep./ad.穿过;自始至终;由,以a.直达的
    3. Greek nektar (see nek-1).
    4. Zero-grade form *tr̥ə‑ and full-grade form *ter(ə)‑. from Sanskrit tirati, tarati, he crosses over.
         avatar n.化身,阿凡达
  2. Variant form *trā‑ (< *traə‑).
    1. from Latin trāns, across, over, beyond, through (perhaps originally the present participle of a verb *trāre, to cross over).
         trans- 转移,转变,进入,穿过,横穿,超越
         transient adj.短暂的,路过的n.候鸟,过往旅客
         transom n.气窗,横窗,横梁,结构中横向构件
    2. Suffixed form *trā-yo‑. from Iranian *thrāya‑, to protect.
         seraglio n.土耳其、苏丹的宫殿,(伊斯兰教徒妻妾的)闺房
         serai ____
         caravansary ____
         lamasery ____
  3. Possible extended form *tru‑.
    1. Suffixed form *tru-k‑. from Latin trux (stem truc‑), savage, fierce, grim (< "overcoming," "powerful," "penetrating").
         truculent 好斗的
    2. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *tru-n-k-o‑. from Latin truncus, deprived of branches or limbs, mutilated, hence trunk (? < "overcome, maimed").
         tranche 一份,一部分
         trench n.沟渠,堑壕.v.掘沟,挖战壕
         truncate 截短,缩短
         trunk n.大衣箱,皮箱;(汽车后部)行李箱;树干,躯干
[Pokorny 5. ter‑ 1075.]

   thrilled adj.非常兴奋的,极为激动的 vt.“thrill”的过去式和过去分词
   thriller n.使人毛骨悚然的东西,惊悚片,惊悚小说
   thrilling adj.毛骨悚然的,颤动的,发抖的
   thrillingly adv.毛骨悚然地,令人激动地
   truculence n.野蛮,致命性,好斗,刻薄
 entrench 使处于壕沟内vt.确立,牢固;用壕沟围住;挖掘vi.侵犯;挖掘壕沟
 entrenched adj.根深蒂固的,牢固的,固守的 v.用壕沟围绕或保护…( entrench的过去式和过去分词 ),牢固地确立…
 entrenchment n.壕沟,防御设施
 retrench 节约,缩减
 retrenchment n.节省,删除
   trencher 切菜板,大木盘
   truncated adj.切去顶端的,缩短了的,被删节的 v.截面的( truncate的过去式和过去分词 ),截头的,缩短了的,截去顶端或末端
   truncation n.切断,截短,缺棱,截尾

   trenchant 尖锐的,鲜明的
   traipse 磨蹭,拖沓地行走

回目录↑; 150,terkʷ-,扭转折磨 To twist.
To twist.
  1. Possible variant (metathesized) form *twerk‑.
    1. from Middle Low German dwer, oblique;
         queer n.同性恋者 adj.奇怪的,可疑的,不舒服的 vt.搞糟 n.同性恋者
    2. from Old Norse thverr, transverse. Both a and b from Germanic *thwerh‑, twisted, oblique.
         thwart vt.阻挠,横过,反对
  2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *torkw-eyo‑. from Latin torquēre, to twist.
       torch n.手电筒;火炬,火把
       torment n.痛苦,苦恼,痛苦的根源vt.折磨,使痛苦,纠缠
       torque n.扭矩,转矩
       torque-2 ____
       torsade ____
       torsion 扭转
       tort  n.[律]民事侵权行为
       tortuous 拐弯抹角的
       torture v.拷问,拷打;折磨,磨难n.拷问;折磨,痛苦
       truss 捆,束,捆绑,支架
    contort v.扭曲,曲解
    distort 扭开:v.扭曲,曲解,(使)失真,(使)变形
     extort 勒索
       nasturtium 旱金莲
     retort n.v.反驳,顶嘴
       torticollis ____
[Pokorny terk‑ 1077.]

   tormentor n.使苦痛之人,使苦恼之物,(海船上厨师用的)长肉叉
   torturer n.拷打者;拷问者;虐待者
   torturing v.使痛苦( torture的现在分词 ),使苦恼,使焦急
   torturous adj.折磨人的,充满痛苦(或苦恼)的
contorted adj.扭曲的,弯曲的 v.扭曲,扭弯( contort的过去式 )
contortion n.扭曲,弄歪,歪曲
contortionist 杂技演员
distorted adj.扭歪的,受到曲解的 v.歪曲( distort的过去式和过去分词 ),曲解,扭曲,使变形
distortion n.变形;失真;扭曲;曲解
 extortion n.勒索;敲诈;强夺;被勒索的财物
 extortionist n.敲诈者,勒索者,强求者

   trousseau 嫁妆

回目录↑; 151,ters-,山岛干土 To dry.
To dry.
Derivatives include thirst, terrain, toast1, and torrent.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *tr̥s‑.
    1. from Old English thurst, dryness, thirst, from Germanic suffixed form *thurs-tu‑;
         thirst n.渴,口渴;(for)渴望,热望
    2. from Old Norse thorskr, cod (< "dried fish"). Both a and b from Germanic *thurs‑.
         cusk  ____
         torsk ____
         tusk-2 ____
  2. Suffixed basic form *ters-ā‑. from Latin terra, "dry land," earth.
       terrace n.平台,阳台,梯田v.(使)成梯田
       terrain n.地形,地势,地带,领域
       Terran ____
       terrene ____
       terrestrial adj.陆地的,地球的,人间的n.陆地生物,地球上的人
       terrier n.[动]狗的一种,国防自卫队,地籍册
       territory n.领土;版图;领域,范围
       terroir ____
       tureen 海碗,盖碗
       fumitory ____
       inter 入土:vt.埋葬
    mediterranean ____
    parterre 花坛
    souterrain ____
    subterranean adj.地下的;秘密的;隐蔽的n.地下工作者
       tartufo ____
       terraqueous ____
       terreplein ____
       terre-verte ____
       terricolous ____
       terrigenous ____
       turmeric 姜黄根粉
       verditer ____
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *tors-eyo‑. from Latin torrēre, to dry, parch, burn.
       toast n.烤面包,吐司;祝酒(词)v.烘,烤;(向…)祝酒
       torrent n.奔流,急流,爆发,迸发,连续不断,(质问等的)连发
       torrid 火热的,酷热的,热烈的,狂热的
       tostones ____
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *tr̥s-o‑. from Greek tarsos, frame of wickerwork (originally for drying cheese), hence a flat surface, sole of the foot, ankle.
       tarsus 踝骨,跗骨
[Pokorny ters‑ 1078.]

   thirstily adv.如饥似渴地
   thirsty a.口渴的;(for)渴望的,热望的
   terracing n.(英式英语,不可数):(足球场)阶梯看台区,地形阶梯状坡地,阶梯形山坡,农梯田
   territorial adj.领土的;区域的;土地的;地方的
   territoriality n.领土,领土的性质或状态
   territorially 领土地
   interment 埋葬
   toasted v.向…祝酒,为…干杯( toast的过去式和过去分词 ),烤火,取暖,使暖和
   toaster n.举杯祝贺者
   torrential 倾泻的

回目录↑; 152,teuə-2,粗壮鼓胀 To swell.
Also teu-.
To swell. Oldest form *teuh2.
Derivatives include thigh, thousand, thimble, tumor, butter, and tomb.
  1. Extended form *teuk‑. from Old English thēoh, thigh, from Germanic *theuham, "the swollen or fat part of the leg," thigh.
       thigh n.大腿,股
  2. Extended form *tūs‑. from Old English thūsend, thousand, from Germanic compound *thūs-hundi‑, "swollen hundred," thousand (*hundi‑, hundred; see dekm̥ ).
    thousand num./n./a.一千;[pl.]许许多多,成千上万
  3. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *tu-l‑.
    1. from Old English thol(l), oar pin, oarlock (< "a swelling"), from Germanic *thul‑;
         thole ____
    2. from Greek tulos, callus, lump.
         tylectomy ____
         tylosis ____
  4. Extended zero-grade form *tūm‑.
    1. from Old English thūma, thumb (< "the thick finger"), from Germanic *thūmōn‑;
         thimble 顶针,顶箍
         thumb n.拇指v.示意要求搭车;迅速翻阅
    2. suffixed (stative) form *tum-ē‑. from Latin tumēre, to swell, be swollen, be proud;
         tumescent 肿大的
         tumid 肿胀的
         tumor 肿胀之物:n.肿瘤,肿块
       detumescence ____
       intumesce ____
         tumefacient ____
         tumefy ____
    3. suffixed form *tum-olo‑. from Latin tumulus, raised heap of earth, mound.
         tumulus 古墓,古冢
  5. Extended zero-grade form *tūbh‑. from Latin tūber, lump, swelling.
       truffle n.[植]块菌
       tuber n.[植]块茎,突起,[解]结节
    protuberate ____
       tartufo ____
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *tū-ro‑ (< *tuə-ro‑).
    1. from Greek tūros, cheese (< "a swelling," "coagulating");
         butter n.黄油,奶油v.涂黄油于…上
         tyrosine n.<化>酪氨酸(存在于许多蛋白质中的亲水氨基酸,对某些激素的合成很关键)
    2. from Latin -tūrāre, to stop up, possibly from *tūros, swollen, coagulated, stopped up.
         obturate ____
  7. Suffixed variant form *twō-ro‑.
    1. from Greek sōros, heap, pile;
         sorites ____
         sorus ____
    2. from Old Church Slavonic tvarogŭ, curds, cottage cheese.
         quark-2 ____
  8. Suffixed variant form *twō-mn̥. from Greek sōma, body (< "a swelling," "stocky form").
       soma  身体,肉体
       somato-
       -some-3
    prosoma ____
  9. Suffixed zero-grade form *twə-wo‑. from Greek saos, sōs, safe, healthy (< "swollen," "strong"), with derivative verb sōzein, to save.
       creosote 杂酚油
       soteriology n.耶稣救世学,救世神学
  10. Perhaps nasalized extended form *tu-m-b(h)‑ (or extended zero-grade form *tum‑) from Greek tumbos, barrow, tomb.
       tomb  n.坟墓
[Pokorny tēu‑ 1080.]

thousandth num.第一千
   tumescence n.肿大,肿胀
   tuberosity n.结节,有块茎,块茎状物
   tuberous adj.有块茎的,有结节的,块茎状的
protuberance n.突起,瘤,结节
 entomb 掩埋
 entombment n.埋葬,埋没
   tombs n. 墓葬;墓群;墓穴

   antiquark 反夸克
   quark n.夸克(理论上一种比原子更小的基本粒子)
   tubercle 小块茎,结节,肺结核结节
   tubercular adj.有小突起的,结节的,结核的
   tuberculous adj.有结的,结节状的,患有结核病的

回目录↑; 153,teutā-,凸聚部落 Tribe. DUTCH,
Tribe.
    1. from Middle Dutch duutsch, German, of the Germans or Teutons;
         Dutch n.荷兰人.a.荷兰的
    2. from Old High German diutisc, of the people. Both a and b from Germanic *theudiskaz, of the people, derivative of *theudō, people.
         Plattdeutsch ____
  1. Suffixed form *teut-onōs, "they of the tribe." from Latin Teutōnī, the Teutons, borrowed via Celtic from Germanic tribal name *theudanōz.
       Teuton ____
  2. Possibly Latin tōtus, all, whole (? < "of the whole tribe")
       total n.总数,合计a.总的,全部的v.合计,总数达
       tutti adj.全体的 n.合奏,合唱 adv.全体齐奏地
    factotum 事务总管
    teetotum ____
[In Pokorny tēu‑ 1080.]

subtotal 小计
   totaled 总数;总的;总计;合计;完全的;共计;全体的
   totality n.全部,总数
   totally ad.完全地,整全地

teetotal 滴酒不沾的
teetotaler 滴酒不沾的人
   totalitarian adj.极权主义的 n.极权主义者
   totalitarianism n.极权主义

回目录↑; 154,tkei-,安家落户 To settle, dwell, be home.
To settle, dwell, be home. Oldest form *tk̑ei‑, becoming *tkei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include home, hangar, and situate.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *(t)koi-mo‑.
    1. from Old English hām, home;
         hom ad.回家,在家n.家;家乡a.家庭的;家乡的
    2. from Old Norse heimr, home;
         Niflheim ____
    3. from Old High German heim, home;
         haimish ____
    4. from Middle Dutch hame, hame (< "covering");
         hame  ____
    5. from Old French ham, village, home;
         hamlet n.小村,部落 n.哈姆雷特(Hamlet,莎士比亚著名悲剧剧名)
    6. from Old French hanter, to frequent, haunt, from Germanic *haimatjan, to go or bring home;
         haunt v.出没于(像鬼魂一样)
    7. from Old French hangard, shelter, possibly from Germanic *haimgardaz (*gardaz, enclosure; see gher- 1). a-g all from Germanic *haimaz, home.
         hangar n.飞机修理库,飞机棚
  2. Zero-grade form *tki‑.
    1. from Greek ktizein, to found, settle, from metathesized *kti‑;
      amphictyony ____
         protoctist ____
    2. probably Italic *si‑. from Latin situs, location, from suffixed form *si-tu‑.
         situate v.位于,坐落在
         situs 位置,地点
[Pokorny 1. k̑ei‑ 539, k̑Þei‑ 626.]

   homeless a.无家的,无家可归的
   homelike adj.亲切的
   homely a.家常的,平凡的,相貌平庸的
   homey adj.家庭似的,舒适的,自在的
   homing adj.自导引的
   homeless a.无家的,无家可归的
   homelike adj.亲切的
   homey adj.家庭似的,舒适的,自在的
   homing adj.自导引的
   haunted adj.闹鬼的,鬼魂出没的,受到折磨的
   haunting adj.常浮现于脑海中的,不易忘怀的
   hauntingly 萦绕于心头地;常浮现于脑中
   situated adj.位于,被置于境遇,处于...的立场
   situation n.形势,处境,状况;位置,场所;职位,职务

   henry Henry. n. 亨利(电感单位);亨利(男子名)
   homely a.家常的,平凡的,相貌平庸的

回目录↑; 155,to-,这那指代 Demonstrative pronoun.
Demonstrative pronoun. For the nominative singular see so-.
Derivatives include decoy, thus, and tandem.
    1. from Old English thē, thȳ (instrumental case), by the;
         the-2 ____
         natheless ____
    2. from Middle Dutch de, the;
         decoy n.诱饵,诱骗v.诱骗。来自荷兰语,表示四周装满网用来诱捕鸟雀的池塘,开头的de可能是荷兰语中的定冠词de,被误认为
    3. from Old English the, a conjunction. a-c from Germanic *thē, from Indo-European instrumental form *tē.
         lest  conj.惟恐,免得
  1. from Middle English though, though, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse thō, though, from Germanic *thauh, "for all that.".
       though ad.可是,然而,不过conj.尽管,虽然
  2. from Old English thes, this, this, from Germanic *thasi‑.
       these pron.&a.[this的复数]这些;这些人(东西)
       this  pron.这(个)a.这(个);今ad.这(样)
       those pron./a.[that的复数]那些;那些人(东西)
  3. from Old English thanne, thænne, thenne, than, then, from Germanic *thana‑.
       than  conj.(用于形容词,副词的比较级之后)比
       then  ad.当时,在那时;然后,于是;那么,因而
  4. from Old English thanon, thence, from Germanic *thanana‑.
       thence adv.从此,从那时起
  5. from Old English thǣr, thēr, there, from Germanic *thēr.
       there ad.在那儿;往那儿;[作引导词表示存在]
  6. from Old English thæder, thider, thither, from Germanic *thathro.
       thither 到那里,向那里
  7. from Old Norse their, they, from Germanic nominative plural *thai.
       they  商店。(一般人经常用复数they来指一家商店)
  8. from Old Norse their(r)a, theirs, from Germanic genitive plural *thaira.
       their pron..[they的所有格]他(她、它)们的
  9. from Old Norse theim and Old English thǣm, them, from Germanic dative plural *thaimiz.
       them  pron.他们/她们/它们(they的宾格形式)
  10. Extended neuter form *tod‑. from Old English thæt, that, from Germanic *that.
       that  a./pron.那,那个ad.那么conj.[引导从句]
  11. from Old English thus, thus, from Germanic *thus‑.
       thus  ad.如此;像这样;于是;因此
  12. Adverbial (originally accusative) form *tam. from Latin tandem, at last, so much, and tantus, so much.
       tandem adv.一前一后
       tantamount a.同等的,相当于
  13. Suffixed reduced form *t-āli‑. from Latin tālis, such.
       tales n. 故事;谎言;补缺陪审员
  14. from Greek to, the.
       tauto-
[Pokorny 1. to‑ 1086.]


回目录↑; 156,tolkʷ-,吐露说话 To speak.
To speak. Metathesized form *tlokw.

   locution 惯用语,习语
   loquacious 话多的,健谈的
 allocution ____
circumlocution 迂回说法
colloquium 学术研讨会
colloquy n.谈话,对话
  elocution 演说术
   grandiloquence 豪言壮语;大话;夸口
interlocution 对话;问答;会谈
magniloquent 言语夸张的
 obloquy 抨击,辱骂
prolocutor ____
soliloquy 独白
   ventriloquism 口技 from Latin loquī, to speak.
[Pokorny tolk 1088.]

  eloquence n.雄辩术,口才,修辞
  eloquent adj.雄辩的,口才好的,能言善辩的
   grandiloquent 卖弄词藻的
   ventriloquist n.口技表演者

colloquial 口语的
colloquialism n.俗话,白话,口语
colloquially adv.用白话,用通俗语

回目录↑; 157,tong-,感念感谢 To think, feel.
To think, feel.
  1. from Old English thanc, thought, good will, and thancian, to thank, from Germanic *thankaz, thought, gratitude, and *thankōn, to think of, thank.
       thank vt.感谢int.[-s]谢谢n.[pl.]感谢(意)
  2. from Old English (bi)thencan, to think, from Germanic *(bi‑)thankjan.
     bethink ____
       think v.想,思索;认为,以为;想要;料想,预料
  3. from Old English (ge)thōht, thought, from Germanic *(ga)thanht‑ (*ga‑, collective prefix; see kom ).
       thought n.思想,思考,思维;意图,打算;想法
  4. from Old English thyncan, to seem, from Germanic *thunkjan.
     methinks 我想
[Pokorny 1. tong‑ 1088.]

   thankful adj.感谢的,感激的
   thankfully adv.感谢地,感激地
   thankless 不感谢的,吃力不讨好的
   thanks n.感谢;int.谢谢
   forethought n.事先的考虑筹划,远见卓识
 rethink v.再想,重想
   thinkable 可想象的
   thinker n.思想者,思想家,心智
   thinking n.思想
   thoughtful a.认真思考的,沉思的;体贴的,关心的
   thoughtfully ad.思虑地,仔细地,体贴地
   thoughtless a.欠考虑的,不体贴人的
 unthinkable adj.不能想象的,想象不到的,不可思议的,过分的
 unthinking adj.考虑不周的,未经考虑的 v.改变想法,不想( unthink的现在分词 )
 unthinkingly 轻率地

回目录↑; 158,treb-,居住村镇 Dwelling.
Dwelling.
  1. Zero-grade form *tr̥b‑.
    1. from Old English thorp, village, hamlet;
         thorp 村庄
    2. from Middle Dutch dorp, village. Both a and b from Germanic *thurp‑.
         dorp  小镇,村庄
  2. from Latin trabs, beam, timber.
       trabeated ____
       trabecula ____
       trave 横梁
       architrave 门楣
[Pokorny trē̆b‑ 1090.]

   trabecular adj.有小梁的,有小带的,有横隔片的

回目录↑; 159,trei-,三伞树尖 Three.
Three.
Derivatives include three, trio, testicle, detest, and trinity.
  1. Nominative plural form *treyes.
      1. from Old English thrīe, thrēo, thrī, three, with its derivatives thrīga, thrīwa, thrice, thrītig, thirty, and thrēotīne, thirteen (-tīne, ten; see dekm̥ );
           three num.三pron./a.三(个,只...)
           thrice 三次,三倍
           thirteen num./a.十三pron.十三(个,只...)
           thirty num.三十,三十个(人或物)
      2. from Old Swedish thrīr, three. Both a and b from Germanic *thrijiz.
           trillium n.延龄草
    1. from Latin trēs, three.
         tre 三分球
         trammel 鱼网,束缚,限制
         trecento n.十四世纪,意大利文艺中的十四世纪
         trephine ____
         triumvir ____
         trocar ____
    2. from Greek treis,tris, three.
         triskaidekaphobia ____
  2. Zero-grade form *tri‑.
    1. Suffixed form *tri-tyo‑.
        1. from Old English thrid(d)a,thirdda, third;
             third num.第三(个),三分之一(的)
        2. from Old Norse thridhi, third. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *thridjaz, third.
             riding-2 ____
      1. from Latin tertius, third.
           tercel ____
           tercet n.三行押韵诗句,三拍子
           tertian ____
           tertiary a.第三的,第三位的
           tierce ____
        sesterce ____
    2. Combining form *tri‑.
      1. from Latin tri‑, three;
           tri 三,三的
           tribe n.部落,宗族
           tri n.三重唱
           triple adj.三倍的,三方的三倍数;三个一组vi.增至三倍vt.使成三倍
      2. from Greek tri‑, three;
           tri 三,三的
           triclinium ____
           tricrotic ____
           tridactyl ____
           triglyph ____
           tritone ____
      3. from Sanskrit tri‑, three.
           Trimurti ____
    3. from Greek trias, the number three.
         triad n.三个一组,三幅一组,[音]三和音
    4. from Greek trikha, in three parts.
         trichotomy ____
    5. from Greek compound triērēs, galley with three banks of oars, trireme (-ērēs, oar; see erə- ).
         trierarch ____
    6. Suffixed form *tri-to‑. from Greek tritos, third.
         tritium
    7. Compound form *tri-pl‑, "threefold" (*-pl‑, < combining form *-plo‑, -fold; see pel-2). from Greek triploos, triple.
         triploblastic ____
    8. Compound form *tri-plek‑, "threefold" (*-plek‑,-fold; see plek-). from Latin triplex, triple.
         triplex adj.三重的
    9. Compound form *tri-st-i‑, "third person standing by" (-st‑, standing; see stā-). from Latin testis, a witness.
         testament n.遗嘱;圣约;确实的证明
         testimony n.证词,证言;证据
         testicle n.睾丸
         testis 睾丸
       attest vt.证明;证实;为…作证vi.证明;作证
      contest n.竞争,竞赛,比赛v.竞争,比赛,争论
       detest 发誓厌恶:vt.厌恶;憎恨
       obtest ____
      protest v./n.主张,断言,抗议,反对
         testify vt.证明,证实;作证vi.作证;证明
    10. from Persian si, three.
         sitar 西塔尔
         teapoy 小桌
  3. Extended zero-grade form *tris, "thrice."
    1. from Latin ter, thrice.
         tern-2 ____
         termolecular ____
         terpolymer ____
    2. from Greek tris, thrice.
         trisoctahedron ____
         Hermes Trismegistus ____
    3. Suffixed form *tris-no‑. from Latin trīnī, three each.
         trine 三个一组;三倍的;三分之一对座的;三个一套
         trinity n.三位一体,三人一个组,三个一组的(物)
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *troy-o‑. from Russian troje, group of three.
       troika 三架马车,三人领导,三巨头
[Pokorny trei‑ 1090.]

   thirteenth adj.第十三的,十三分之一的 n.第十三,十三分之一
   threesome n.三倍的,三人一组,三人的竞赛,一人对两人的比赛
   thirtieth n.第三十,三十分之一 adj.第三十个的,三十分之一的
   tribal adj.部落的
   tribalism 部落主义,部落习性
   testamentary adj.遗嘱的,据遗嘱的,遗嘱中有的
   testimonial adj.证明的;褒奖的;表扬的n.证明书,推荐信
   testicular adj.双丸状的(例如两个并列的块茎)
 attestation n.证词
contestation n.论争,主张
incontestable 无可争议的
 detestable adj.嫌恶的,可厌恶的,可憎的
 detestation n.憎恶,厌恶的人,嫌恶
protestation 郑重的声明,坚决的表示
protesting v.声明( protest的现在分词 ),坚决地表示,申辩

   tern  n.三个一组,[鸟]燕鸥
   treble 使成三倍,三连胜,高音,高音部
contribute v.(to)贡献,捐助,捐献;投稿
contribution n.贡献;捐款,捐献物;投稿
contributor n.贡献者;投稿者;捐助者
contributory adj.捐助的;贡献的;有助于…的n.捐助者;贡献人
 attributable a.可归因于...的
 attribute v.(to)归因于,归属于n.属性,品质,特征
 attribution n.归因;属性;归属
   ternary 三倍的,三重的

回目录↑; 160,trep-2,回归转向 To turn.
To turn.
  1. from Greek trepein, to turn, with o-grade derivative tropos, turning.
      -tropous
    apotropaic adj.作避邪用的
      Atropos ____
       treponema ____
  2. O-grade form *trop‑.
    1. Suffixed form *trop-o‑. from Greek tropos, a turn, way, manner;
         trope n.[语]修辞,比喻
         troubadour 游吟诗人
         trover ____
      contrive v.发明,设计,图谋
       retrieve v.恢复,挽回,取回,检索
    2. suffixed form *trop-ā‑. from Greek tropē, a turning, change.
         trophy n.纪念品,战利品,奖品,奖杯(牌),胜利纪念柱,战利品雕饰 adj.显示身份或地位的,提高身价的,有威望的
         tropic 回归线的:adj.热带的n.热带,回归线
         tropo-
       entropy 熵,无序状态的测量
[Pokorny 2. trep‑ 1094.]

contrivance 人工产物,矫揉造作
contrived adj.人为的,做作的
irretrievable 无法挽回的
irretrievably adv.不能挽回地,不能补救地
 retrievable adj.可获取的,可挽救的
 retrieval n.取回,补偿
 retriever n.取回的人,能把猎物找回来的猎狗的一种
semitropical adj.亚热带的
   tropical a.热带的

回目录↑; 161,treud-,戳刺挤进 To squeeze.
To squeeze.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *troud-o‑. from Old English thrēat, oppression, use of force, from Germanic *thrautam.
       threat n.恐吓,威胁;坏兆头,危险迹象
  2. Variant form *trūd‑. from Old Norse thrȳsta, to squeeze, compress, from Germanic *thrūstjan.
       thrust vt.插入;猛推n.插,推力vi.刺,戳,冲
  3. from Latin trūdere, to thrust, push.
    abstruse 难解的,深奥的
     extrude 挤出,喷出
     intrude 往里挤:vi.闯入,侵入vt.把……强加,把……硬挤
     obtrude 强行闯入
    protrude 往前挤:v.(使)突出,(使)伸出
[Pokorny tr-eu-d‑ 1095.]

   threaten v.恐吓,威胁;有…危险,快要来临
   threatened adj.受到威胁的 v.威胁(threaten的过去分词)
   threatening adj.胁迫的,危险的
   threateningly adv.威胁地,胁迫地,危险地
   thruster 助力器,推进器
   thrusting n.(猛)推,插,挤 adj.有强大推进力的 v.猛推( thrust的现在分词 ),猛塞,刺,戳
 extrusion n.挤出,推出,喷出,赶出
 intruder n.入侵者,干扰者
 intrusion n.侵入,闯入
 intrusive adj.侵入的,闯入的,打扰的
 obtrusive 显眼的,扎眼的
unobtrusive adj.不突出的,不引人注目的,谦虚的,不唐突的,不冒昧的
protrusion 突出物,伸出

回目录↑; 162,tu-,你们 Second person singular pronoun ; you, thou.
Second person singular pronoun; you, thou.
  1. Lengthened form *tū (accusative *te, *tege) from Old English thū (accusative thec, thē), thou, from Germanic *thū (accusative *theke).
       thee  pro n.[古](thou的宾格)你
       thou  pro.你
  2. Suffixed extended form *t(w)ei-no‑. from Old English thīn, thine, from Germanic *thīnaz.
       thine (第二人称单数的物主代词)你的
       thy   pro n.[古](thou的所有格)你的
  3. Enclitic form *toi. from Sanskrit te, enclitic second singular genitive and dative pronoun.
       namaste ____
[Pokorny tū̆ 1097.]

   ye    [域] Yemen ,也门

回目录↑; 163,gal-2(gal-),高喊 To call, shout.
To call, shout.
  1. from Old Norse kalla, to call, from Germanic expressive form *kall‑.
       call  vt.叫,喊;打电话vi.叫;访问n.叫;号召
  2. from Old English *clatrian, to clatter, from Germanic *klat‑.
       clatter n.咔嗒,哗啦声,嘈杂的谈笑声 vi.发出哗啦声,喧闹的谈笑 vt.使卡搭卡搭的响
  3. Expressive form *gall‑. from Latin gallus, cock (< "the calling bird"; but probably also associated with Gallus, Gallic, as if to mean "the bird of Gaul," the cock being archaeologically attested as an important symbol in the iconography of Roman and pre-Roman Gaul).
       gallinaceous 公鸡的
       gallinule ____
       pico de gallo ____
  4. Suffixed form *gal-so‑. from Old Church Slavonic glasŭ, voice.
       glasnost n.公开性,公开化
  5. Reduplicated form *gal-gal‑. from Old Church Slavonic glagolŭ, word.
       Glagolitic ____
[Pokorny 2. gal‑ 350.]

   callable adj.可随时支取的,请求即付的,随时可偿还的
   caller n.呼叫者,传唤员,访客,召集员 adj.新鲜的
   calling n.职业,行业,邀请,点名,召集
 recall v.回忆,回想;撤消,收回

回目录↑; 164,gāu-,高兴 To rejoice ; also to have religious fear or awe.
To rejoice; also to have religious fear or awe. Oldest form *geh2u‑, colored to *gah2u‑, becoming *gau‑ (before consonants) and *gāw‑ (before vowels).
  1. Suffixed extended form *gāw-idh-ē‑. from Latin gaudēre, to rejoice.
       gaud  ____
       gaudy adj.华而不实的
       gaudy-2 ____
       joy   n.欢乐,喜悦;乐事,乐趣
     enjoy  vt.享受…的乐趣;欣赏;喜爱
     rejoice vi.高兴;庆祝vt.使高兴
  2. Form (with nasal infix) *gə-n-u‑. from Greek ganusthai, to rejoice.
       ganoid ____
[Pokorny gāu‑ 353.]

   gaudily adv.俗丽地
 enjoyable a.有趣的,愉快的
 enjoyably adv.愉快地,快乐地,可享乐地
 enjoyment n.享受;乐趣;享有
   joyful adj.欢喜的;令人高兴的
   joyfully adv.喜悦地,高兴地,令人高兴地,欢欢喜喜
   joyless 没有欢乐的
   joyous adj.令人高兴的;充满欢乐的(等于joyful)
overjoyed adj.狂喜的,极端高兴的
 rejoicing n.欣喜,喜悦,庆祝,欢庆 v.(使)欣喜高兴,快乐( rejoice的现在分词 ),非常高兴,深感欣喜

回目录↑; 165,gel-2(gel-),激灵酷冷 Cold ; to freeze.
Cold; to freeze.
Derivatives include chill, jelly, and glacier.
  1. from Old English c(i)ele, chill, from Germanic *kaliz, coldness.
       chill n.寒冷,寒气,寒战v.使寒冷
  2. from Old English ceald, cold, from Germanic *kaldaz, cold.
       cold  a.冷的,寒冷的;冷淡的n.冷,寒冷;伤风
    1. from Old English cōl, cold, cool;
         cool  a.凉的;冷静的n.凉快ad.冷静地v.使变凉
    2. from Old English cēlan, to cool, from Germanic *kōljan, to cool. Both a and b from Germanic *kōl‑, cool.
         keel-3 ____
  3. Suffixed form *gel-ā‑. from Latin gelāre, to freeze.
       gelatin n.凝胶,白明胶
       gelation 凝胶化;冻结
       jelly n.果子冻,一种果冻甜品
       congeal 变稠
  4. Suffixed form *gel-u‑. from Latin gelū, frost, cold.
       gelid adj.极冷的
  5. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *gl̥-k‑. from Latin glaciēs, ice.
       glacé ____
       glacial adj.冰的;冰冷的;冰河时代的
       glaciate 被冰冻盖;遭受冰河作用
       glacier n.冰河,冰川
       glacis ____
       demi-glace ____
       verglas ____
[Pokorny 3. gel(ə)‑ 365.]

   chilled adj.已冷的,冷硬了的,冷冻的 v.(使)变冷( chill的过去式和过去分词 ),使很冷,使冰冷,使恐惧
   chiller n.恐怖电影,恐怖书籍
   chilling adj.寒冷的,令人恐惧的,吓人的,使人心寒的,俚语顶呱呱的,呱呱叫的 v.冷却,(使)变冷
   chillingly adv.冷淡地,令人寒心地
   chilly a.寒冷的
   coldly adv.冷淡地
   coldness n.冷,冷淡,冷酷,冷静
   coolant 冷却剂
   cooler n.冷却器
   cooling n.冷却 adj.凉的,凉爽的,冷却的 v.(使)变凉( cool的现在分词 ),(使)冷静
   coolly adv.沉着,自若
   coolness n.冷静,冷,凉爽
   jellied adj.凝成胶状的,涂凝胶物的
   glace 蜜饯的
   glacially 缓慢的;非常冷的
   glaciated adj.冻结成冰的,受到冰河作用的 v.使结冰( glaciate的过去式和过去分词 ),以冰(或冰河)覆盖,使受冰河作用,冻
   glaciation 冰川作用

   chilli n.(干)辣椒,辣椒粉,chili的英式拼写,红辣椒
   gelatinous adj.胶状的
   gel   n.凝胶体v.成冻胶
   jell  胶体,结为一体

回目录↑; 166,gembʰ-,牙齿指甲 Tooth, nail.
Tooth, nail. Oldest form *g̑embh‑, becoming *gembh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include comb, unkempt, and gem.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *gombh-o‑.
      1. from Old English comb, camb, comb;
           comb  n.梳子v.梳(理)
           kame  ____
      2. from Dutch kam, cog, comb;
           cam   n.凸轮;Computer Aided Manufacturing,计算机辅助生产
      3. from Old English cemban, to comb, from Germanic denominative *kambjan, to comb. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *kambaz, comb.
           unkempt adj.(头发)蓬乱的,未加梳理的,(言语等)粗野的,邋遢,披头散发
    1. from Greek gomphos, tooth, peg, bolt.
         gomphosis ____
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gm̥bh-ōn‑. from Old English ā-cumba, part of flax separated in hackling, oakum ("stuff combed off"; ā‑, away, off).
       oakum 麻絮
  3. Perhaps Germanic *kimb‑. from Old English cim‑, cimb‑, rim (only in compounds),.
       chime-2 ____
  4. Possibly suffixed form *gembh-mā‑. from Latin gemma, bud, hence gem.
       gem   n.宝石,珍宝
       gemma 芽;无性芽;芽体
       gemmation ____
       gemmule ____
[Pokorny g̑embh‑ 369.]

   combed n.精梳 v.梳理( comb的过去式和过去分词 ),在…搜寻,彻底搜查
   comber n.梳者,梳机,<美>卷浪,拍岸浪
   combing n.梳毛,梳弃的毛或发 v.梳理( comb的现在分词 ),在…搜寻,彻底搜查

   chime n.一套发谐音的钟(尤指教堂内的),和谐 vi.鸣,打,和谐 vt.敲出和谐的声音,打钟报时

回目录↑; 167,gemə-,结婚生育 To marry.
To marry. Oldest form *g̑emh1, becoming *gemh1 in centum languages.
Suffixed zero-grade form *gm̥ə-o‑.
   gamete 配子
   gamo-
  -gamous
  -gamy from Greek gamos, marriage.
[Pokorny g̑em(e)‑ 369.]


   gam   n.鲸鱼群,社交,腿 v.社交,联欢
 bigamist n.重婚者
 bigamy 重婚

回目录↑; 168,genə-,脐生根亲 To give birth, beget ;
Also gen-.
To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *g̑enh1, becoming *genh1 in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin, king, jaunty, genius, pregnant1, gingerly, and nature.
  1. Basic form *genə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *genə-es‑.
      1. from Latin genus, race, kind;
           gender n.(生理上的)性;(名词、代词等的)性
           general a.一般的,普通的;总的,大体的n.将军
           generate vt.产生,发生;生殖
           generation n.产生,发生;一代(人)
           generic adj.类的,属的,一般的,非商标的
           generous a.宽宏大量的,慷慨的
           genre n.类型,流派
           genus n.种,属
        congener n.同种的物,同类的人,同属的动、植物 adj.同种的,同类的,同属的
         degenerate adj.退化的,堕落的,变质的,变性的 vt.使退化,恶化,使变质,衰减 vi.退化,堕落 n.堕落的人,腐化的人,精神变
         engender vt.使产生;造成vi.产生;引起
        miscegenation 混种,混血儿
      2. from Greek genos and geneā, race, family;
           gen n.基因
        allogeneic adj.(同种)异基因的,异源的
           genealogy n.宗谱;血统;家系;系谱学
           genocide n.种族大屠杀
           genotype n.基因型,属型
        heterogeneous adj.异质的
        syngeneic ____
      3. from Greek suffix -genēs, "-born.".
          -gen 
          -geny
        epigene ____
    2. Suffixed form *gen(ə)-yo‑.
      1. from Latin genius, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality;
           genial adj.亲切的,友好的;和蔼的;适宜的
           genius n.天才
        congenial 一起产生的:adj.意气相投的,性格相似的,共鸣的
      2. from Latin ingenium, inborn character (in‑, in; see en ).
         engine n.发动机,引擎;火车头
         ingenious 富有天赋的:adj.有独创性的,机灵的,心灵手巧的
    3. Suffixed form *genə-ā‑. from Latin indigena, born in (a place), indigenous (indu‑, within; see en ).
      indigen ____
      indigenous 在此出生的adj.本地的,土著的,国产的
    4. Suffixed form *genə-wo‑. from Latin ingenuus, born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn (in‑, in; see en ).
         genuine a.真正的,名副其实的
       ingenuous 天真无邪的,天真的,单纯的
    5. Suffixed form *gen(ə)-men‑. from dissimilated Latin germen, shoot, bud, embryo, germ.
         germ  n.微生物,细菌
         german-2 ____
         germane 贴切的
         germinal adj.幼芽的
         germinate v.(使)发芽;(使)生长
  2. O-grade form *gonə‑, reduced to *gon‑ in suffixed form *gon-o‑.
    1. from Greek gonos, child, procreation, seed.
         gonad 性腺
         gono-
        -gony
      archegonium ____
      carpogonium ____
      epigone n.追随者,模仿者
    2. from Sanskrit janaḥ, offspring, child, person.
         Harijan ____
  3. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-yo‑.
      1. from Old English cyn(n), race, family, kin;
           kin   n.家属(集合称),亲戚,同族,血缘关系,家族 adj.有亲属关系的,性质类似的,同类的
           kindred n.家族,相似,亲属关系,(用作复数)亲戚、族人 adj.同族的,同类的,血缘的,类似的
      2. from Old English cyning, king, from Germanic *kuningaz, king. Both a and b from Germanic *kunjam, family.
           king  n.君主,国王
    2. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-t‑.
      1. from Old English cynd, gecynd(e), origin, birth, race, family, kind, from Germanic *kundjaz, family, race;
           kind-2 ____
      2. from Old English gecynde, natural, native, fitting (ge‑, collective prefix; see kom ), from Germanic *kundiz, natural, native;
           kind  a.仁慈的,友好的,亲切的,和蔼的n.种类
      3. suffixed form *gn̥ə-ti‑.
        1. from Latin gēns (stem genti‑), race, clan;
             gen ____
             genteel gentle:adj.有教养的,文雅的;上流社会的
             gentile 非犹太人,外邦人
             gentle a.和蔼的,文雅的,有礼貌的
             gentry 贵族们;绅士;名流
             jaunty adj.感到自信和自满的,洋洋得意的
             gendarme 警察,宪兵
        2. from Greek genesis, birth, beginning.
             genesis n.起源,圣经旧约《创世纪》
            -genesis
      4. from Old High German kind, child, from Germanic secondary full-grade variant *kentham;
           kindergarten n.幼儿园
           Kriss Kringle ____
        wunderkind 神童
      5. suffixed form *gn̥ə-to‑. from Sanskrit jāta‑, born (verbal adjective of janate, he is born).
           Jataka ____
    3. Reduplicated form *gi-gn(ə)‑. from Latin gignere (past participle genitus), to beget.
         genital adj.生殖的,生殖器的n.生殖器,外阴
         genitive 属格,所有格
         genitor ____
         geniture ____
         gent  n.绅士,假绅士 (pl.) 男厕
         gingerly adv.小心翼翼地,谨慎的,极为小心地,慎重地 adj.慎重的,谨慎的
      congenital adj.与生俱来的,天生的
      primogenitor 始祖;祖先
      primogeniture 长子身份
      progenitor 祖先
      progeny 生产出来:n.子孙;后裔;成果
    4. Reduced form *gn‑ in suffixed form *-gn-o‑. from Latin benignus, good-natured, kindly (bene, well; see deu- 2) and malignus, evil-natured, malevolent (male, ill; see mel- 3).
      benign  长得好adj.良性的,和蔼的,亲切的
      malign  恶性的,恶意的,有害的,诽谤,中伤
    5. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə‑ becoming *gnā‑. from Latin praegnās, pregnant (prae‑, before; see per 1).
         pregnant a.怀孕的,孕育的,充满的,意味深长的
       impregnate vt.使怀孕,灌输,浸透adj.怀孕的,充满的
    6. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-sko‑ becoming *gnā-sko‑. from Latin gnāscī, nāscī (past participle gnātus, nātus), to be born.
         nada 
         naive native的法语版:adj.天真的,幼稚的
         nascent adj.初期的,开始存在的,发生中的
         natal 新生的
         nation n.民族,国家
         native a.本地的,本国的;天生的n.本地人,本国人
         nature n.自然界,大自然;性质,本性,天性
         née  ____
         Noël ____
       adnate ____
        agnate adj.父系的,同族的,同种族的 n.父系,同族亲属,同种族
       cognate 词源同源的
      connate ____
        enate ____
       innate adj.先天的;固有的;与生俱来的
      neonate n.新生儿哺乳动物
         puisne ____
         puny  adj.小的,弱的,微不足道的
       renaissance n.文艺复兴
    7. Reduced form *gn̥‑ in Sanskrit compound kṛmi-ja‑ (see kwr̥mi-).
[Pokorny 1. g̑en‑ 373.]

transgender 变性的,导装的
transgendered adj.变换性别的
   generality n.概论;普遍性;大部分
   generalization n.一般化,归纳,概括
   generalize vt.概括,推广,使一般化vi.形成概念
   generally ad.通常,普遍地
   generalship n.将才,(指挥、管理和领导的)才干,将军军阶、地位、任期或权力
   generational adj.生育的,世代的
   generative adj.能生产的,有生产力的,生殖的
   generator n.发电机,发生器
 regenerate vt.使再生;革新vi.再生;革新adj.再生的;革新的
 regeneration n.再生,重生;重建
unregenerate 不思悔改的
   generically adv.一般地
   generosity n.慷慨,大方;宽宏大量
 ungenerous adj.胸襟狭窄的,吝啬的,不充足的,小手小脚
 degeneracy n.堕落,退化,退步
 degeneration n.恶化
 degenerative adj.退步的,变质的,退化的
   genetic a.遗传(学)的n.[-s]遗传学
   genetically ad.遗传(基因)方面
   geneticist n.遗传学者
   genetics n.遗传学
transgene n.转基因
 immunologic 免疫学的
 immunological adj.免疫学的
 immunologically adv.免疫的
 immunologist n.免疫学者
 immunology 免疫学
   genealogical adj.宗谱的,系谱的,家系的
   genealogist n.系谱学者,系谱专家
heterogeneity n.异质性,不均匀性,多相性
   geniality n.和蔼,亲切,友好
   genially adv.亲切地,和蔼地,快活地
congeniality n.同精神,适意,同性质
uncongenial adj.志趣不相投的,忤
 engineer n.工程师
 engineering n.工程学
 ingenuity n.心灵手巧,独创性;精巧;精巧的装置。原本是ingenuous的衍生词,后来常被误解为ingenious的衍生词,故
   genuineness 真正
disingenuous adj.无诚意的
disingenuousness 虚伪的;不老实的;不诚实的
   germination n.萌芽,发生,萌发,生芽,催芽
   gonadal 性腺生成障碍
   kinship n.血族关系,宗亲关系
   kingdom n.王国,领域
   kingly 国王的,君主的
   kingship 君主身份
   kindliness n.厚道,亲切,友好的行为
   kindly adj.和善的,温和的,好意的,爽快的 adv.温和地,亲切地
   kindness n.仁慈,亲切;好意;友好行为
 unkind adj.不仁慈的,刻薄的,无情的,不体谅的,不厚道的,不亲切的
 unkindly adv.不亲切地,不近人情地
 unkindness n.不仁慈,不客气,刻薄
   gentility 文雅,彬彬有礼
   gentleness n.温和,和善,彬彬有礼,高贵
   gently ad.轻轻地,温柔地
   jauntily adv.心满意足地,洋洋得意地,高兴地,活泼地
   kindergartner n.幼儿园教师,幼儿园里的小孩
   ginger n.姜,生姜,有姜味,活泼,元气,精力,淡赤黄色(的)~
   gingery adj.姜味的
congenitally adv.天生地,先天地
   pregnancy n.怀孕;丰富,多产;意义深长
 impregnable 坚不可催的
 impregnation n.怀孕,受精,注入,使受孕,授胎物,授孕
antenatal 产前的
   natality 出生率
neonatal 新生的
postnatal adj.出生后的,后天
prenatal adj.出生以前的
 denationalization n.开除国籍,剥夺公民资格,非国有化
internationalism n.国际主义,国际性
internationalist 国际主义者
internationalization n.国际化
internationalize 国际共管
internationally ad.国际性地,在国际间
multinational adj.多国的,跨国公司的,多民族的 n.多国籍公司,跨国公司
   national a.民族的,国家的,国立的
   nationalism n.民族主义,民族精神
   nationalist n.民族主义者
   nationalistic a.国家主义的,民族主义的
   nationality n.国籍,民族
   nationalization n.同化,国有化,民族化
   nationalize v.国有化
transnational adj.影响数国的,数国参与的,跨国的
   nativity 耶稣诞生,圣诞
   natural a.正常的;自然界的,天然的,天赋的,固有的
   naturalism n.自然主义
   naturalist n.自然主义者
   naturalistic a.自然的,自然主义的
   naturalize 使加入国籍,适应异域生长环境
   naturally adv.自然地
   naturalness n.自然,当然
   naturist 裸体主义者
supernatural a.|n.超自然(的),神奇(的)
 unnatural a.不自然的,反常的
 unnaturally adv.违反习俗地,不自然地,勉强地,不近人情地
   nee   娘家姓的
  agnatic adj.男系亲属的

   gentrification n.中产阶级化
   gentrified v.(使)中产阶级化( gentrify的过去式和过去分词 )
   gentrify vt.使中产阶级化,使显得高雅,修复或改善,使优化 vi.进行改善工作
hallucinogen 致幻剂
hallucinogenic adj.引起幻觉的,迷幻药
homogeneity n.同质;同种;同次性
homogeneous adj.均匀的,同种的,齐次的
homogenization n.均化作用, 均匀化,等质化, 均质化
homogenize 同质化处理
homogenous adj.同质的,纯系的
inhomogeneity n.不同类,不同族,不均一(性),多相(性)
inhomogeneous adj.不均匀的,不同类的,非齐次,非均匀,多相
 denature vt.使改变本性,使变质,使中毒

回目录↑; 169,genu-1,拐角结踝 Knee ; also angle.
Knee; also angle. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
  1. Variant form *gneu‑.
    1. from Old English cnēo, knee, from Germanic *knewam;
         knee  n.膝,膝盖
    2. from Old English cnēowlian, to kneel, from Germanic *knewljan.
         kneel v.跪,下跪
  2. Basic form *genu‑. from Latin genū, knee.
       geniculate ____
       genuflect 屈膝
  3. O-grade form *gonu. from Greek gonu, knee.
    polygonum ____
    pycnogonid ____
  4. Suffixed variant form *gōnw-yə‑. from Greek gōniā, angle, corner.
      -gon 
    amblygonite ____
    diagonal adj.斜的,对角线的,斜纹的n.对角线,斜线
       goniometer n.角度计,测角器
    orthogonal adj.数直角的,矩形的,直交的,互相垂直的
[Pokorny 1. g̑enu‑ 380.]

   knelt 动词kneel的过去式和过去分词
diagonally ad.斜对地,对角地

trigonometry 三角学
hexagon 六边形
hexagonal adj.六角形的,六边形的,六方

回目录↑; 170,genu-2,下巴颌 Jawbone, chin.
Jawbone, chin. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
  1. Form *genw‑. from Old English cin(n), chin, from Germanic *kinnuz.
       chin  n.下巴,颏
  2. Basic form *genu‑. from Greek genus, jaw.
       genial-2 ____
  3. Suffixed variant form *gnə-dho‑. from Greek gnathos, jaw.
       ganache 甜味奶油巧克力混合物
       gnathal ____
       gnathic ____
       -gnathous
       agnathan ____
       chaetognath ____
       compsognathus ____
       gnathostome ____
  4. Variant form *g(h)enu‑. from Sanskrit hanu, jaw.
       hanuman ____
[Pokorny 2. g̑enu‑ 381.]

   chinless adj.<非正>胆小的,软弱的,不坚决的

回目录↑; 171,ger-1,集聚归类 To gather.
To gather. Oldest form *h2ger‑.
  1. Extended form *grem‑. from Old English crammian, to stuff, cram, from Germanic *kramm‑.
       cram  v.填满
  2. Reduplicated form *gre-g‑. from Latin grex (stem greg‑), herd, flock.
       gregarious adj.群居的,社交的
       greige 本色的;未经漂白或染色的
     aggregate v.集合,聚集,合计adj.集合的,合计的n.集合,合计
    congregate v.聚集adj.聚集的
      egregious 超出众人的:adj.异乎寻常的(坏),过分的
     segregate vt.使分离,使隔离
  3. Basic form *əger‑, with suffixed o-grade form *əgor-ā‑. from Greek ageirein, to assemble, and aguris, agorā, marketplace.
       agora (古希腊)广场
       agoraphobia 广场恐惧症
    allegory 另有所指的公开讲话:n.寓言。源自古希腊人在集市上发表讽喻性演讲的做法。
    category n.种类,部属,类目;范畴,类型
    panegyric 颂辞,颂文
[Pokorny 1. ger‑ 382.]

   crammer 填鸭式教育,强化补习学校
 aggregation n.聚合,聚集;聚集体,集合体
congregation n.集会;集合;圣会
congregational adj.(教堂)会众的,公理教会的
desegregate 废除种族隔离
desegregation n.废除种族隔离
 segregated adj.分开的,被隔离的 v.隔离(segregate的过去式和过去分词),分离
 segregation n.隔离,分离;种族隔离
 segregationist 隔离主义者
   agoraphobic adj.广场恐怖的,旷野恐怖的,恐旷症的,陌生环境恐怖的
allegorical adj.讽喻的;寓言的,寓意的
allegorically adv.寓言地,比喻地
categorical adj.无条件的,绝对的,直接了当的(陈述、理论等)
categorically ad.断然地,明确地
categorization 编目方法,分门别类
categorize v.加以类别,分类

回目录↑; 172,gerbʰ-,抓挠刻画 To scratch.
To scratch.
Derivatives include carve, crawl1, and program.
  1. from Old English ceorfan, to cut, from Germanic *kerban.
       carve v.雕刻,切割
  2. from Old English cyrf, a cutting (off), from zero-grade Germanic form *kurbiz.
       kerf  n.锯痕,截口,切口,切缝,锯割口,截槽
  3. Variant form *grebh‑.
    1. from Old English crabba, a crab, from Germanic *krab(b)‑;
         crab  n.蟹
    2. from Old High German kerbiz, edible crustacean, from Germanic *krabiz‑;
         crayfish 刺龙虾
    3. perhaps Germanic *krab‑. from Old Norse krafla, to crawl.
         crawl v./n.爬行,蠕动;缓慢(的)行进
  4. Zero-grade form *gr̥bh‑.
    1. from Greek graphein, to scratch, draw, write, gramma (< *gr̥bh-mn̥), a picture, written letter, piece of writing, and grammē, a line;
         glamour n.[亦作glamor] 魔力,魅力 v.迷惑
         graffito n.乱画,粗糙雕刻
         graft n.嫁接,(接技用的)嫩枝,(皮肤等的)移植,赎职 v.嫁接,接技,移植(皮肤等),赎职
         gram  n.克
        -gram
         grammar n.语法,语法书
        -graph
        -grapher
         graphic adj.形象的;图表的;绘画似的
        -graphy
        agrapha ____
        agraphia ____
      anagram 异序词
      diagram n.图表;图解
      epigram 警句
      epigraph 铭文
         graphite 可用来写画的矿物:n.石墨
      iconography n.肖像学,肖像画法
      paragraph n.段,节;小新闻,短评
      parallelogram 平行四边形
      program n.节目,计划,程序.vt.编程,为…安排节目
      pseudepigrapha ____
      Tetragrammaton ____
      topography n.地势;地形学;地志
    2. from Middle Dutch grāve and Middle Low German grave, count, from West Germanic *grafa, a designation of rank, possibly borrowed from Greek grapheus, scribe.
         landgrave ____
         margrave ____
         palsgrave ____
[Pokorny gerebh‑ 392.]

   carving n.雕刻(品)
   crabbed adj.脾气坏的,易怒的,(指字迹)难辨认的,(字迹等)难辨认的 v.捕蟹( crab的过去式和过去分词 )
   crabby adj.执拗的,暴躁的
   crawler n.爬行者,爬行动物
   crawling n.表面涂布不均 v.爬( crawl的现在分词 ),(昆虫)爬行,缓慢行进,巴结
   grafting n.嫁接法,移植法 v.<农>移植( graft的现在分词 ),嫁接,使(思想、制度等)成为(…的一部份),植根
microgram 微克
   grammarian n.文法家,文法教师,文法学者
   grammatical adj.语法的,文法的;符合语法规则的
   grammatically adv.符合语法规则地
 ungrammatical adj.不符合语法的,违反语法规则的
   graphically adv.通过图表,生动地,轮廓分明地
   graphics n.制图学;制图法;图表算法
diagrammatic adj.图表的,概略的
programmer n.程序员
topographic adj.地志的,地形学上的
topographical adj.地志的,地形学的
topographically 地形地

programmed v.训练( programme的过去式和过去分词 ),培养,预调
programming n.规划,设计
  scrawl vt.乱涂,潦草地写 vi.乱写 n.潦草的笔迹
   graphology 笔迹学(根据笔迹推断人的性格)
lexicographer n.词典编纂者
lexicography 词典编纂学
   graph n.图表,曲线图
   graphical adj.绘成图画似的,绘画的
autograph n.亲笔签名,手稿vt.亲笔书写,签名于
   glamor n. 魅力,吸引力; vt. 迷惑
   glamorize vt.粉饰,渲染
   glamorous a.富有魅力的,迷人的
   crawfish 刺龙虾
cartographer n.制图者
cartography 制图员
   crap  n.废物,赌输的一注,废话 vi.掷骰子
   crappy adj.<俚>蹩脚的没价值的讨厌的
   craps 双骰子赌博戏

回目录↑; 173,gerə-1,生长老化 To grow old.
To grow old. Oldest form *g̑erh2, becoming *gerh2 in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *gērə-s‑. from Greek gēras, old age.
      ageratum n.藿香
    geriatrics 老年病学;老人保健学
  2. Suffixed form *gerə-ont‑. from Greek gerōn (stem geront‑), old man.
       geronto-
[Pokorny g̑er‑ 390.]

geriatric adj.老年医学的,老年病学的,老人的,老年的 n.衰老老人,老年人,老年病人
geriatrician 老年病医学专家

回目录↑; 174,gerə-2,夹碎哭声 To cry hoarsely ; also the name of the crane.
To cry hoarsely; also the name of the crane. Oldest form *gerh2.
Derivatives include crack, cranberry, and pedigree.
  1. Words meaning "to cry hoarsely"; also words denoting the crow.
      1. from Old English crāwe, a crow;
           crow  n.乌鸦.vi.啼叫
      2. from Old English crāwan, to crow;
           crow-2 ____
      3. from Old English cracian, to resound;
           crack n.裂纹,缝隙;破裂声v.(使)破裂,砸开
      4. from Middle Dutch krāken, to crack;
           cracknel ____
      5. from Old Norse krāka, a crow;
           crake ____
      6. from Middle Dutch krōnen, to groan, lament. a-f all from Germanic *krē‑.
           croon v.低声歌唱,低声哼,低吟 n.低唱,低吟,轻哼
    1. Possibly from this root (but more likely imitative) is Germanic *kur(r)‑. from Middle English curre, cur, akin to Old Norse kurra, to growl.
         cur   恶狗
  2. Words denoting a crane.
      1. from Old English cran, crane;
           crane n.起重机,鹤
      2. from Middle Low German kran, crane. Both a and b from Germanic *kran‑, crane.
           cranberry n.[植]酸果蔓的果实
    1. Extended form *grū‑. from Latin grūs, crane.
         Grus  ____
         pedigree 鹤爪:n.血统,家谱(谱系图如同鹤爪)
    2. Suffixed variant form *grā-k‑. from Latin grāculus, jackdaw.
         grackle n.紫拟椋鸟,鹩哥
    3. Suffixed extended form *gerə-no‑. from Greek geranos, crane.
         geranium n.天竺葵
[Pokorny 2. ger‑ 383.]

   cracked adj.声音嘶哑的,破碎的,破裂的
   cracker n.饼干,爆竹,胡桃夹 n.解密高手
   cracking n.破裂,裂化

   curse n.诅咒,咒语,祸因vt.诅咒,咒骂,使受罪
   cursed adj.被诅咒的,邪恶的
   cursing n.诅咒,逐出教会
   crackle n.劈啪响,裂纹 vi.(使)发劈啪声
   crackling n.轻微的爆裂声,噼啪声,(烤猪肉的)脆皮 v.发出轻微的爆裂声,发出噼啪声( crackle的现在分词 )

回目录↑; 175,geus-,品尝甄选 To taste, choose.
To taste, choose. Oldest form *g̑eus‑, becoming *geus‑ in centum languages.
    1. from Old English cēosan, ceōsan, to choose, from Germanic *keusan;
         choose v.选择,挑选;甘愿
    2. from a Germanic source akin to Gothic kausjan, to test, taste, from Germanic causative *kausjan.
         choice n.选择(机会),抉择,选择项;入选者a.精选的
  1. from Greek geuesthai, to taste.
       ageusia ____
  2. Zero-grade form *gus‑. from Old Norse Valkyrja, "chooser of the slain," Valkyrie (valr, the slain; see welə- ), from Germanic *kuz‑.
       Valkyrie 瓦尔基里(北欧神话中奥丁神待女,负责挑选阵亡者并将他们带到Valhalla)
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gus-tu‑. from Latin gustus, taste.
       gust-2 ____
       gusto n.爱好,嗜好,趣味,由衷的高兴
       ragout 蔬菜炖肉
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gus-to‑, whence further suffixed (frequentative) form *gus-t-ā‑. from Latin gustāre, to taste.
       gustation 味觉;品尝
     degust ____
    disgust n.厌恶,恶心v.使厌恶
[Pokorny g̑eus‑ 399.]

   choosing v.挑选( choose的现在分词 ),选择,选定,喜欢
   chose vbl.choose的过去式 n.动产
   chosen vbl.choose的过去分词
pro-choice 提倡堕胎合法的
   gustatory adj.尝味的,味觉的
disgusted adj.厌恶的,厌烦的
disgusting adj.令人厌恶的
disgustingly adv.讨厌地

   goo   n.粘性物,感伤
   gooey adj.胶粘的,感伤的 n.胶粘物,蜜糖

回目录↑; 176,gʰabʰ-,给付 To give or receive.
Also ghebh-.
To give or receive.
Derivatives include give, able, malady, prohibit, duty, and endeavor.
  1. Form *ghebh‑.
    1. from Old English giefan, to give, and Old Norse gefa, to give;
         giv v.给,授予;供给;献出,让步;捐赠;发表
    2. from Old High German geban, to give;
      zeitgeber ____
    3. from Old English forgi(e)fan, to give, give up, leave off (anger), remit, forgive, from Germanic compound *far-geban, to give away (*far‑, away; see per 1). a-c all from Germanic *geban.
      forgive v.原谅,饶恕
  2. Suffixed form *ghebh-ti‑, something given (or received) from Old Norse gipt, gift, a gift, from Germanic *giftiz.
       gift  n.礼品,赠品;天赋,才能
  3. O-grade form *ghobh‑. from Old English gafol, tribute, tax, debt, from Germanic *gab-ulam, something paid (or received).
       gavel-2 ____
  4. Form *ghabh-ē‑.
    1. from Latin habēre, to hold, possess, have, handle (> habitāre, to dwell);
         abl a.有(能力、时间、知识等)做某事,有本事的
         binnacle ____
        habile ____
         habit n.习惯,习性,脾性
         habitable adj.可居住的,适合居住的
         habitant 居住者
         habitat n.栖息地,产地
      avoirdupois 常衡
       cohabit 词源同居
       exhibit v.展出,陈列n.展览品,陈列品
       inhabit 长期停留于其中:v.栖息,居住于,占据
       inhibit 使其长期停留于其中:vt.抑制,禁止
         malady n.疾病,弊病,腐败
       prebend ____
      prohibit v.禁止,不准;阻止
         provender n.(家畜的)干饲料
    2. from Latin dēbēre, to owe (dē‑, away from; see de- ).
         debenture 公司债券
         debit n.借方,借 vt.记入借方
         debt  n.债,债务
         devoir ____
         due   a.(to)应支付的;(车,船等)预定应到达的
         duty  n.义务,责任;职务;税
       endeavor indebt:n.v.努力,尽力。等于endeavour
[Pokorny ghabh‑ 407. ]
Compare kap-.

   duly  adv.适时地
overdue adj.过期的;迟到的;未兑的
subdued adj.屈服的,被抑制的,柔和的,减弱的
 undu adj.过度的,过分的;不适当的;未到期的
 unduly adv.不适当地,过度地,不正当地
   gave  vbl.give的过去式
   given adj.赠予的,沉溺的,特定的,假设的 vbl.give的过去分词
   giver n.送礼者
forgivable adj.可宽恕的
forgiven 动词forgive的过去分词
forgiveness n.宽恕,宽仁之心
forgiving adj.宽大的,宽容的,仁慈的 adv.宽大地,宽容地,仁慈地 v.原谅( forgive的现在分词 ),饶恕,对不起,请原
unforgiving adj.不可宽恕的,不能原谅的
   gifted adj.有天才的
   ability n.能力;本领;才能,才干;专门技能,天资
   abl adv.精明强干地,灵巧地,巧妙地,熟练地
disability n.无力,残疾
disable v.使残废,使失去能力,丧失能力
disabled adj.伤残的 v.丧失能力
disabling v.使无能力( disable的现在分词 ),使残废,使伤残,使无效
 enable v.使能够,使成为可能;授予权利或方法
 enabling adj.有可能,或有条件完成的 v.使能够,提供做…的权利措施( enable的现在分词 ),使可能
 inability n.无能,无力
 unable a.不能的,不会的
   habitability n.可居住,适居性,可居住性
   habitual a.习惯的,惯常的
   habituation n.适应,习惯性
 cohabitation n.同居
 exhibition n.展览会;陈列,展览
 exhibitionism 暴露癖
 exhibitionist n.好自我表现者,有裸露癖者,露阴癖者
 exhibitionistic 暴露癖;风头主义
 exhibitor n.展出者,显示者
 inhabitable adj.适于居住的,可居住的
 inhabitant n.居民,住户
 inhabited adj.有人居住的 v.居住于,栖居于( inhabit的过去式和过去分词 )
 inhibited adj.羞怯的,内向的
 inhibition n.抑制;压抑;禁止
 inhibitor n.抑制剂,抗化剂;抑制者
 inhibitory adj.禁止的,抑制的
uninhibited adj.无限制的,无拘束的,放任的,狂放不羁,畅,不羁
prohibition n.禁止,禁令
prohibitionist 禁酒主义者
prohibitive adj.禁止的,禁止性的;抑制的
 indebted adj.负债的;感激的;受惠的
 indebtedness n.受恩惠,亏欠,债务
   dutiful adj.忠实的;顺从的;守本分的
   dutifully adv.忠实地,忠贞地

   gavel (拍卖商或法官用的)小槌
rehabilitate vt.修复,改造,使康复
rehabilitation n.复原,昭雪
rehabilitative adj.使复原的,复职的
 endeavour n.尽力,竭力 vi.&vt.努力,竭力

回目录↑; 177,gʰans-,鹅 Goose.
Goose. Oldest form *g̑hans‑, becoming *ghans‑ in centum languages.
    1. from Old English gōs (nominative plural gēs), goose;
         goose n.(pl.geese)鹅,雌鹅,鹅肉
         goshawk 苍鹰
    2. from Old Norse gās, goose;
         gosling 幼鹅
    3. from Old High German gans, goose;
         gunsel ____
    4. from Spanish ganso, goose, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German gans, goose. a-d all from Germanic *gans‑ (nominative plural *gansiz).
         gonzo 偏激主观的;通篇怪论连连的;梦呓式的;事实和臆想参半的
  1. from Old English ganra, gandra, gander, from Germanic *gan(d)rōn‑.
       gander 公鹅
  2. from Old English ganot, gannet, from Germanic *ganōtōn‑.
       gannet 塘鹅(大型海鸟),大胃王
  3. Suffixed form *ghans-er‑. from Latin ānser (< *hanser), goose.
       anserine ____
       merganser n.秋沙鸭
  4. Basic form *ghans‑. from Greek khēn, goose.
       chenopod ____
[Pokorny g̑han-s‑ 412.]

   geese 鹅肉,雌鹅,[贬]犹太人,傻瓜

回目录↑; 178,gʰē-,传球射门 To release, let go ; (in the middle voice) to be released, go.
To release, let go; (in the middle voice) to be released, go. Oldest form *g̑heh1, becoming *g̑hē‑ in satem languages and *ghē‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include heir, and gait.
  1. from Old English gān, to go, from Germanic variant form *gaian.
       go    v.去,离开;走;放置;变成;运转n.围棋
      ago   ad.(常和一般过去时的动词连用)以前,…前
       forego vt.(在位置时间或程度方面)走在...之前,居先
    forgo  vt.作罢,放弃
  2. Suffixed form *ghē-ro‑. from Latin hērēs, heir (? < "orphan" < "bereft").
       heir  n.继承人
       hereditament ____
       heredity 遗产
       heritage n.遗产,传统,继承物,继承权
     inherit vt.继承(金钱等),经遗传而得(性格、特征)
  3. Possibly suffixed o-grade form *ghō-ro‑, "empty space."
    1. from Greek khōros, place, country, particular spot;
        -chore
         horiatiki ____
       anchorite 隐士;anchoret.
         chorography ____
    2. from Greek khōris, khōri, apart, separate.
         choripetalous ____
  4. Possible suffixed zero-grade form *ghə-t(w)ā‑.
    1. from Old Norse gata, path, street;
         gait  n.步态,步法 vt.训练...的步法
         gate-2 ____
    2. from Old Swedish gata, lane. Both a and b from Germanic *gatwōn‑, a going.
         gantlet n.长手套,夹笞刑
         gauntlet-2 ____
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghə-no‑. from Sanskrit hīna‑, inferior, verbal adjective of jahāti, he leaves, lets go (< reduplicated *ghe-ghē-ti, *ghe-gheə-ti).
       Hinayana ____
[Pokorny 1. g̑hē‑ 418.]

   foregone adj.先前的,过去的,预知的 v.(在位置时间或程度方面)走在…之前,居先( forego的过去分词 )
   goer  n.走动得很快的人或物,(在性生活方面)想尝试新花样的人
   goes  动词go的第三人称单数现在时,去,前往
   going n.去,离去,地面(或道路)的状况,工作情况,[复]行为 adj.进行中的,流行的,现存的
   gone  adj.离去的,死去的,深重的,入迷的,用光的 vbl.go的过去分词
   foregoing adj.在前的,前述的
   hereditary adj.遗传的,世袭的,世代相传的n.遗传类
disinherit 剥夺继承权
 inheritable 可继承的
 inheritance n.继承,遗传,遗产
 inherited adj.通过继承得到的,遗传的,继承权的 v.继承( inherit的过去式和过去分词 ),经遗传获得(品质、身体特征等)接替
 inheritor n.继承人,后继者

   gat n.大门;入口;观众人数,门票收入
   gated 医选通的,门控的
   gauntlet n.交叉射击
   heritable adj.可遗传的,可继承的

回目录↑; 179,gʰebʰ-el-,头颅 Head.
Head.
  1. from Old Norse gafl, gable, from Germanic *gablaz, top of a pitched roof.
       gable 三角墙,山墙
  2. Form *kephal‑, dissimilated from *khephal‑. from Greek kephalē, head.
       cephalic 头的,头颅的
       cephalo-
       -cephalous
       autocephalous adj.(尤指东正教会)自己任命主教的,(指主教、教会等)独立的,自主的
       encephalo-
       enkephalin ____
       hydrocephalus n.脑水肿,脑积水,患脑积水的
       pachycephalosaur ____
[Pokorny ghebh-el‑ 423.]


回目录↑; 180,gʰei-2,冬天 Theoretical base of *ghyem-, *ghiem-, winter.
Theoretical base of *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑, winter. Oldest forms *g̑hei‑, *g̑hyem‑, *g̑hiem‑, becoming *ghei‑, *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑ in centum languages.
  1. Form *ghiem‑. from Latin hiems, winter.
       hiemal 冬天的,寒冷的
  2. Suffixed variant form *gheim-ri-no‑. from Latin hībernus, pertaining to winter.
       hibernaculum ____
       hibernate 冬眠,蛰伏
  3. O-grade form *ghiom-. from Greek khiōn (stem khion‑), snow, from earlier *khiōn,, *khiom‑, with *-n‑ (< final *-m) generalized in oblique stem from nominative singular khiōn (< *ghiōm with lengthened o-grade).
       chionodoxa ____
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghim-r̥-yə, "female animal one year (winter) old." from Greek khimaira, she-goat.
       chimera 喀迈拉
[Pokorny 2. g̑hei‑ 425.]

   hibernation 冬眠,蛰伏
   chimeric adj.妄想的,荒诞不经的
   chimerical adj.不真实的,奇异的

回目录↑; 181,gʰel-1,呼叫 To call.
To call.
    1. from Old English gellan, giellan, to sound, shout;
         yell  vi.大叫;呼喊vt.叫着说n.叫声;喊声
    2. from Old English gielpan, to boast, exult;
         yelp  n.咆哮
    3. from Old English galan, to sing. a-c all from Germanic *gel‑, *gal‑.
         nightingale 夜莺
  1. Reduplicated form *ghi-ghl‑. from Greek kikhlē, thrush, later also the name for a kind of wrasse (a sea fish that has bright colors and jagged waving fins, reminiscent of the plumage of a bird).
       cichlid n.棘鳍类热带淡水鱼,丽鱼科鱼
  2. from Greek khelidwōn, khelidōn, the swallow.
       celandine ____
[Pokorny ghel‑ 428.]

   yeller 大叫;大喊

回目录↑; 182,gʰel-2,光亮咕噜 To shine ;; colors, bright materials, gold
To shine; with derivatives referring to colors, bright materials, gold (probably "yellow metal"), and bile or gall. Oldest form *g̑hel‑, becoming *ghel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gold, arsenic, melancholy, Hare Krishna, gleam, glimpse, and glide.
  1. Words denoting colors.
    1. Suffixed form *ghel-wo‑. from Old English geolu, yellow, from Germanic *gelwaz.
         yellow a.黄的,黄色的n.黄色
    2. Suffixed variant form *ghlō-ro‑. from Greek khlōros, green, greenish yellow.
         chloro-
         chlorite n.亚氯酸盐,绿泥石
    3. Suffixed variant form *ghlo-wo‑. from Greek khloos (< *khlo-wo-s), greenish color.
         chloasma ____
    4. O-grade form *ghol‑. from Russian zola, ashes (from their color).
         podzol ____
    5. Suffixed form *ghel-i‑. from Sanskrit hari‑, tawny yellow.
         Hare Krishna ____
         Harijan ____
    6. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *ghl̥-wo‑ in Latin fulvus, tawny (with dialectal f‑ as in fel, gall)
         fulvous ____
         griseofulvin ____
  2. Words denoting gold.
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghl̥-to‑.
      1. from Old English gold, gold;
           gold  n.金,黄金;金币;金黄色a.金的,金制的
      2. from Old English gyldan, to gild, from Germanic denominative verb *gulthjan;
           gild  镀金
      3. from Middle Dutch gulden, golden;
           guilder 荷兰盾
           gulden ____
      4. from Middle English gollan, yellow flower, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse gullinn, golden. a-d all from Germanic *gultham, gold.
           gowan ____
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-to‑. from Polish złoto, gold.
         zloty ____
    3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-no‑. from Syriac zarnīkā, orpiment, from Middle Iranian *zarnīk‑, from Old Iranian *zarna‑, golden.
         arsenic n.[化]砷,砒霜
  3. Words denoting bile.
    1. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-no‑. from Old English gealla, gall, from Germanic *gallōn‑, bile.
         gal n.胆汁,恶毒,怨恨,五倍子,苦味,磨伤(尤指马的),肿痛,恼怒 vt.磨伤,烦恼,屈辱 vi.被磨伤
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-ā‑. from Greek kholē, bile.
         chole-
         choler 胆囊,胆汁
         cholera n.[医]霍乱
         acholia ____
         melancholy n.忧郁 adj.忧郁
    3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-n‑. from Latin fel, bile.
         felon-2 ____
  4. A range of Germanic words (where no preforms are given, the words are late creations).
    1. from Old English glǣm, bright light, gleam, from Germanic *glaimiz.
         gleam n.微光,闪光,瞬间一现v.(使)闪烁,(使)微微发光,隐约闪现
    2. from Middle English glimsen, to glimpse, from a source akin to Middle High German glimsen, to gleam.
         glimpse n./v.一瞥,瞥见
    3. from Middle English glent, a glint, and glenten, to shine, from a source akin to Swedish dialectal glinta, to shine.
         glint n.闪光,闪烁v.(使)闪光,闪烁,闪闪发光
    4. from Middle English glimeren, to glimmer, from a source akin to Swedish glimra, glimmer.
         glimmer n.微光,闪光,少许vi.闪烁,发微光
    5. from Old Norse glitra, to shine.
         glitter vi.闪光,闪烁n.闪光,灿烂
    6. from Old High German glīzan, to sparkle.
         glitz 耀眼,浮华
    7. from Old English glisnian, to shine.
         glisten vi.闪光,闪亮n.闪光,闪耀
    8. from Middle Dutch glinsteren or Middle Low German glisteren, to shine.
         glister 闪光,闪耀
    9. from Old English glæs, glass, from Germanic *glasam, glass.
         glass n.玻璃;玻璃杯;镜子;(pl.)眼镜
         glaze n.釉,光滑面vt.装玻璃于,上釉于vi.变得光滑,变得呆滞
         glazier 镶玻璃工人
    10. from Middle English glaren, to glitter, stare, from a source akin to Middle Low German glaren, to glisten, from Germanic *glaz‑.
         glare n.刺眼;耀眼的光;受公众注目vi.瞪眼表示vt.瞪视;发眩光
    11. from a source perhaps akin to Icelandic glossi, a spark.
         gloss n.光彩;注释;假象vt.使光彩;掩盖;注释
    12. from Old High German glanz, bright.
         glance-2 ____
    13. from Old Norse glöggr, clear-sighted.
         gleg  ____
    14. from Old English glæd, shining, joyful, from Germanic *gladaz.
         glad  a.高兴的,快活的;乐意的,情愿的
    15. from Old English glēo, sport, merriment, from Germanic *gleujam.
         glee  n.欢乐,高兴
         gleeman ____
      1. from Old English glēd, ember;
           gleed ____
      2. from Old Norse glodh, ember. Both a and b from Germanic *glō-di‑.
           glogg ____
      1. from Old English glōwan, to glow;
           glow  v.发热,发光,发红n.白热
      2. from Old High German gluoen, to glow;
           glow  v.发热,发光,发红n.白热
      3. from Middle English gloren, to gleam, stare, probably from a source akin to Norwegian dialectal glora, to gleam, stare;
           glower vi.怒目而视;瞪眼n.怒视;热切的注视;灯丝
      4. from a source perhaps akin to Old Norse glotta, to smile (scornfully). a-d all from Germanic *glō‑.
           gloat v.心满意足
    16. from Old English glōm, twilight, from Germanic *glō-m‑.
         gloaming 朦胧的微光
    17. Possibly distantly related to this root is Germanic *glīdan, to glide.
      1. from Old English glīdan, to slip, glide;
           glide v.|n.滑行
      2. from Old French glier, to glide;
           glissade v.下滑 n.制动滑降,滑步
      3. from Old High German glītan, to glide;
           glitch [俚][电]短时脉冲波形干扰,失灵,小故障
      4. from Old English glida, kite (< "gliding, hovering bird"), from derivative Germanic *glidōn‑.
           glede ____
    18. from a source possibly akin to Middle Low German glibberich, slippery.
         gli adj.口齿伶俐的,油腔滑调的
[Pokorny 1. g̑hel‑ 429.]

   yellowish adj.微黄色的
   gilded adj.镀金的
   gilding n.贴金箔,镀金 v.把…镀金( gild的现在分词 ),给…上金色,作多余的修饰(反而破坏原已完美的东西),画蛇添足
   galling 令人恼怒
   choleric 易怒的
   glimmering n.微光,隐约的一瞥 adj.薄弱地发光的 v.发闪光,发微光( glimmer的现在分词 )
   glittering adj.辉煌的,闪闪发光的,光辉灿烂的 v.闪烁,闪耀,闪光(glitter的现在分词)
   glittery adj.闪光的,闪烁的
   glistening adj.闪耀的,反光的 v.湿物闪耀,闪亮( glisten的现在分词 )
   glassful n.一杯的容量,量杯
   glassy a.象玻璃的
   glazed adj.光滑的,像玻璃的
   glazing n.玻璃装配业,玻璃窗,上釉,上光 v.装玻璃( glaze的现在分词 ),上釉于,上光,(目光)变得呆滞无神
   glaring adj.耀眼的
   glaringly adv.显而易见地,耀目地,显目地
   gladness n.欢乐,喜悦,欢喜
   gleeful adj.欣喜的,高兴的,令人愉快的
   gleefully adv.高兴地
   glowing adj.炽热的,容光焕发的,生气勃勃的
   glowingly adv.热情洋溢地,白热地,热心地
   glider n.滑行(或物),滑翔机
   gliding adj.流畅的,滑行的,滑顺的 v.滑动( glide的现在分词 ),掠过,(鸟或飞机 ) 滑翔
   glibness n.花言巧语,口若悬河

   glance v.(at,over)扫视n.匆匆看,一瞥,一眼
   glancing adj.粗略的
   gilt  n.镀金,表面装饰,小母猪 adj.镀金的 vbl.gild的过去式和过去分词
   felon n.重罪人,蛇头,瘭疽 adj.[古]凶恶的,邪恶的,残忍的
   melancholia 忧郁症
   melancholic 忧郁的
   chloroform 氯仿
   glissando 滑奏
   golden a.金黄色的;贵重的,极好的

回目录↑; 183,gʰedʰ-,适合聚集 To unite, join, fit.
To unite, join, fit.
  1. Lengthened o-grade form *ghōdh‑. from Old English gōd, good, from Germanic *gōdaz, "fitting, suitable.".
       good  a.好的;善良的;擅长的;乖的n.好处;利益
  2. from Old English tōgædere, together (, to; see de- ), from Germanic *gadurī, "in a body.".
     together ad.共同,一起;合起来,集拢地
  3. from Old English gad(e)rian, to gather, from Germanic *gadurōn, "to come or bring together.".
       gather v.聚集,聚拢;推测,推断
[Pokorny ghedh‑ 423.]

 togetherness n.亲密无间,和睦,患难与共,团结
   gatherer n.收集器,收集者
   gathering n.聚集,收款

回目录↑; 184,gʰend-,抓住拿到 To seize, take.
Also ghed-.
To seize, take.
Derivatives include get, guess, prison, comprehend, surprise, and prey.
    1. from Old Norse geta, to get;
         get   v.获得,得到;使,使得;变得,成为;到达
    2. from Old English beg(i)etan, to get, beget, from Germanic compound *bigetan, to acquire (*bi‑, intensive prefix; see ambhi );
       beget  成为...之父
    3. from Old English forg(i)etan, to forget, from Germanic compound *fer-getan, "to lose one's hold," forget (*fer‑, prefix denoting rejection; see per 1). a-c all from Germanic *getan.
      forget v.忘记,遗忘
  1. from Middle English gessen, to guess, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish gissa, to guess, from Germanic *getisōn, "to try to get," aim at.
       guess v./n.猜测,推测;以为;猜想[同]surmise
  2. Basic form *ghend‑. from Latin prehendere, prēndere, to get hold of, seize, grasp (pre‑, prae‑, before; see per 1).
       prehensile 能抓住东西的,缠绕的
       prehension n.抓住,理解,握捉
       prison n.监狱
       prize-2 ____
       prize-3 ____
       pry-2 ____
     apprehend 抓住v.理解,担忧,逮捕
     apprentice 学习:n.学徒v.(使)当学徒
     apprise 告知
    comprehend 全部抓住:vt.理解,包含,由……组成
    comprise vt.包含,包括,由...组成;构成,组成
     emprise 侠义行动;冒险事业
       enterprise n.事业,企(事)业单位;事业心,进取心
    entrepreneur n.企业家;承包人;主办者(保留了法语拼写方式)
     impresario 剧院经理
    misprision ____
       pregnable 易受攻击的,弱的,可攻破的
     reprehend 指责;责难
     reprieve 抓回(牢房)n.缓期执行;暂时解救n.暂缓;缓刑
     reprisal 反过去抓:n.报复,报复性劫掠
     reprise 重奏,重复
    surprise v.使诧异,使惊异;奇袭n.诧异,惊异;奇袭
  3. Form *ghed‑. from Latin praeda, booty (< *prai-heda, "something seized before"; prai‑, prae‑, before; see per 1).
       predatory adj.掠夺的,掠夺成性的;食肉的;捕食生物的
       pre vi.捕食,掠夺
      spree n.狂欢,纵乐,无节制的狂热行为 vi.狂欢,狂饮
     depredate ____
     osprey 鱼鹰
[Pokorny ghend‑ 437.]

   got   vbl.get 的过去式
ill-gotten adj.以不正当手段所得的
 begetter n.生产者,父
forgetful adj.健忘的,好忘事的,<正>疏忽的,不经心的
forgetfulness 健忘,忘性
forgettable adj.容易被忘的,可忘记的
forgot vbl.forget的过去式
forgotten vbl.forget的过去分词
unforgettable adj.忘不了的,令人难忘的
unforgettably adv. 不会被遗忘地(难忘地)
   prisoner n.囚犯
 apprehension n.理解;恐惧;逮捕;忧惧
 apprehensive adj.忧虑的;不安的;敏悟的;知晓的
misapprehension 误解,误会
 apprenticeship n.学徒的身份,学徒的年限
comprehensibility 能理解,易了解
comprehensible adj.可理解的
comprehension a.理解(力),领悟;包含,包含力
comprehensive a.内容广泛的,总括性的,综合的
comprehensiveness 详尽,综合性
incomprehensibility n.不可理解,不可思议
incomprehensible a.费解的,不可思议的
incomprehensibly adv.费解地,不能理解地
incomprehension 无法理解
uncomprehending adj.不了解的,不谅解的
   understandably ad.可理解地
   enterprising adj.有事业心的;有进取心的;有魄力的
entrepreneurial a.企业家的,企业性质的,承包人
 reprehensible adj.应斥责的;应该谴责的
surprised adj.感到惊讶的,出人意料的
surprising adj.令人惊讶的;意外的
surprisingly adv.惊人地,出人意外地
unsurprising adj.不令人吃惊的
unsurprisingly n. 并不令人惊奇地;并不奇怪地
   predator n.捕食者;[动]食肉动物;掠夺者

 begotten v.<文>为…之生父( beget的过去分词 ),产生,引起
misbegotten 设计拙劣的
   prize n.奖赏,奖金,奖品v.珍视,珍惜
   pry   vi.窥探,打听.vt.撬动(开,起)
   prying adj.爱打听的 v.打听,刺探(他人的私事)( pry的现在分词 ),撬开
   prise 强行撬开
 imprison vt.监禁,关押
 imprisonment n.关押,监禁
   guesstimate 瞎猜

回目录↑; 185,gʰer-1,掌握家园 To grasp, enclose ; with derivatives meaning enclosure.
To grasp, enclose; with derivatives meaning "enclosure." Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include orchard, kindergarten, courteous, choir, and choral.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-dh‑.
    1. from Old English gyrdan, to gird, from Germanic *gurdjan;
         gird  系上
         girt  ____
    2. from Old English gyrdel, girdle;
         girdle 腰带
    3. from Old Norse gjördh, girdle, girth.
         girth n.周长,(马等的)肚带,腰身 vt.以带束缚,围绕,包围 vi.围长为
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghor-to‑ or (in Germanic) *ghor-dho‑, an enclosure.
      1. from Old English geard, enclosure, garden, yard;
           yard-2 ____
         orchard n.果园,果园里的全部果树,[美俚]棒球场
      2. from Old Norse gardhr, enclosure, garden, yard;
           garth 庭院;中庭;鱼梁
         Asgard ____
      3. from Old High German garto, garden;
           kindergarten n.幼儿园
      4. from Old North French gart, garden;
           garden n.(菜,花)园;公园
           jardinière ____
      5. from Old French hangard, shelter, possibly from Germanic *haimgardaz (*haimaz, home; see tkei- );
           hangar n.飞机修理库,飞机棚
      6. Germanic compound *midja-gardaz (see medhyo-). (i)-(vi) all from Germanic *gardaz.
    1. from Latin hortus, garden.
         horticulture 园艺学
         ortolan ____
  3. Prefixed and suffixed zero-grade form *ko(m)-ghr̥-ti‑ (*ko(m)‑, collective prefix, "together"; see kom). from Latin cohors (stem cohort‑), enclosed yard, company of soldiers, multitude.
     cohort n.军队,步兵大队,一群
       cortege 送葬车队
       court n.法院,法庭;宫廷,朝廷;院子;球场
       courteous n.有礼貌的;谦恭的
       courtesan 高级妓女
       courtesy n.礼貌;好意;恩惠adj.殷勤的;被承认的;出于礼节的
       courtier 宫廷里的人:n.朝臣;奉承者;谄媚者
       curtilage ____
       curtsy 屈膝礼
  4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *ghor-o‑. from Greek khoros, dancing ground (? perhaps originally a special enclosure for dancing), dance, dramatic chorus.
       carol n.颂歌,欢乐的歌
       choir n.唱诗班,唱诗班的席位
       choral adj.合唱队的
       chorale n.赞美诗
       choric ____
       chorister n.唱诗班歌手,唱诗队指挥
       chorus n.合唱(队)
       hora  n.传统式圆舞,霍拉舞
       choragus ____
    Terpsichore 古希腊神话中的歌舞女神
[Pokorny 4. g̑her‑ 442, g̑herdh‑ 444.]

   gardener n.园丁,园艺家,花匠,菜农,园艺爱好者
   gardening n.园艺
   horticultural a.园艺的
   horticulturist n.园艺学家
   courting vt.招致(court的现在分词形式)
   courtly adj.尊严而有礼貌的;奉承的;有宫廷气派的,威严的
forecourt 大片空地
discourteous 失礼的
discourtesy n.无礼

   curtsey n.(女子行的)屈膝礼 vi.行屈膝礼
   curtain n.窗帘,门帘;幕(布);结束;vt遮掩

回目录↑; 186,gʰer-5(gʰer-2),贪吃喜欢 To like, want.
To like, want. Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *gher-n‑. from Old English giernan, gyrnan, to strive, desire, yearn, from Germanic *gernjan.
       yearn vi.渴望,想念,怀念,向往
  2. Possibly extended form *ghrē‑.
    1. from Old English grǣdig, hungry, covetous, greedy, from Germanic *grēdiga‑, hungry, formed from *grēduz, hunger;
         greedy a.贪吃的,贪婪的,渴望的
    2. from Greek khrēsthai, to lack, want, use, from khrē, it is necessary.
      catachresis ____
         chrestomathy ____
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-to‑. from Latin hortārī, to urge on, encourage (< "to cause to strive or desire").
       hortative 劝告的,奖励的
     exhort vt.忠告;劝诫vi.劝告
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-i‑. from Greek kharis, grace, favor.
       charisma n.超凡魅力,感召力,教皇般的指导力
     Eucharist 圣餐
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-yo‑. from Greek khairein, to rejoice, delight in.
       chervil 细叶芹
[Pokorny 1. g̑her‑ 440.]

   yearning n.向往 adj.怀念的,向往的
   greed n.贪欲,贪婪
   greedily adv.贪心地,贪婪地,贪吃地
 exhortation n.讲道词,训词;劝告
   charismatic adj.神赐能力的,超凡魅力的

回目录↑; 187,gʰerə-,绳线弦肠 Gut, entrail.
Gut, entrail. Oldest form *g̑herh2, becoming *gherh2 in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *gherə-no‑. from Old English gearn, yarn, from Germanic *garnō, string.
       yarn  n.纱线.v.讲故事
  2. Suffixed form *gherə-n‑. from Latin hernia, "protruded viscus," rupture, hernia.
       hernia 疝,疝气
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *ghorə-d‑. from Greek khordē, gut, string.
       chord-2 ____
       cord  n.绳,索
       cordon 封锁线
    harpsichord 拨弦键琴
    hexachord ____
    tetrachord ____
  4. O-grade form *ghorə‑. from Greek khorion, intestinal membrane, afterbirth.
       chorion ____
  5. Possible suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥ə-u‑. from Latin haruspex, "he who inspects entrails," diviner (-spex,"he who sees"; see spek- ), but perhaps borrowed from Etruscan.
       haruspex ____
[Pokorny 5. g̑her‑ 443.]

   herniation n.形成疝
   corded adj.用索子捆扎的
   cordless n.不用电线的
   chorionic adj.绒(毛)膜的

   chord n.弦,和音
   chordal adj.弦的,似弦的
   corduroy n.灯芯绒,灯芯绒裤子

回目录↑; 188,gʰes-,抓爪手叉 Hand.
Hand. Oldest form *g̑hes‑, becoming *ghes‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *ghes-ōr, stem *ghes-(e)r‑. from Greek kheir, hand.
       chiro-
       chironomid n.摇蚊
    chirurgeon ____
       enchiridion ____
      surgeon n.外科医生
      surgery n.外科,外科学;手术室,诊疗室
  2. Suffixed form *ghes-to‑. from Latin praestō, at hand, perhaps from prefixed form *prai-ghes-to‑ (*prai‑, before; see per 1).
       press-2 ____
    presto 急板乐章,变(变魔术所说)
    imprest 预付款;贷款
[Pokorny 1. g̑hesor‑ 447.]


回目录↑; 189,gʰeslo-,手十百千 Seen by some as a base for words meaning
Seen by some as a base for words meaning "thousand." Oldest form *g̑heslo‑, becoming *gheslo‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *ghesl-yo‑. from Greek khīlioi, thousand.
       chiliad ____
       kilo-
  2. Compound *sm̥-gheslo‑ (*sm̥‑, one; see sem-1). from Old Iranian *hazahram, thousand.
       Hazara ____
  3. from Latin mīlle, thousand, which has been analyzed as *smī‑, "one" + a form *ghslī‑, but is of obscure origin.
       mil   n.千分之一寸,角位,毫英寸,毫寸
       mil n.英里,哩,海里
       millenary ____
       millesimal ____
       milli- 千,毫,千分之一
       milliary ____
       millime ____
       million num./n.百万,百万个
       milfoil n.耆草属植物,西洋耆草
       millefiori glass ____
       millefleur ____
       millennium n.千年期,千禧年;一千年,千年纪念;太平盛世,黄金时代
       millepore ____
       millipede 千足虫
    per mil ____
[Pokorny g̑héslo‑ 446.]

   miler n.参加一哩赛跑的运动员
   millionth n.第一百万,百万分之一 adj.百万分之一的,第一百万的

   billionaire n.亿万富翁
   trillion num.万亿
   trillionth n.第一兆,第一百万兆,第一万亿

回目录↑; 190,gʰeu-,泼浇灌酒 To pour, pour a libation.
To pour, pour a libation. Oldest form *g̑heu‑, becoming *gheu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gut, funnel, fusion, and refund.1
  1. Extended form *gheud‑.
    1. Zero-grade form *ghud‑.
      1. from Old English guttas, intestines, from Germanic *gut‑;
           gut   n.内脏,[pl.]胆量.adj.本能的,根本的
      2. from Swedish gyttja, perhaps from Germanic *gutjōn.
           gyttja ____
    2. Nasalized zero-grade form *ghu-n-d‑. from Latin fundere, to melt, pour out.
         foison ____
         fondant n.软糖,熔体
         fondue 瑞士奶酪火锅
         font-2 ____
         found-2 ____
         funnel n.漏斗,(使)通过漏斗,(使)成漏斗状
         fuse-2 ____
         fusile ____
         fusion n.融合,融合物,熔化,熔接
       affusion ____
      circumfuse ____
      confound 倒到一起:使混淆,使混乱,挫败
      confuse v.使混乱,混淆
      diffuse v.扩散,传播adj.弥漫的,散开的
       effuse 流出;散布;扩散的;散出的
       infuse v.灌输,注入,激励
      perfuse v.灌注
      profuse 丰富的,大量的
       refund 流回来:v.退还,偿还,归还n.退款,偿还
       refuse v.拒绝,谢绝n.废物,垃圾
       refuse-2 ____
      suffuse 在下面倾泻:vt.充满;弥漫
      transfuse 追加,注入,输血
  2. Extended form *gheus‑.
      1. from Old Norse gustr, a cold blast of wind, from Germanic suffixed form *gustiz;
           gust  n.一阵狂风,(感情的)迸发,汹涌
      2. from Middle English gushen, to gush, perhaps akin to Icelandic gusa, to gush. Both a and b from Germanic zero-grade form *gus‑.
           gush  v.涌出,滔滔不绝.n.迸发
    1. from Old Norse geysa, to gush, from Germanic suffixed o-grade form *gausjan.
         geyser n.天然热喷泉
      1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghus-mo‑. from Greek khūmos, juice;
           chyme ____
         ecchymosis ____
      2. suffixed zero-grade form *ghus-lo‑. from Greek khūlos, juice.
           chyle ____
  3. Suffixed form *gheu-ti‑. from Latin fūtilis, "(of a vessel) easily emptied, leaky," hence untrustworthy, useless.
       futile 容易流掉的:adj.无用的;无效的;没有出息的;琐细的;不重要的
  4. Basic form *gheu‑.
    1. from Greek khein (stem form khu‑), to pour.
       alchemy n.炼金术。al原本是阿拉伯中的定冠词,相当于英语中的the,被欧洲人误认为是单词的一部分。
      parenchyma n.实质,软组织,主质
    2. O-grade form *ghou‑.
      1. from Greek khoanē (< *khowanā), funnel;
           choanocyte ____
      2. from Greek khoē (< *khowā), a pouring.
           oinochoe ____
  5. Suffixed zero-grade from *ghu-trā. from Greek khutrā, pot.
       chytrid ____
[Pokorny g̑heu‑ 447.]

   gutless 怯懦的
   gutsy adj.勇敢的,贪婪的
   gutted 缺乏勇气的
   gutter n.水槽,檐槽,排水沟,槽,贫民区 vt.开沟于 vi.流 n.装订线
   guttering 排水系统
   fus v.(使)融合;(使)熔化n.导火索,保险丝,雷管
confounded adj.糊涂的,困惑的,讨厌的(轻微的诅咒用语) v.击败( confound的过去式和过去分词 ),使惊惶,使困惑惊讶,搞乱
confused adj.困惑的;混乱的;糊涂的
confusedly adv.受困惑地,混乱地,慌乱地
confusing adj.令人困惑的,混乱的,混淆的 v.使困窘,使混乱不清(confuse的现在分词)
confusion n.困惑,糊涂;混淆;混乱,骚乱
diffuser n.散布者,扩散体,扩散器
diffusion n.扩散,传播;漫射
diffusive adj.散布性的,扩及的,普及的
 effusion n.流出,喷出
 effusive 热情洋溢的
 infusion n.灌输;浸泡;注入物;激励
perfusion n.灌注,充满
 refusal n.拒绝,回绝
transfusion n.输血,输液,灌输
   gusty adj.阵风的,多阵风的,起大风的,迸发的
   gusher n.喷油井
   gushy adj.流出的,易动感情的
   futilely adv.futile(无用的)的变形,干
   futility n.无用;徒劳;无价值
 alchemical adj.炼金术的,炼丹术的
 alchemist n.炼金术士

   chemist n.化学家;药剂师
   chemistry n.化学
 defuse vt.平息;去掉…的雷管;使除去危险性
   chemical a.化学的n.(pl.)化学制品,化学药品
   chemically ad.用化学,以化学方法

回目录↑; 191,gʰeu(ə)-,敬酒召唤 To call, invoke.
To call, invoke. Oldest form *g̑heu(h2/3)‑, becoming *gheu(h2/3)‑ in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghu-to‑, "the invoked," god.
  1. from Old English god, god;
       god   n.上帝(小写god泛指所有的“神,神像”)
  2. from Old English gydig, gidig, possessed, insane, from Germanic *gud-iga‑, possessed by a god;
       giddy adj.眼花缭乱的,头晕的,轻率的 v.(使)眼花,(使)眩晕
  3. from Old High German got, god. a-c all from Germanic *gudam, god.
       götterdämmerung ____
[Pokorny g̑hau‑ 413.]

   godless adj.不信神的,不敬神的,无神论者的
   godlike adj.似神的,庄严的,与神相称的
   giddily adv.头晕地
   giddiness n.眩晕,眼花,轻率

   odd   a.奇数的;奇怪的;单只的;临时的;带零头的
   oddity n.奇异,古怪,怪癖
   oddly adv.奇特地,古怪地
   godly adj.正直的,神圣的
 ungodly adj.不虔诚的

回目录↑; 192,gʰos-ti-,主家留客 Stranger, guest, host ;
Stranger, guest, host; properly "someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality."
  1. Basic form *ghos-ti‑.
      1. from Old Norse gestr, guest;
           guest n.客人,宾客,旅客
      2. from Old High German gast, guest. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *gastiz.
           Gastarbeiter ____
    1. from Latin hostis, enemy (< "stranger").
         host-2 ____
         hostile a.敌对的,敌方的,敌意的
  2. Compound *ghos-pot‑, *ghos-po(d)‑, "guest-master," one who symbolizes the relationship of reciprocal obligation (*pot‑, master; see poti-). from Latin hospes (stem hospit‑), host, guest, stranger.
       hospice n.收容所,救济院
       hospitable 能够接待客人的:adj.热情好客的,(环境)舒适的
       hospital n.医院
       hospitality n.殷勤,好客
       host  n.主人;旅店老板;节目主持人;一大群,许多
       hostage n.人质(被当做抵押品的客人),抵押物
       hostel n.宿舍,旅店,客栈
       hostler 马夫
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghs-en-wo‑. from Greek xenos, guest, host, stranger.
       xenia ____
       xeno- 外国人,陌生人,客人
       xenon 氙,氙气
      axenic ____
     euxenite ____
    pyroxene ____
[Pokorny ghosti-s 453.]

   hostility n.敌意;战争行动
   hospitably adv.亲切地,招待周到地,善于款待地
 inhospitable a.不好客的,不适于居住的
   hospitalization n.医院收容,住院治疗,送入医院,留诊
   hospitalize vt.就医,使住院

   hostess n.女主人,女房东,女服务员
   hotel n.旅馆
   hotelier 旅馆经理

回目录↑; 193,gʰrē-,抓地绿草 To grow, become green.
To grow, become green. Contracted from *ghreh1.
  1. O-grade form *ghrō‑. from Old English grōwan, to grow, from Germanic *grō(w)an.
       grow  v.生长,成长;渐渐变成;栽培,种植;发展
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghrō-n-yo‑. from Old English grēne, green, from Germanic *grōnjaz, green.
       green a.绿色的;生的;未成熟的n.绿色;蔬菜;植物
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghrə-so‑. from Old English græs, grass, from Germanic *grasam, grass.
       grass n.草,草地
       graze v.放牧,掠过,擦伤.n.擦伤(处)
[Pokorny (ghrē‑) 454.]

   grew  vbl.grow的过去式
   grower n.种植者,栽培者
   growing adj.成长的
   growth n.生长,增长,发展
 ingrowing 内生的,长进肉里的
overgrowth 疯长
 regrow v.再生,继续生长
undergrowth n.下层丛林,生于大树下的矮树,发育不全
   greenery n.温室,草木
   greening n.绿皮苹果
   greenish a.呈绿色的
   greenness n.绿色,未熟,新鲜
   grassy a.绿色的,象草的
   grazing n.放牧,牧草

   grown adj.长大的,成年的,长满某物的 vbl.grow的过去分词
 ingrown adj.向内生长的
overgrown adj.簇叶从生的,长得太大,畸形发展的

回目录↑; 194,gʰrebʰ-1,抓住加紧 To seize, reach.
To seize, reach.
  1. Zero-grade form *ghr̥bh‑. from Sanskrit gṛbhṇāti, gṛhṇāti, he seizes.
       Satyagraha ____
    1. from Middle English graspen, to grasp;
         grasp v./n.抓住,抓紧;掌握,领会
    2. from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German grabben, to seize. Both a and b from parallel (imitative) Germanic creations with base *grab‑, *grap‑.
         grab  v./n.(at)抓(住);夺(得)
[Pokorny 1. ghrebh‑ 455.]

   grasping adj.抓的,贪婪的,握的
   grabber n.强夺者,强取者

回目录↑; 195,gʰrebʰ-2,刨坑挖墓 To dig, bury, scratch.
To dig, bury, scratch.
  1. O-grade form *ghrobh‑.
      1. from Old English grafan, to dig, engrave, scratch, carve;
           grave-3 ____
           engrave vt.雕刻;铭记
      2. from Old High German graban, to dig;
           graben ____
      3. from Swedish grava, to bury;
           gravlax n.(用盐、黑胡椒、小茴香、酒等腌制的)渍鲑鱼片
      4. from Old French graver, to engrave. (i)-(iv) all from Germanic *graban.
           gravure 凹版印刷;照像凹版
    1. from Old English græf, trench, grave, from Germanic *grabam.
         grave n.坟墓a.严肃的,庄重的
  2. from Old English *grybban, to dig, from Germanic *grub(b)jan (with secondary ablaut).
       grub  n.幼虫,[俚]食物 v.挖,掘
  3. from Middle Dutch groeve, ditch, from Germanic *grōbō.
       groove n.沟,槽
[Pokorny 2. ghrebh‑ 455.]

   engraver n.雕刻师,雕工
   engraving n.雕刻术,雕版
   grubby adj.生蛆的,污秽的,邋遢的,卑鄙
   grooved v.沟( groove的过去式和过去分词 ),槽,老一套,(某种)音乐节奏

回目录↑; 196,gʰredʰ-,斜坡骨碌 To walk, go.
To walk, go. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥dh-yo‑.
  1. from Latin gradī (past participle gressus), to walk, go;
     aggress v.攻击,侵犯
    congress 代表大会;议会;立法机关
     degression ____
     digress 偏离
      egress 离去
     ingredient n.(混合物的)组成部分,配料;成份,要素
     ingress 入侵,入境
    introgression ____
    plantigrade 脚掌着地行走的,跖行动物
    progress v./n.进步,进展;前进
     regress n.退回,回归v.(使)倒退
    retrograde 倒退,退化
    retrogress 倒退;退化
    tardigrade 缓足动物
    transgress 违背,违犯
  2. from Latin gradus (< deverbative *grad-u‑), step, stage, degree, rank.
       grade n.等级,级别;年级;分数v.分等,分级
       gradual a.逐渐的,逐步的
       graduate n.大学毕业生,研究生v.大学毕业a.毕了业的
       gree  ____
    centigrade n./a.摄氏温度计(的);百分度(的)
     degrade v.(使)降级,贬低,降低,退化
     degree n.程度;度数;学位;等级
[Pokorny ghredh‑ 456.]

 aggression n.侵略;进攻;侵犯;侵害
 aggressive a.侵略的,好斗的,有进取心的,敢作敢为的
 aggressor n.侵略者,挑衅者,侵略国
congressional adj.国会的;会议的;议会的
 digression n.离题,岔开
 digressive adj.离题的,枝节的
progression n.前进,连续
 regression n.回归;退化;逆行;复原
 regressive adj.回归的;后退的;退化的
retrogressive 倒退的,退化的
transgression n.海侵;犯罪;违反;逸出
transgressor n.违背者
   graded v.(官阶、质量)等级( grade的过去式和过去分词 ),<美> 年级,<尤美> (考试或作业的)分数
   grader n.分类机,分级机
   grading n.等级,坡度缓和,分阶段
   graduated adj.毕业了的,标有刻度的,分等级的,分层次的 v.渐变( graduate的过去式和过去分词 ),渐渐变为(与into连用
   graduation n.毕业,毕业典礼,刻度,分度
postgraduate adj.大学毕业后的n.研究生
undergraduate n.大学生,大学肆业生
 degradation n.退化;降格,降级;堕落
 degraded adj.被降级的,退化的,堕落的 v.降低( degrade的过去式和过去分词 ),使降级,降低…身分,使丢脸
 degrading adj.丢脸的,有辱人格的 v.降低( degrade的现在分词 ),使降级,降低…身分,使丢脸

   gradation 层级
progressive a.进步的,先进的;前进的
progressivism n.进步主义,革新论
progressivity 累进税,进展性

回目录↑; 197,gʰrēi-,抹油基督 To rub.
To rub. Oldest form *g̑hreh1i‑, with variant (metathesized) form *g̑hreih1, whence zero-grade *g̑hrih1, becoming *g̑hrī‑in satem language and *ghrī‑ in centum languages.
  1. from Old English grislīc, terrifying, from Germanic *gris‑, to frighten (< "to grate on the mind").
       grisly adj.恐怖的,可怕的,令人毛骨悚然的
  2. from Middle English grime, grime, from a source akin to Middle Dutch grīme, grime, from Germanic *grīm‑, smear.
       grime n.尘垢,污点,煤尘 vt.使污秽,污浊
  3. Extended form *ghrīs‑. from Greek khrīein, to anoint.
       chrism 傅油,圣油仪式
       Christ-2 ____
       christen v.命名为
       Christian n.基督教徒a.基督教徒的
       Christmas n.圣诞节
       cream n.乳脂,(鲜)奶油;奶油色
       Kriss Kringle ____
[Pokorny ghrēi‑ 457.]

   grimy adj.污秽的,肮脏的
   christening 洗礼
   creamed vt.把…搅成糊状(或奶油状)混合物(cream的过去式与过去分词形式)
   creamery 乳品厂
   creaminess n.乳脂状,乳脂色,含乳脂